[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mismanaged protein trafficking by the proteostasis network contributes to several conformational diseases, including cystic fibrosis, the most frequent lethal inherited disease in Caucasians. Proteostasis regulators, as cystamine, enable the beneficial action of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiators in ΔF508-CFTR airways beyond drug washout. Here we tested the hypothesis that functional CFTR protein can sustain its own plasma membrane (PM) stability. Depletion or inhibition of wild-type CFTR present in bronchial epithelial cells reduced the availability of the small GTPase Rab5 by causing Rab5 sequestration within the detergent-insoluble protein fraction together with its accumulation in aggresomes. CFTR depletion decreased the recruitment of the Rab5 effector early endosome antigen 1 to endosomes, thus reducing the local generation of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate. This diverts recycling of surface proteins, including transferrin receptor and CFTR itself. Inhibiting CFTR function also resulted in its ubiquitination and interaction with SQSTM1/p62 at the PM, favoring its disposal. Addition of cystamine prevented the recycling defect of CFTR by enhancing BECN1 expression and reducing SQSTM1 accumulation. Our results unravel an unexpected link between CFTR protein and function, the latter regulating the levels of CFTR surface expression in a positive feed-forward loop, and highlight CFTR as a pivot of proteostasis in bronchial epithelial cells.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 17 May 2013; doi:10.1038/cdd.2013.46.
Cell death and differentiation 05/2013; · 8.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Channel activators (potentiators) of cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), can be used for the treatment of the small subset of CF patients that carry plasma membrane-resident CFTR mutants. However, approximately 90% of CF patients carry the misfolded ΔF508-CFTR and are poorly responsive to potentiators, because ΔF508-CFTR is intrinsically unstable at the plasma membrane (PM) even if rescued by pharmacological correctors. We have demonstrated that human and mouse CF airways are autophagy deficient due to functional sequestration of BECN1 and that the tissue transglutaminase-2 inhibitor, cystamine, or antioxidants restore BECN1-dependent autophagy and reduce SQSTM1/p62 levels, thus favoring ΔF508-CFTR trafficking to the epithelial surface. Here, we investigated whether these treatments could facilitate the beneficial action of potentiators on ΔF508-CFTR homozygous airways. Cystamine or the superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase-mimetic EUK-134 stabilized ΔF508-CFTR at the plasma membrane of airway epithelial cells and sustained the expression of CFTR at the epithelial surface well beyond drug withdrawal, overexpressing BECN1 and depleting SQSTM1. This facilitates the beneficial action of potentiators in controlling inflammation in ex vivo ΔF508-CFTR homozygous human nasal biopsies and in vivo in mouse ΔF508-CFTR lungs. Direct depletion of Sqstm1 by shRNAs in vivo in ΔF508-CFTR mice synergized with potentiators in sustaining surface CFTR expression and suppressing inflammation. Cystamine pre-treatment restored ΔF508-CFTR response to the CFTR potentiators genistein, Vrx-532 or Vrx-770 in freshly isolated brushed nasal epithelial cells from ΔF508-CFTR homozygous patients. These findings delineate a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of CF patients with the ΔF508-CFTR mutation in which patients are first treated with cystamine and subsequently pulsed with CFTR potentiators.