[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acyloxydiene-Fe(CO)3 complexes can act as enzyme-triggered CO-releasing molecules (ET-CORMs). Their biological activity strongly depends on the mother compound from which they are derived, i.e. cyclohexenone or cyclohexanedione, and on the position of the ester functionality they harbour. The present study addresses if the latter characteristic affects CO release, if cytotoxicity of ET-CORMs is mediated through iron release or inhibition of cell respiration and to what extent cyclohexenone and cyclohexanedione derived ET-CORMs differ in their ability to counteract TNF-α mediated inflammation. Irrespective of the formulation (DMSO or cyclodextrin), toxicity in HUVEC was significantly higher for ET-CORMs bearing the ester functionality at the outer (rac-4), as compared to the inner (rac-1) position of the cyclohexenone moiety. This was paralleled by an increased CO release from the former ET-CORM. Toxicity was not mediated via iron as EC50 values for rac-4 were significantly lower than for FeCl2 or FeCl3 and were not influenced by iron chelation. ATP depletion preceded toxicity suggesting impaired cell respiration as putative cause for cell death. In long-term HUVEC cultures inhibition of VCAM-1 expression by rac-1 waned in time, while for the cyclohexanedione derived rac-8 inhibition seems to increase. NFκB was inhibited by both rac-1 and rac-8 independent of IκBα degradation. Both ET-CORMs activated Nrf-2 and consequently induced the expression of HO-1.
This study further provides a rational framework for designing acyloxydiene-Fe(CO)3 complexes as ET-CORMs with differential CO release and biological activities. We also provide a better understanding of how these complexes affect cell-biology in mechanistic terms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-acyl dopamines (NADD) are gaining attention in the field of inflammatory and neurological disorders. Due to their hydrophobicity, NADD may have access to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We therefore investigated if NADD induce the unfolded protein response (UPR) and if this in turn influences cell behaviour.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e99298. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The separation of proteins by internally and externally generated pH gradients in chromatofocusing on ion-exchange columns is a well-established analytical method with a large number of applications. In this work, a stoichiometric displacement model was used to describe the retention behavior of lysozyme on SP Sepharose FF and a monoclonal antibody on Fractogel SO3 (S) in linear salt and pH gradient elution. The pH dependence of the binding charge B in the linear gradient elution model is introduced using a protein net charge model, while the pH dependence of the equilibrium constant is based on a thermodynamic approach. The model parameter and pH dependences are calculated from linear salt gradient elutions at different pH values as well as from linear pH gradient elutions at different fixed salt concentrations. The application of the model for the well-characterized protein lysozyme resulted in almost identical model parameters based on either linear salt or pH gradient elution data. For the antibody, only the approach based on linear pH gradients is feasible because of the limited pH range useful for salt gradient elution. The application of the model for the separation of an acid variant of the antibody from the major monomeric form is discussed.
Journal of Separation Science 01/2014; 37(1-2):5-13. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The basic mission of pharmaceutical research industry is to understand disease and to provide safe and effective drugs for patients. Any implementation of new technologies that can support the drug discovery process will be appreciated. Here, we describe a new cell-based and multiparametric cytosensor approach.
It is economic, non-invasive and can provide reliable in vitro data on bioenergetic pathways in order to significantly support the drug development process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acyloxydiene-Fe(CO)3 complexes act as enzyme triggered CO releasing molecules (ET-CORMs) and can deliver CO intracellular via esterase mediated hydrolysis. The protective properties of structurally different ET-CORMs on hypothermic preservation damage and their ability to inhibit VCAM-1 expression were tested on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC) using a structure-activity approach. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Cytotoxicity of ET-CORMs, protection against hypothermic preservation damage, and inhibition of VCAM-1 expression were assessed. KEY RESULTS: Cytotoxicity of 2-cyclohexenone and 1,3-cyclohexanedione-derived ET-CORMs was more pronounced in HUVEC compared to PTEC and was dependent on the position and type of the ester (acyloxy) substituent(s) (acetate > pivalate > palmitate). Protection against hypothermic preservation injury was only observed for 2-cyclohexenone derived ET-CORMs and was not mediated by the ET-CORM decomposition product 2-cyclohexenone itself. Structural requirements for protection by these ET-CORMs were different for HUVEC and PTEC. Protection was affected by the nature of the ester functionality in both cell lines. VCAM-1 expression was inhibited by both 2-cyclohexenone- and 1,3-cyclohexanedione-derived ET-CORMs. 2-cyclohexenone but not 1,3-cyclohexanedione, also inhibited VCAM-1 expression. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: We demonstrate that structural alterations of ET-CORMs significantly affect their biological activity. Our data also indicate that different ET-CORMs behave differently in various cell types (epithelial vs. endothelial). These findings warrant further studies not only to elucidate the structure-activity relation of ET-CORMs in mechanistic terms but also to assess if structural optimization will yield ET-CORMs with restricted cell specificity.
Free Radical Biology & Medicine 06/2013; · 5.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drug-induced toxicity is of considerable concern in drug discovery and development, placing emphasis on the need for predictive in vitro technologies that identify potential cytotoxic side effects of drugs. A label-free, real-time, multiparametric cytosensor system has therefore been established for in vitro assessment of drug-induced toxicity. The system is based on monitoring cellular oxygen consumption, acidification and impedance of human hepatocarcinoma-derived HepG2 cells. The read-out derived from the multiparametric cytosensor system has been optimised and permits sensitive, reliable, and simultaneous recording of cell physiological signals, such as metabolic activity, cellular respiration and morphological changes and cell adhesion upon exposure to a drug. Analysis of eight prototypic reference drugs revealed distinct patterns of drug-induced physiological signals. Effects proved to be rigidly concentration-dependent. Based on signal patterns and reversibility of the observed effects, compounds could be classified based as triggering mechanisms of respiratory or metabolic stress or conditions leading to cell death (necrosis-like and apoptosis-like). A test-flag-risk mitigation strategy is proposed to address potential risks for drug-induced cytotoxicity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Catechol containing compounds have anti-inflammatory properties, yet for catecholamines these properties are modest. Since we have previously demonstrated that the synthetic dopamine derivative N-octanoyl dopamine (NOD) has superior anti-inflammatory properties compared to dopamine, we tested NOD in more detail and sought to elucidate the molecular entities and underlying mechanism by which NOD down-regulates inflammation.
Genome wide gene expression profiling of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was performed after stimulation with TNF-α or in the combination with NOD. Confirmation of these differences, NFκB activation and the molecular entities that were required for the anti-inflammatory properties were assessed in subsequent experiments.
Down regulation of inflammatory genes by NOD occurred predominantly for κB regulated genes, however not all κB regulated genes were affected. These findings were explained by inhibition of RelA phosphorylation at Ser276. Leukocyte adherence to TNF-α stimulated HUVECs was inhibited by NOD and was reflected by a diminished expression of adhesion molecules on HUVECs. NOD induced HO-1 expression, but this was not required for inhibition of NFκB. The anti-inflammatory effect of NOD seems to involve the redox active catechol structure, although the redox active para-dihydroxy benzene containing compounds also displayed anti-inflammatory effects, provided that they were sufficiently hydrophobic.
The present study highlighted important mechanisms and molecular entities by which dihydroxy benzene compounds exert their potential anti-inflammatory action. Since NOD does not have hemodynamic properties, NOD seems to be a promising candidate drug for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e73122. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tumor promoting role of M2 macrophages has been described in in vivo models and the presence of macrophages in certain tumor types has been linked to a poor clinical outcome. In light of burgeoning activities to clinically develop new therapies targeting tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), reliable in vitro models faithfully mimicking the tumor promoting functions of TAMs are required. Generation and activation of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) in vitro, described as M1 or M2 macrophages attributed with tumoricidal or tumor-promoting functions, respectively, has been widely reported using mainly serum containing culture methods. In this study, we compared the properties of macrophages originating from monocytes cultured either in media containing serum together with M-CSF for M2 and GM-CSF for M1 macrophages or in serum-free media supplemented with M-CSF or GM-CSF and cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10 to induce activated M2 or LPS together with IFN-γ to generate activated M1 phenotype. We observed differences in cell morphology as well as increased surface receptor expression levels in serum-containing culture whereas similar or higher cytokine production levels were detected under serum-free culture conditions. More importantly, MDM differentiated under serum-free conditions displayed enhanced tumoricidal activity for M1 and tumor promoting property for M2 macrophages in contrast to MDM differentiated in the presence of serum. Moreover, evaluation of MDM phagocytic activity in serum free condition resulted in greater phagocytic properties of M2 compared to M1. Our data therefore confirm the tumor promoting properties of M2 macrophages in vitro and encourage the targeting of TAMs for cancer therapy.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e42656. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A large number of different stationary phases for ion-exchange chromatography from different manufacturers are available, which vary significantly in a number of chemical and physical properties. As a consequence, binding mechanisms may be different as well. In the work reported here, the retention data of model proteins (lysozyme, cytochrome c and two monoclonal antibodies) were determined for nine commercially available cation-exchange adsorbents. The linear gradient elution model in combination with a thermodynamic approach was used to analyse the characteristic parameters of the protein-stationary phase-interactions. Based on the pH dependency of the characteristic charge and the equilibrium constant for binding the differences between the standard Gibbs energies in the adsorbed and the solute state for the protein ΔG(P)° and the salt ΔG(S)° were calculated. The characteristic charge B of the proteins strongly depends on the molecular mass of the protein. For small proteins like lysozyme there is almost no influence of the stationary phase chemistry on B, while for the Mabs the surface modification strongly influences the B value. Surface extenders or tentacles usually increase the B values. The variation of the characteristic charge of the MABs is more pronounced the lower the pH value of the mobile phase is, i.e. the higher the negative net charge of the protein is. The standard Gibbs energy changes for the proteins ΔG(P)° are higher for the Mabs compared to lysozyme and more strongly depend on the stationary phase properties. Surface modified resins usually show higher ΔG(P)° and higher B values. A correlation between ΔG(P)° and B is not observed, indicating that non-electrostatic interactions as well as entropic factors are important for ΔG(P)° while for the B values the accessibility of binding sites on the protein surface is most important.
Journal of Chromatography A 05/2011; 1218(31):5136-45. · 4.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) in drug resistance as well as drug absorption and disposition is an important factor to be considered during the development of new drugs. Thus, the early identification and exclusion of compounds showing a high affinity towards P-glycoprotein can help to select drug candidates. The aim of our study was to implement a label-free assay for the identification of P-glycoprotein substrates in living cells. For this approach, a multiparametric, chip-based sensor system was used to determine extracellular acidification, cell respiration and adhesion upon stimulation with P-glycoprotein substrates. Using L-MDR1 cells, a human P-glycoprotein overexpressing cell line, the influence of P-glycoprotein activity was determined for seven different compounds, demonstrating the applicability of the system for P-glycoprotein substrate identification. Effects were concentration dependent, as shown for the P-glycoprotein substrate verapamil, and were associated with cellular acidification and respiration. P-glycoprotein ATPase activation by verapamil could be described by a Michaelis-Menten type kinetic profile showing saturation at high substrate concentrations. The Michaelis-Menten constants K(M) were determined to be 0.92μM (calculated based on extracellular acidification) and 4.9μM (calculated based on cellular respiration). Control experiments using 100nM of the P-glycoprotein inhibitor elacridar indicated that the observed effects were related to P-glycoprotein ATPase activity. In contrast, wild-type LLC-PK1 cells not expressing P-glycoprotein were not responsive towards stimulation with different P-glycoprotein substrates. Summarizing these findings, the used microsensor system is a generic system suitable for the identification of P-glycoprotein substrates. In contrast to biochemical P-glycoprotein assays, activation of the drug efflux pump can be monitored on-line in living cells to identify P-glycoprotein substrates and to study the molecular mechanisms of adenosintriphosphate-dependent active transport.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 03/2011; 1808(7):1827-31. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gemini surfactants are a new class of surfactants that consist of two hydrophilic head groups and two hydrophobic tails separated by a spacer group. As the properties of geminis are different to their monomeric counterparts, a large number of applications have been investigated. Here we report on the use of a new class of gemini detergents containing a disulfide bond in the spacer (Det-SS-Det) for protein refolding. Using lysozyme as a model protein we could demonstrate that the disulfide gemini detergents allow oxidative refolding of the protein in the absence of any external redox system in an "artificial chaperone system". Refolding kinetics using gemini disulfide detergents differing in their hydrophobicity were analysed to determine the folding and aggregation rate constants. The results point to an important role of the transiently formed mixed disulfides between the protein and the detergent (Prot-SS-Det) in the oxidative refolding process of lysozyme.
The Protein Journal 10/2010; 29(7):457-65. · 1.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of xenon as an almost ideal anesthetic with very little side effects is gaining clinical acceptance, yet its effects on the cellular level are still unclear. It affects intracellular Ca2+-homeostasis but up to now no cellular event or Ca2+-signaling system has been described to be specifically sensitive to xenon. Here we report for the first time a specific effect of xenon on astroglial cells not found with another volatile anesthetic, isoflurane, nor with helium nor with N2: treatment of primary astroglial cells from embryonic rat brain with xenon induces, apart from a slight retardation of the cell cycle, a block at metaphase. Upon removal of xenon cells arrested at metaphase complete their mitosis normally. Even under continuous exposure to xenon, cells can be rescued from metaphase arrest by a small and transient increase in intracellular Ca2+; cells enter anaphase despite the presence of xenon and complete cell division, exhibiting normal rate of chromosome movement and normal chromosome separation. These results suggest that xenon interferes with some Ca2+-dependent regulatory system required for the metaphase-anaphase transition; taking into account its anesthetic effects, xenon may be also involved in the control of glia-mediated signaling transfer.
Life Sciences 02/1999; 65(9):901-13. · 2.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mitotic apparatus of sea urchin embryos was isolated using a polyethylene glycol (PEG)/EGTA-medium. Such a procedure preserves the birefringence and the Ca2+ lability of the isolated mitotic apparatus. The method of isolation gives good preservation of the microtubules and of the intracellular Ca2+-transport system as visualized by a monoclonal antibody to a 46-kDa protein. Triple fluorescence studies allow a comparison of the relative locations of microtubules, Ca2+-sequestering membranes and chromatin (by Hoechst 33342) in the mitotic apparatus. We find that the Ca2+-sequestering membranes are concentrated mainly in the centers of the asters and do not follow the distribution of microtubules in the mitotic apparatus. Regulation of microtubules by Ca2+ may not depend on immediate contiguity of microtubules and the Ca2+-regulating sites.
European Journal of Cell Biology 03/1988; 45(2):268-73. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A wave front of increased free calcium traversing the egg at fertilization is demonstrated in the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus. The use of the fluorescent calcium chelator fura-2 in combination with low-light-level TV microscopy and image processing allows the visualization of the Ca2+ wave front with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such a wave is demonstrated as increased fluorescence after an excitation of 340-nm wavelength and as the reciprocal image in form of a reduced fluorescence when excited at 380 nm. The band-like appearance of the wave resembles the Ca2+ wave described for larger eggs of other species. In a dispermic egg the high resolution of the system used allows us to recognize two waves of Ca2+ originating from the respective points of sperm entry.
Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 02/1988; 9(3):271-7. · 4.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies have been obtained to components of Ca(2+)-sequestering vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum of HeLa cells by isolating hybridomas that were generated by the in vitro immunization of lymphocytes followed by fusion with plasmocytoma cells. One of these monoclonal antibodies specifically labels punctate structures which appear in the mitotic apparatus of sea urchin eggs at the beginning of prophase and disappear upon the completion of cytokinesis. The antibody inhibits the Ca(2+) uptake of the membrane system in vitro. It reacts with one 46-kDa protein out of the complex protein mixture from the membrane fraction. We take all this as evidence that in fact a specific Ca(2+)-transport system is part of the mitotic apparatus, that such a system is very conserved, and that it is most probably derived from the endoplasmic reticulum.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/1986; 83(6):1719-22. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcium ions are important in the regulation of mitotic apparatus assembly and in the control of chromosome movement. Changes in intracellular free calcium concentration, [Ca2+]i are achieved by an intracellular calcium-transport system which is highly conserved in different cell types. A membrane-bound protein of relative molecular mass (Mr) 46,000 (46K) is part of this transport system and has been implicated in the regulation of the [Ca2+]i changes associated with the course of mitosis. A monoclonal antibody against this 46K protein inhibits Ca2+-uptake into isolated Ca2+-sequestering membranes and specifically labels membranes associated with the mitotic apparatus of sea urchin embryos. Here we investigate the relationship between the intracellular calcium transport system and mitosis by injection of this monoclonal antibody into living mitotic sea urchin embryos. We find that after injection the intracellular free calcium increases up to 10(-6) M, the mitotic apparatus is rapidly destroyed and the cell is irreversibly blocked in its development.