Chan-Sik Park

University of Ulsan, Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea

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Publications (60)151.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) can be separated into 2 groups: nodal and extranodal disease. The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical features of skin lesions and survival outcomes of cutaneous DLBCL according to the primary tumour site. A total of 44 patients with cutaneous DLBCL were classified as primary cutaneous DLBCL, leg type or cutaneous DLBCL secondary to primary disease. Although skin lesion characteristics did not differ significantly between groups, extensive cutaneous lesions were more often observed in secondary cutaneous DLBCL compared with DLBCL, leg type. Secondary cutaneous DLBCL was more commonly associated with an advanced stage and higher International Prognostic Index score than DLBCL, leg type. DLBCL, leg type demonstrated a better survival outcome than secondary cutaneous DLBCL. The multiplicity of skin lesions and time-point of cutaneous involvement were associated with prognosis in secondary cutaneous DLBCL. Survival outcomes and prognostic factors differ depending on the primary tumour site of cutaneous DLBCL.
    Acta Dermato-Venereologica 05/2015; DOI:10.2340/00015555-2139 · 4.24 Impact Factor
  • PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0124793. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0124793 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is crucial for the survival and function of plasma cells including protection from toxic misfolded immunoglobulin and proper energy metabolism. Multiple myeloma (MM) is an indolent but eventually fatal neoplasm of plasma cells. Autophagy may play a critical role in the survival of MM cells and their response to chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we correlated the expression of autophagy-related proteins with the prognosis of MM. In this retrospective cohort study, we examined the expression of the autophagic markers BECLIN 1 and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) in 89 cases of MM biopsied from 2001 to 2004 at the Asan Medical Center. The association of the expression scores of these markers with clinical outcomes was assessed. Patients with strong immunoreactivity to BECLIN 1 or LC3 had a significantly better overall survival (OS) than patients with negative to moderate immunoreactivity (p = 0.036 and 0.018, respectively). This was also true for disease-specific survival (DSS; p = 0.051 and 0.043, respectively). In addition, LC3 immunostaining remained an independent factor impacting OS (p = 0.028) and DSS (p = 0.020) after multivariate analysis. The results of this study suggest that higher immunoreactivity for autophagic markers in MM is associated with superior patient survival. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Acta Haematologica 04/2015; 134(1):17-24. DOI:10.1159/000368848 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract This study evaluated the effect of age and cell of origin on the prognostic significance of Ki-67 labelling index (Ki-67 LI) on overall survival (OS) of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in a cohort of 697 patients treated with rituximab plus CHOP (R-CHOP). Multivariate analysis revealed no prognostic significance of high Ki-67 LI (≥ 85%) for OS. However, on subgroup analysis, high Ki-67 LI was significantly associated with poor OS in late-elderly (aged ≥ 70 years) (P = 0.021) and non-germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) subtype (P = 0.015). In particular, high Ki-67 LI was associated with poor prognosis in late-elderly non-GCB patients. No correlation was observed in young adults (aged < 60 years) or early-elderly (aged 60-70 years) or GCB patients. Present study shows that high Ki-67 LI is a risk factor of poor OS in late-elderly age group and non-GCB subtype in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP.
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    Annals of Laboratory Medicine 01/2015; 35(1):152-4. DOI:10.3343/alm.2015.35.1.152 · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multicentric Castleman's disease (CD) is commonly associated with poor prognosis, and well-known prognostic factors are scarce. We performed a retrospective analysis to define the clinical features and prognostic factors for patients with multicentric CD. Between 1990 and 2013, 32 patients with multicentric CD were identified from the database of the Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Clinicopathologic data were collected by reviewing the medical records. With the exclusion of 4 patients because of unknown human immunodeficiency virus infection status, 28 human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients with multicentric CD were included in this analysis. Most of the patients were male (76%) and had a median age of 54 years. Hyaline vascular variant was the most common subtype (N=11, 39%). Hepatosplenomegaly (61%), fever (39%), edema (29%), and ascites (18%) were the most frequently reported symptoms and signs at diagnosis. With a median follow-up of 67 months, the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 77%. Patients with extravascular fluid accumulation (i.e., peripheral edema, ascites, and/or pleural effusions) were significantly associated with a poor survival rate (5-year OS, 94% vs. 56%; P=0.04). The extent of disease involvement was also a significant prognostic factor (5-year OS, 91% for involvement on a single side vs. 73% on both sides of the diaphragm; P=0.03). Other clinicopathologic factors were not significantly associated with patient survival. Our findings suggest that the hyaline vascular variant is not a rare subtype of multicentric CD. Extravascular fluid accumulation and disseminated disease involvement seem to be significant prognostic factors.
    12/2014; 49(4):253-8. DOI:10.5045/br.2014.49.4.253
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    Jin Roh, Min Jeong Song, Mi Woo Lee, Chan-Sik Park
    The Korean Journal of Pathology 10/2014; 48(5):394-7. DOI:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2014.48.5.394 · 0.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Here we report a case of a 76-year-old man with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with simultaneous involvement of the right breast and left testicle. The patient underwent complete resection of the involved testis, followed by immunochemotherapy with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) and prophylactic radiotherapy to the contralateral testis. Following this multimodal therapy, he achieved a complete response. This is a rare case of DLBCL involving both the breast and the testis in a male patient.
    Cancer Research and Treatment 09/2014; DOI:10.4143/crt.2013.245 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Primary testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a rare but aggressive extranodal lymphoma, and its relapse in the central nervous system (CNS) is a major concern during treatment. Despite this, the role of intrathecal prophylaxis in primary testicular DLBCL remains controversial. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 14 patients with primary testicular DLBCL diagnosed between November 2000 and June 2012, and analyzed the CNS relapse rate in patients treated without intrathecal prophylaxis. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results The median age at diagnosis was 57 years (range, 41-79 years). Unilateral testicular involvement was observed in 13 patients. Nine patients had stage I, 1 had stage II, and 4 had stage IV disease. The international prognostic index was low or low-intermediate risk in 12 patients and high-intermediate risk in 2 patients. Thirteen patients underwent orchiectomy. All the patients received systemic chemotherapy without intrathecal prophylaxis, and prophylactic radiotherapy was administered to the contralateral testis in 12 patients. The median follow-up period of surviving patients was 39 months (range, 10-139 months). Median overall survival was not reached and the median progression-free survival was 3.8 years. Four patients experienced relapse, but CNS relapse was observed in only one patient (7.1%) with stage IV disease, 27 months after a complete response. Conclusion Even without intrathecal prophylaxis, the rate of relapse in the CNS was lower in the Korean patients with primary testicular DLBCL compared to prior reports.
    09/2014; 49(3):170-6. DOI:10.5045/br.2014.49.3.170
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundAbbreviated chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy or full cycles of chemotherapy is recommended as a standard treatment for limited-stage (LS) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). After complete resection of tumors, however, Burkitt and childhood B-cell Non-Hodgkin lymphoma show favorable outcomes, even after abbreviated chemotherapy of only 2 or 3 cycles. We investigated the effectiveness of abbreviated chemotherapy in patients with LS DLBCL after complete tumor resection.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed 18 patients with LS DLBCL who underwent complete tumor resection followed by either 3 or 4 cycles of chemotherapy between March 2002 and May 2010.ResultsWith a median follow-up period of 57.9 months (range, 31.8-130.2 months), no patients experienced disease relapse or progression; however, 1 patient experienced secondary acute myeloid leukemia during follow-up. The 5-year progression-free survival rate and overall survival rate were 93.3% and 94.1%, respectively.ConclusionThese results warrant further investigation into abbreviated chemotherapy as an alternative treatment for patients who have undergone complete resection of LS DLBCL.
    06/2014; 49(2):115-9. DOI:10.5045/br.2014.49.2.115
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    ABSTRACT: Background Differences in survival outcomes and prognostic factors of cutaneous extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL) depending on primary tumor site are currently unknown. Objective We sought to analyze the clinicopathological features and survival outcomes of cutaneous ENKTL according to primary tumor site. Methods In all, 45 patients with cutaneous ENKTL were classified with: (1) primary cutaneous ENKTL, or (2) nasal ENKTL with cutaneous involvement. Clinicopathologic features, survival outcomes, and prognostic factors were analyzed using patient's medical records. Survival outcomes were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log rank test. The Student t test, Fisher exact test, and linear by linear association test were used to analyze clinicopathologic differences between groups. Results Clinical manifestations of cutaneous ENKTL included solitary or multiple subcutaneous nodules and cellulitis or abscess-like lesions. Primary cutaneous ENKTL demonstrated a less aggressive clinical course and better survival outcomes. The extent of cutaneous lesions demonstrated a significant effect on the prognosis of primary cutaneous ENKTL, but not on nasal ENKTL with cutaneous involvement. The presence of nasal lesions in primary cutaneous ENKTL was associated with poor prognosis. Limitations This study used a retrospective design and included a small sample size. Conclusion Although the clinicopathological features were similar regardless of subgroup, survival outcomes and prognostic factors differed depending on the primary tumor site of cutaneous ENKTL.
    Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 06/2014; 70(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jaad.2013.12.023 · 5.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundMultiple myeloma (MM) is a heterogeneous and ultimately fatal disease. Risk stratification using prognostic biomarkers is crucial to individualize treatments. We sought to investigate the role of CD99, a transmembrane protein highly expressed in many hematopoietic cells including subpopulations of normal and neoplastic plasma cells, for MM risk stratification.MethodsCD99 expression was measured in paraffin samples of bone marrow and extramedullary biopsies of 170 patients with MM. Patients were divided into those with high score (moderately and strongly positive) and low score (negative and weakly positive), with all staining being cytoplasmic and/or membranous.ResultsHigh anti-CD99 immunostaining was observed in 72 of 136 (52.9%) bone marrow biopsies and 24 of 87 (27.6%) extramedullary biopsies in MM. High CD99 expression of extramedullary specimens was associated with significantly longer overall survival (OS; p=.016). High CD99 expression of extramedullary specimens was also associated with better prognosis in the nonautologous stem cell transplantation group of MM patients (p=.044). In multivariate analysis, International Staging System stage was an independent prognostic factor, whereas CD99 expression was no longer statistically significant.ConclusionsExpression of CD99 in extramedullary specimens was correlated with longer OS, suggesting that CD99 may be a helpful immunohistochemical marker for risk stratification.
    The Korean Journal of Pathology 06/2014; 48(3):209-16. DOI:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2014.48.3.209 · 0.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context.-The ability of intermediate trophoblasts to invade maternal tissue during placentation depends on how well they can degrade the extracellular matrix. Invasion into the extracellular matrix requires many complex proteases. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) is a novel family of secreted metalloproteinases. The ADAMTS-1, -4, -5, and -14 subtypes are known to be expressed in human placenta, but little is understood about their expression patterns. Objective.-To examine the expression patterns of ADAMTS-1, -4, -5, and -14 in specific human placenta cell types during gestation and in gestational trophoblastic diseases. Design.-Placental tissues were obtained from 25 pregnant women and 21 cases of gestational trophoblastic diseases (10 early complete moles, 3 placental site trophoblastic tumors, 4 invasive moles, and 4 choriocarcinomas). The expression of the 4 ADAMTS was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Results.-ADAMTS-1, -4, -5, and -14 were differentially expressed by the human placenta throughout gestation in a time-specific and cell type-specific manner, as well as in gestational trophoblastic diseases. ADAMTS-1 showed gradually strong staining intensity in gestational trophoblastic diseases according to the invasive potential but showed consistent strong intensity throughout normal placenta. ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 exhibited higher and restricted expression in first-trimester intermediate trophoblasts. They also exhibited comparably strong expression in gestational trophoblastic diseases. However, ADAMTS-14 expression remained unchanged throughout gestation. Conclusions.-The restricted expression pattern of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 and their increased expression in gestational trophoblastic diseases suggest that these 2 ADAMTS subtypes are associated with a biological phenotype of trophoblasts involved in human placentation and the development of gestational trophoblastic diseases.
    Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 05/2014; 138(5):643-650. DOI:10.5858/arpa.2012-0227-OA · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is classified into prognostically distinct germinal center B-cell (GCB) and activated B-cell subtypes by gene expression profiling (GEP). Recent reports suggest the role of GEP subtypes in targeted therapy. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) algorithms have been proposed as surrogates of GEP, but their utility remains controversial. Using microarray, we examined the concordance of 4 GEP-correlated and 2 non-GEP-correlated IHC algorithms in 381 DLBCLs, not otherwise specified. Subtypes and variants of DLBCL were excluded to minimize the possible confounding effect on prognosis and phenotype. Survival was analyzed in 138 cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP)-treated and 147 rituximab plus CHOP (R-CHOP)-treated patients. Of the GEP-correlated algorithms, high concordance was observed among Hans, Choi, and Visco-Young algorithms (total concordance, 87.1%; κ score: 0.726 to 0.889), whereas Tally algorithm exhibited slightly lower concordance (total concordance 77.4%; κ score: 0.502 to 0.643). Two non-GEP-correlated algorithms (Muris and Nyman) exhibited poor concordance. Compared with the Western data, incidence of the non-GCB subtype was higher in all algorithms. Univariate analysis showed prognostic significance for Hans, Choi, and Visco-Young algorithms and BCL6, GCET1, LMO2, and BCL2 in CHOP-treated patients. On multivariate analysis, Hans algorithm retained its prognostic significance. By contrast, neither the algorithms nor individual antigens predicted survival in R-CHOP treatment. The high concordance among GEP-correlated algorithms suggests their usefulness as reliable discriminators of molecular subtype in DLBCL, not otherwise specified. Our study also indicates that prognostic significance of IHC algorithms may be limited in R-CHOP-treated Asian patients because of the predominance of the non-GCB type.
    The American journal of surgical pathology 04/2014; DOI:10.1097/PAS.0000000000000211 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Previously, cutaneous lymphomas were classified according to either the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) or the World Health Organization (WHO) classification paradigms. The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency of Korean cutaneous lymphoma according to the new WHO-EORTC classification system. Methods A total of 517 patients were recruited during a recent 5 year-period (2006-2010) from 21 institutes and classified according to the WHO-EORTC criteria. Results The patients included 298 males and 219 females, and the mean age at diagnosis was 49 years. The lesions preferentially affected the trunk area (40.2%). The most frequent subtypes in order of decreasing prevalence were mycosis fungoides (22.2%), peripheral T-cell lymphoma (17.2%), CD30+ T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (13.7%), and extranodal natural killer/T (NK/T) cell lymphoma, nasal type (12.0%). Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma accounted for 11.2% of cases, half of which were secondary cutaneous involvement; other types of B-cell lymphoma accounted for less than 1% of cases. Conclusions In comparison with data from Western countries, this study revealed relatively lower rates of mycosis fungoides and B-cell lymphoma in Korean patients, as well as higher rates of subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma and NK/T cell lymphoma.
    The Korean Journal of Pathology 04/2014; 48(2):126-32. DOI:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2014.48.2.126 · 0.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: LGALS3, a member of the lectin family, has an important role in tumor progression through inhibition of apoptosis. LGALS3 shares several significant structural properties with BCL2. In this study, we examined the prognostic significance of LGALS3 and BCL2 in uniformly treated classical Hodgkin's lymphoma. Diagnostic tissues from 110 patients with uniformly treated classical Hodgkin's lymphoma were evaluated retrospectively by immunohistochemical analysis of LGALS3 and BCL2 expression. The median follow-up time was 6.2 years (range, 0.2-17.3 years). Twenty-seven patients (25%) expressed LGALS3 protein in Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells, which was associated with poor overall survival and event-free survival (P=0.007 and P<0.001). Fifteen patients (14%) expressed BCL2 protein in Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells, which was not associated with overall survival and event-free survival (P=0.928 and P=0.900).There was no correlation between LGALS3 and BCL2 expression (P=0.193). Multivariate analysis identified LGALS3 protein as an independent prognostic factor for event-free survival (P=0.007). Subgroup analysis according to the Ann Arbor stage of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma showed that LGALS3 protein expression had a prognostic value in limited-stage classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (P<0.001). The results of this study suggest that LGALS3 is an independent prognostic factor in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma, and may allow the identification of a subgroup of patients with limited-stage classical Hodgkin's lymphoma who require more intensive therapy.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 7 March 2014; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2014.38.
    Modern Pathology 03/2014; 27(10). DOI:10.1038/modpathol.2014.38 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) is a distinct subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which has no consensus for its ideal treatment or prognosis. We reviewed the clinicopathologic features and clinical outcomes of 25 PMBL cases diagnosed at a single institution between 1993 and 2009 and compared them with 588 cases of non-mediastinal, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, control group) diagnosed during the same period. Thirteen (52.0%) PMBL patients had Ann Arbor stage III or IV disease, and 10 (40.0%) had B symptoms. Thirteen (52%) PMBL patients were classified as high-intermediate/high-risk according to the International Prognostic Index. There was a significant prevalence of young (median: 31 years; range, 15-78 years; P<0.001), female (68%; P=0.014) patients in the PMBL group compared to the control group (median: 56 years; range, 15-85 years; 43.2% female). Bulky disease and elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were more frequent in the PMBL group (P<0.001 and P=0.003, respectively). Nineteen (76%) PBML patients achieved complete remission, and 18 were alive at the last follow-up (median: 43 months; range, 1-92 months). There was no difference in the 3-year, overall survival rate (72%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 54.0-83.0 versus 70.1%, 95% CI, 109.0-126.0; P=0.686) between PMBL and control patients, respectively. Compared to patients with non-mediastinal DLBCL, Korean patients with PMBL are predominantly young women with bulky disease and high LDH levels but with no significant difference in survival.
    03/2014; 49(1):36-41. DOI:10.5045/br.2014.49.1.36
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have reported the prognostic value of tissue-associated magrophages (TAMs) in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). In addition, TAMs are implicated in the tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the prognostic relevance of TAMs in relation to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis in uniformly treated cases of cHL. Diagnostic tissue from 116 patients with ABVD-treated cHL was evaluated retrospectively by immunohistochemical analysis for CD68, CD163 and VEGF expression and for CD31 expression as a measure of microvessel density (MVD). High CD163 expression (≥35% of cellularity) correlated with VEGF expression (Pearson's Chi-square test, P = 0.008) and MVD (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.310, P<0.001). High CD163 expression was associated with inferior event-free survival (EFS, P = 0.005) and overall survival (OS, P<0.001) in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, high CD163 expression was strongly associated with inferior EFS (P = 0.043) and OS (P = 0.008). Patients with high MVD had a lower OS than those with low MVD, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.071, respectively). While high expression of CD68 was also associated with inferior EFS (P = 0.007), it showed no correlation with VEGF or MVD. Our data confirms that CD163 expression provides independent prognostic information in cHL. The correlation of CD163 with VEGF expression and MVD suggests the role of CD163-positive cells in tumor angiogenesis of cHL.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e87066. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0087066 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The gastrointestinal tract is the most common primary extranodal site for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, there is no consensus on the most appropriate staging system for intestinal DLBCL. We evaluated the utility of the modified Ann Arbor system, the Lugano system, and the Paris staging system (a modification of the Tumor, Node, Metastases [TNM] staging for epithelial tumors) in 66 cases of resected intestinal DLBCL. The cases were treated with surgery, plus either cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP) chemotherapy alone (n=26) or with the addition of rituximab immunotherapy (n=40). Median follow-up time was 40.4 months (range, 2.1-171.6 months). Fifty-six patients (84.8%) achieved complete remission. The overall 5-yr survival rate was 86.4% (57/66). Of the stage categories defined for each staging system, only the T stage of the Paris classification showed prognostic significance for overall survival by univariate analysis. However, none of the stage parameters was significantly correlated with patient survival on multivariate analysis. In conclusion, the results suggest that the T stage of the Paris classification system may be a prognostic indicator in intestinal DLBCL. The results also imply that in surgically resected intestinal DLBCL, the addition of rituximab to the CHOP regimen does not confer significant survival advantage.
    Journal of Korean medical science 01/2014; 29(1):53-60. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.1.53 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) in peripheral blood has recently been reported to be an independent prognostic factor in multiple myeloma (MM). Previous studies indicated that the absolute monocyte count (AMC) in peripheral blood reflects the state of the tumor microenvironment in lymphomas. Neither the utility of the AMC nor its relationship with ALC has been studied in MM. The prognostic value of ALC, AMC, and the ALC/AMC ratio at the time of diagnosis was retrospectively examined in 189 patients with MM. On univariate analysis, low ALC (<1,400 cells/µL), high AMC (≥490 cells/µL), and low ALC/AMC ratio (<2.9) were correlated with worse overall survival (OS) (p=.002, p=.038, and p=.001, respectively). On multivariate analysis, the ALC/AMC ratio was an independent prognostic factor (p=.047), whereas ALC and AMC were no longer statistical significant. Low ALC, high AMC, and low ALC/AMC ratio were associated with poor prognostic factors such as high International Staging System stage, plasmablastic morphology, hypoalbuminemia, and high β2-microglobulin. Univariate analysis demonstrated that changes in ALC, AMC, and the ALC/AMC ratio are associated with patient survival in MM. Multivariate analysis showed that, of these factors, the ALC/AMC ratio was an independent prognostic factor for OS.
    The Korean Journal of Pathology 12/2013; 47(6):526-33. DOI:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2013.47.6.526 · 0.17 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

310 Citations
151.71 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • University of Ulsan
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008–2014
    • Asan Medical Center
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Cardiology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Ulsan University Hospital
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea