[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic metabolic state involving heterogeneous and dynamic changes between the normal and diabetic state. The present study aimed to investigate the endocrine regulation of endothelium-dependent dysfunction in middle-aged patients with IGT and in patients with a normal glucose tolerance (NGT). An oral glucose tolerance test was performed to determine the NGT and IGT states. Physiological and biochemical analyses were performed. The carotid artery structure and function were investigated with Doppler supersonic diagnostic equipment. The functioning of the vascular endothelium was analyzed with physiological and biochemical indices in the IGT group. The results showed a significant reduction in endothelium-dependent vasodilation, but not in endothelium-independent vasodilation in the IGT group compared with those of the NGT group. It was identified that the intima-media thickness of the carotid artery and expression levels of endothelin-1 were significantly higher, whereas the endothelium-derived factor C-type natriuretic peptide levels were significantly lower in the IGT group compared with those in the NGT group. Notably, significant correlations were identified between endocrinological changes and body composition, including fat and glucose metabolism, in the IGT group. Our data indicate that vascular endothelial functions may be impaired by fat and glucose metabolism and body composition in IGT patients during prediabetes mellitusare.
Experimental and therapeutic medicine 03/2014; 7(3):697-702. · 0.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is an early pathophysiological change in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) during prediabetes mellitus. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that exercise intervention contributes to the reversal of vascular endothelium-dependent dysfunction in middle-aged patients with IGT. Following exercise intervention, significant changes in endothelin (ET)-1, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), ΔDia-P, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)2h, fasting insulin, homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), body fat percentage, waist circumference and waist to hip ratio were measured. However, no marked changes in carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), fasting blood glucose and BMI were observed following exercise intervention. Validity analysis of index changes in the two exercise intervention groups further confirmed there was no change. Exercise intervention increased CNP levels, decreased ET-1 levels and increased ΔDia-P, indicating improved vascular endothelium function. Decreased HOMA-IR following exercise suggests enhanced insulin sensitivity. Exercise intervention also improved glucose metabolism via decreased OGTT2h and fasting insulin. In addition, decreased waist circumference, ratio of waist to hip and body fat percentage following exercise intervention improved changes of body composition, including BMI, body fat and waist circumference. These results indicate that exercise intervention may reverse vascular endothelium-dependent dysfunction in middle-aged patients with IGT. This study also provided direct clinical data supporting the use of exercise intervention to prevent diabetes mellitus (DM) during the early stage.
Experimental and therapeutic medicine 06/2013; 5(6):1559-1565. · 0.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelin (ET)-2 plays a crucial role in ovarian ovulation in mammals. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α-mediated transcriptional activation contributes to the increased expression of ET-2 gene in response to hCG in rat ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) during gonadotropin-induced superovulation. By real-time RT-PCR analysis, ET-2 mRNA expression was found to significantly increase in cultured ovarian GCs after treatment with hCG, or even N-carbobenzoxyl-L-leucinyl-L-leucinyl-L-norvalinal (MG-132), while this increased ET-2 mRNA expression could also be blocked by ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) under human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment. Further analysis also found that these changes of ET-2 mRNA were consistent with HIF-1α expression or HIF-1 activity, and HIF-1α inhibitor echinomycin inhibited ovulation in rats. Taken together, these results indicate that ET-2 is transcriptionally activated by hCG through HIF-1α-mediated mechanism in GCs. This HIF-1α-induced transcriptional activation may be one of the important mechanisms mediating the increase of ET-2 expression in GCs during the gonadotropin-induced mammalian ovulatory process in vivo.
Journal of Reproduction and Development 08/2012; · 1.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Echinomycin is a small-molecule inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 DNA-binding activity, which plays a crucial role in ovarian ovulation in mammalians. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha-mediated endothelin (ET)-2 expressions contributed to ovarian ovulation in response to hCG during gonadotropin-induced superuvulation. By real-time RT-PCR analysis, ET-2 mRNA level was found to significantly decrease in the ovaries after echinomycin treatment, while HIF-1alpha mRNA and protein expression was no obviously changes. Further analysis also found that these changes of ET-2 mRNA were consistent with HIF-1 activity in the ovaires, which is similar with HIF-1alpha and ET-2 expression in the granulosa cells with gonadotropin and echinomycin treatments. The results of HIF-1alpha and ET-2 expression in the granulosa cells transfected with cis-element oligodeoxynucleotide (dsODN) under gonadotropin treatment further indicated HIF-1alpha directly mediated the transcriptional activation of ET-2 during gonadotropin-induced superuvulation. Taken together, these results demonstrated this HIF-1alpha-mediated ET-2 transcriptional activation is one of the important mechanisms regulating gonadotropin-induced mammalian ovulatory precess in vivo.
Experimental and Molecular Medicine 08/2012; · 2.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently reported that HIF-1α plays a critical role in the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in the developing letual cells (LCs) and VEGF-dependent angiogenesis is essential for normal luteal development. Although it is believed that hypoxia is the primary inducer of VEGF, recent reports have also shown that human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) up-regulates VEGF expression in developing corpus luteum (CL). Therefore the present study was designed to test the induced effects of hCG on the expression of VEGF and HIF-1α in LCs under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. In addition, we also investigated whether the signaling pathways such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) are involved in hCG-induced VEGF in LCs. A significant increase of VEGF mRNA was found in LCs treated with hCG, which was consistent with the changes of HIF-1α protein, even under hypoxic conditions. However, there was no obvious changes of HIF-1α mRNA in hCG-treated LCs between normoxic and hypoxic conditions, indicating hCG induces VEGF expression by increasing transcription of HIF-1α, while hypoxia mainly increases HIF-1α protein stability. When LCs were pretreated with inhibitors, we found that the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway is required for HIF-1α and VEGF expression induced by hCG, while the MAPK pathway is not required. Together, these results suggest that activation of IP3K/mTOR signaling pathway contributes to the induction of VEGF and HIF-1α in hCG-treated LCs. To our knowledge this will provide a new insight into the important mechanism of hCG/LH-induced VEGF-dependent angiogenesis in the bovine ovary.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-dependent angiogenesis is crucial for corpus leteum formation and their functional maintenance in mammalian ovaries. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α-mediated transcriptional activation contributes to the increased expression of VEGF gene in response to hypoxia in the bovine developing luteal cells (LCs). By real-time RT-PCR analysis, VEGF messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was found to significantly increase under hypoxia or treatment with desferrioxamine (DFX), cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) or even N-carbobenzoxyl-L-leucinyl-L-leucinyl-L-norvalinal (MG-132), while these increased VEGF mRNA expressions could also be blocked by ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) or cis-element oligodeoxynucleotide (dsODN) transfection under hypoxia. Further analysis also found that these changes of VEGF mRNA were consistent with HIF-1α expression or HIF-1 activity. Taken together, our results indicate that VEGF is transcriptionally activated by hypoxia through HIF-1α-mediated mechanisms in LCs. This hypoxia-induced transcriptional activation may be one of the important mechanisms mediating the increase of VEGF expression in developing LCs during mammalian corpus leteum formation.