[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Membrane organelles often have complicated shapes and differ in their volume, surface area and membrane curvature. The ratio between the surface area of the cytosolic and luminal leaflets (trans-membrane area asymmetry (TAA)) determines the membrane curvature within different sites of the organelle. Thus, the shape of the organelle could be critically dependent on TAA. Here, using mathematical modeling and stereological measurements of TAA during fast transformation of organelle shapes, we present evidence that suggests that when organelle volume and surface area are constant, TAA can regulate transformation of the shape of the Golgi apparatus, endosomal multivesicular bodies, and microvilli of brush borders of kidney epithelial cells. Extraction of membrane curvature by small spheres, such as COPI-dependent vesicles within the Golgi (extraction of positive curvature), or by intraluminal vesicles within endosomes (extraction of negative curvature) controls the shape of these organelles. For instance, Golgi tubulation is critically dependent on the fusion of COPI vesicles with Golgi cisternae, and vice versa, for the extraction of membrane curvature into 50-60 nm vesicles, to induce transformation of Golgi tubules into cisternae. Also, formation of intraluminal ultra-small vesicles after fusion of endosomes allows equilibration of their TAA, volume and surface area. Finally, when microvilli of the brush border are broken into vesicles and microvilli fragments, TAA of these membranes remains the same as TAA of the microvilli. Thus, TAA has a significant role in transformation of organelle shape when other factors remain constant.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 03/2015; 16(3):5299-333. DOI:10.3390/ijms16035299 · 2.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The KDEL receptor (KDELR) is a seven-transmembrane-domain protein involved in retrograde transport of protein chaperones from the Golgi complex to the endoplasmic reticulum. Our recent findings have shown that the Golgi-localised KDELR acts as a functional G-protein-coupled receptor by binding to and activating Gs and Gq. These G proteins induce activation of PKA and Src and regulate retrograde and anterograde Golgi trafficking. Here we used an integrated coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry approach to identify prohibitin-1 (PHB) as a KDELR interactor. PHB is a multifunctional protein that is involved in signal transduction, cell-cycle control, and stabilisation of mitochondrial proteins. We provide evidence that depletion of PHB induces intense membrane-trafficking activity at the ER–Golgi interface, as revealed by formation of GM130-positive Golgi tubules, and recruitment of p115, β-COP, and GBF1 to the Golgi complex. There is also massive recruitment of SEC31 to endoplasmic-reticulum exit sites. Furthermore, absence of PHB decreases the levels of the Golgi-localised KDELR, thus preventing KDELR-dependent activation of Golgi-Src and inhibiting Golgi-to-plasma-membrane transport of VSVG. We propose a model whereby in analogy to previous findings (e.g., the RAS-RAF signalling pathway), PHB can act as a signalling scaffold protein to assist in KDELR-dependent Src activation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently identified an endomembrane-based signalling cascade that is activated by the KDEL receptor (KDELR) on the Golgi complex. At the Golgi, the KDELR acts as a traffic sensor (presumably via binding to chaperones that leave the ER) and triggers signalling pathways that balance membrane fluxes between ER and Golgi. One such pathway relies on Gq and Src. Here, we examine if KDELR might control other cellular modules through this pathway. Given the central role of Src in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, we investigated the impact of the KDELR-Src pathway on the ability of cancer cells to degrade the ECM. We find that activation of the KDELR controls ECM degradation by increasing the number of the degradative structures known as invadopodia. The KDELR induces Src activation at the invadopodia and leads to phosphorylation of the Src substrates cortactin and ASAP1, which are required for basal and KDELR-stimulated ECM degradation. This study furthers our understanding of the regulatory circuitry underlying invadopodia-dependent ECM degradation, a key phase in metastases formation and invasive growth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neisseria meningitidis
adhesin A (NadA) is a meningococcus surface protein thought to assist in the adhesion of the bacterium to host cells. We have previously shown that NadA also promotes bacterial internalization in a heterologous expression system. Here we have used the soluble recombinant NadA (rNadA) lacking the membrane anchor region to characterize its internalization route in Chang epithelial cells. Added to the culture medium, rNadA internalizes through a PI3K-dependent endocytosis process not mediated by the canonical clathrin or caveolin scaffolds, but instead follows an ARF6-regulated recycling pathway previously described for MHC-I. The intracellular pool of rNadA reaches a steady state level within one hour of incubation and colocalizes in endocytic vesicles with MHC-I and with the extracellularly labeled chaperone Hsp90. Treatment with membrane permeated and impermeable Hsp90 inhibitors 17-AAG and FITC-GA respectively, lead to intracellular accumulation of rNadA, strongly suggesting that the extracellular secreted pool of the chaperone is involved in rNadA intracellular trafficking. A significant number of intracellular vesicles containing rNadA recruit Rab11, a small GTPase associated to recycling endosomes, but do not contain transferrin receptor (TfR). Interestingly, cell treatment with Hsp90 inhibitors, including the membrane-impermeable FITC-GA, abolished Rab11-rNadA colocalization but do not interfere with Rab11-TfR colocalization. Collectively, these results are consistent with a model whereby rNadA internalizes into human epithelial cells hijacking the recycling endosome pathway and recycle back to the surface of the cell via an ARF6-dependent, Rab11 associated and Hsp90-regulated mechanism. The present study addresses for the first time a meningoccoccal adhesin mechanism of endocytosis and suggests a possible entry pathway engaged by N. meningitidis in primary infection of human epithelial cells.
PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e110047. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0110047 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Like other cellular modules, the secretory pathway and the Golgi complex are likely to be supervised by control systems that support homeostasis and optimal functionality under all conditions, including external and internal perturbations. Moreover, the secretory apparatus must be functionally connected with other cellular modules, such as energy metabolism and protein degradation, via specific rules of interaction, or "coordination protocols". These regulatory devices are of fundamental importance for optimal function; however, they are generally "hidden" at steady state. The molecular components and the architecture of the control systems and coordination protocols of the secretory pathway are beginning to emerge through studies based on the use of controlled transport-specific perturbations aimed specifically at the detection and analysis of these internal regulatory devices.
F1000 Prime Reports 10/2014; 6:88. DOI:10.12703/P6-88
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A fundamental property of cellular processes is to maintain homeostasis despite varying internal and external conditions. Within the membrane transport apparatus, variations in membrane fluxes from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex are balanced by opposite fluxes from the Golgi to the ER to maintain homeostasis between the two organelles. Here we describe a molecular device that balances transport fluxes by integrating transduction cascades with the transport machinery. Specifically, ER-to-Golgi transport activates the KDEL receptor at the Golgi, which triggers a cascade that involves Gs and adenylyl cyclase and phosphodiesterase isoforms and then PKA activation and results in the phosphorylation of transport machinery proteins. This induces retrograde traffic to the ER and balances transport fluxes between the ER and Golgi. Moreover, the KDEL receptor activates CREB1 and other transcription factors that upregulate transport-related genes. Thus, a Golgi-based control system maintains transport homeostasis through both signaling and transcriptional networks.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based video microscopy can provide profound insight into biological processes by generating information on the 'history,' or dynamics, of the cellular structures involved in such processes in live cells. A crucial limitation of this approach, however, is that many such structures may not be resolved by light microscopy. Like more recent super-resolution techniques, correlative video-light-electron microscopy (CLEM) was developed to overcome this limitation. CLEM integrates GFP-based video microscopy and electron microscopy through a series of ancillary techniques, such as proper fixation, hybrid labeling and retracing, and so provides sufficient resolution as well as, crucially, cellular 'context' to the fluorescent dynamic structures of interest. CLEM 'multiplies' the power of video microscopy and is having an important impact in several areas cell and developmental biology. Here, we discuss potential, limitations and perspectives of correlative approaches aimed at integrating the unique insight generated by video microscopy with information from other forms of imaging.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: eLife digest
The Golgi is a structure within cells where proteins and other large molecules are modified and prepared for delivery to locations inside or outside of the cell. Each Golgi is made from a stack of flattened sacs called cisternae that are filled with fluid and enclosed by a membrane.
Proteins and other molecules are transported to the Golgi by packages called vesicles, which fuse with the outermost cisterna, which is known as the ‘cis-face’ of the Golgi, and unload their contents. From here, the proteins are processed and modified by enzymes as they move through the Golgi towards the ‘trans-face’ on the opposite side. The modified proteins are then re-packaged into vesicles before being sent to their intended destinations.
But how do proteins move through the Golgi? Some researchers have suggested that proteins do not actually move: rather, the stacks of the Golgi move like a conveyer belt as new cisterna are added to the cis-face. However, other researchers have proposed that molecules proceed from one cisterna to the next inside small vesicles. It is also possible that proteins are transported through the Golgi in other ways, or by a combination of two or more methods.
Now, Beznoussenko, Parashuraman et al. reveal that some small, soluble, proteins can move through the Golgi by diffusion. These proteins move much quicker than large protein complexes, which suggests that multiple transport mechanisms do co-exist within the Golgi. Furthermore, Beznoussenko, Parashuraman et al. found that these soluble proteins are most likely moving through some narrow tunnel-like connections between the individual cisternae.
Following on from the work of Beznoussenko, Parashuraman et al., the main challenge is to understand how all the different types of proteins that move through the Golgi are transported—which includes roughly a third of all human proteins. As many of these proteins are important for human health, learning to control their transport might create new opportunities to understand and treat disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Information
The centrosome is the primary microtubule-organising centre of animal cells and it has crucial roles in several fundamental cellular functions, including cell division, cell polarity, and intracellular transport. The mechanisms responsible for this are not completely understood.
The poorly characterised protein CEP126 localises to the centrosome, pericentriolar satellites and the base of the primary cilium. Suppression of CEP126 expression results in dispersion of the pericentriolar satellites and disruption of the radial organisation of the microtubules, and induces disorganisation of the mitotic spindle. Moreover, CEP126 depletion or the transfection of a CEP126 truncation mutant in hTERT-RPE-1 and IMCD3 cells impairs the formation of the primary cilium.
We propose that CEP126 is a regulator of microtubule organisation at the centrosome that acts through modulation of the transport of pericentriolar satellites, and consequently, of the organisation of cell structure.
Biology of the Cell 05/2014; 106(8). DOI:10.1111/boc.201300087 · 3.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Earlier studies have demonstrated that membrane tubule-mediated transport events in biosynthetic and endocytic routes require phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. Here we show that cytosolic phospholipase A2ε (cPLA2ε) is targeted to the membrane compartments of clathrin-independent (CI) endocytic route via a C-terminal stretch of positively charged aminoacids, which allows the enzyme to interact with phosphoinositide lipids (especially PI(4,5)P2) enriched in CI endosomes. cPLA2ε ablation suppressed the formation of tubular elements that carry internalized CI cargoes, such as MHC-I, CD147 and CD55, back to the cell surface and, therefore, caused their intracellular retention. The ability of cPLA2ε to support recycling through tubule formation relies on the catalytic activity of the enzyme, as the inactive cPLA2ε(S420A) mutant was not able to recover either tubule growth or transport from CI endosomes. Taken together, our findings indicate cPLA2ε as a new important regulator of trafficking processes within the CI endocytic/recycling route. The affinity of cPLA2ε for this pathway supports a new hypothesis that different PLA2 enzymes utilize selective targeting mechanisms to regulate tubule formation locally during specific trafficking steps in the secretory and/or endocytic systems.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The brefeldin A ADP-ribosylated substrate, a member of the C-terminal-binding protein family that is referred to as CtBP1/BARS, is a dual-function protein that acts as a transcriptional co-repressor in the nucleus and as an inducer of membrane fission in the cytoplasm. In this review, we first discuss the mechanisms that enable CtBP1/BARS to shift between the nuclear transcriptional co-repressor and the cytosolic fission-inducing activities. Then, we focus on the role of CtBP1/BARS in membrane fission. CtBP1/BARS controls several fission events including macropinocytosis, fluid-phase endocytosis, COPI-coated vesicle formation, basolaterally directed post-Golgi carrier formation, and Golgi partitioning in mitosis. We report on recent advances in our understanding of the CtBP1/BARS membrane fission machineries that operate at the trans-side and at the cis-side of the Golgi complex. Specifically, we discuss how these machineries are assembled and regulated, and how they operate in the formation of the basolaterally directed post-Golgi carriers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracellular membrane transport involves the well-coordinated engagement of a series of organelles and molecular machineries that ensure that proteins are delivered to their correct cellular locations according to their function. To maintain the homeostasis of the secretory system, the fluxes of membranes and protein across the transport compartments must be precisely balanced. This control should rely on a mechanism that senses the movement of the traffic and generates the required homeostatic response. Due to its central position in the secretory pathway and to the large amounts of signaling molecules associated with it, the Golgi complex represents the ideal candidate for this regulation. The generation of autonomous signaling by the Golgi complex in response to the arrival of cargo from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been experimentally addressed only in recent years. These studies have revealed that cargo moving from the ER to the Golgi activates a series of signaling pathways, the functional significance of which appears to be to maintain the homeostasis of the Golgi complex and to activate Golgi trafficking according to internal demand. We have termed this regulatory mechanism the Golgi control system. A key player in this Golgi control system is the KDEL receptor, which has previously been shown to retrieve chaperones back to the endoplasmic reticulum and more recently to behave as a signaling receptor. Here, we discuss the particular role of KDEL receptor signaling in the regulation of important pathways involved in the maintenance of the homeostasis of the transport apparatus, and in particular, of the Golgi complex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After leaving the endoplasmic reticulum, secretory proteins traverse several membranous transport compartments before reaching their destinations. How they move through the Golgi complex, a major secretory station composed of stacks of membranous cisternae, is a central yet unsettled issue in membrane biology. Two classes of mechanisms have been proposed. One is based on cargo-laden carriers hopping across stable cisternae and the other on "maturing" cisternae that carry cargo forward while progressing through the stack. A key difference between the two concerns the behavior of Golgi-resident proteins. Under stable cisternae models, Golgi residents remain in the same cisterna, whereas, according to cisternal maturation, Golgi residents recycle from distal to proximal cisternae via retrograde carriers in synchrony with cisternal progression. Here, we have engineered Golgi-resident constructs that can be polymerized at will to prevent their recycling via Golgi carriers. Maturation models predict the progress of such polymerized residents through the stack along with cargo, but stable cisternae models do not. The results support the cisternal maturation mechanism.
The Journal of Cell Biology 06/2013; 201(7). DOI:10.1083/jcb.201211147 · 9.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification that modulates the functions of many target proteins. We previously showed that the fungal toxin brefeldin A (BFA) induces the ADP-ribosylation of C-terminal-binding protein-1 short-form/BFA-ADP-ribosylation substrate (CtBP1-S/BARS), a bifunctional protein with roles in the nucleus as a transcription factor and in the cytosol as a regulator of membrane fission during intracellular trafficking and mitotic partitioning of the Golgi complex. Here, we report that ADP-ribosylation of CtBP1-S/BARS by BFA occurs via a nonconventional mechanism that comprises two steps: (i) synthesis of a BFA-ADP-ribose conjugate by the ADP-ribosyl cyclase CD38 and (ii) covalent binding of the BFA-ADP-ribose conjugate into the CtBP1-S/BARS NAD(+)-binding pocket. This results in the locking of CtBP1-S/BARS in a dimeric conformation, which prevents its binding to interactors known to be involved in membrane fission and, hence, in the inhibition of the fission machinery involved in mitotic Golgi partitioning. As this inhibition may lead to arrest of the cell cycle in G2, these findings provide a strategy for the design of pharmacological blockers of cell cycle in tumor cells that express high levels of CD38.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2013; 110(24). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1222413110 · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mismanaged protein trafficking by the proteostasis network contributes to several conformational diseases, including cystic fibrosis, the most frequent lethal inherited disease in Caucasians. Proteostasis regulators, as cystamine, enable the beneficial action of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiators in ΔF508-CFTR airways beyond drug washout. Here we tested the hypothesis that functional CFTR protein can sustain its own plasma membrane (PM) stability. Depletion or inhibition of wild-type CFTR present in bronchial epithelial cells reduced the availability of the small GTPase Rab5 by causing Rab5 sequestration within the detergent-insoluble protein fraction together with its accumulation in aggresomes. CFTR depletion decreased the recruitment of the Rab5 effector early endosome antigen 1 to endosomes, thus reducing the local generation of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate. This diverts recycling of surface proteins, including transferrin receptor and CFTR itself. Inhibiting CFTR function also resulted in its ubiquitination and interaction with SQSTM1/p62 at the PM, favoring its disposal. Addition of cystamine prevented the recycling defect of CFTR by enhancing BECN1 expression and reducing SQSTM1 accumulation. Our results unravel an unexpected link between CFTR protein and function, the latter regulating the levels of CFTR surface expression in a positive feed-forward loop, and highlight CFTR as a pivot of proteostasis in bronchial epithelial cells.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 17 May 2013; doi:10.1038/cdd.2013.46.
Cell death and differentiation 05/2013; 20(8). DOI:10.1038/cdd.2013.46 · 8.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Correlative light-electron microscopy (CLEM) is a very effective technique that combines live-cell imaging and immuno-electron microscopy for ultrastructural morphological characterization of dynamic intracellular organelles. The use of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged chimeras allows the user to follow the movements and/or behavior of intracellular structures in a live cell and to fix it at the moment of interest. The subsequent immuno-electron microscopy processing can then reveal the three-dimensional architecture of the same structure, together with precise recognition of the GFP-labeled protein. The process resembles the taking of a high-resolution snapshot of an interesting live scene. Considering that CLEM is a very useful but technically demanding and time-consuming technique, accurate protocols will be helpful to simplify the work of scientists who are willing to apply this method for their own purposes. Here, we present a detailed protocol that describes all of the "tricks" and know-hows involved in carrying out the crucial steps of a CLEM experiment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple studies have shown that endomembranes can act as signaling platforms for plasma-membrane-originated signaling. In particular, the Golgi complex operates as a relay station for signaling, which is initiated by classical ligand-receptor systems at the plasma membrane, acting as a positive or negative regulator of these plasma-membrane signals. Thus, the Golgi complex has emerged as a hub for intracellular signaling. Furthermore, recent evidence has indicated that the Golgi complex can also trigger its own signaling cascades, which involve some of the molecular players that are classically engaged in signal transduction at the plasma membrane. This aspect of the Golgi complex, namely, the ability to generate autonomous signaling, has been experimentally addressed only in the last few years. These studies have revealed that the transport vesicles that leave the ER for the Golgi complex also carry signal molecules that can then be sensed by a receptor in the Golgi complex to coordinate secretory organelles. The receptor involved in the sensing of incoming traffic at the Golgi complex has been shown to be the KDEL receptor (KDELR), a proposed new G-protein-coupled receptor. Upon binding to a KDEL-containing ligand (a chaperone), the KDELR can activate a signaling cascade that regulates anterograde intra-Golgi trafficking. However, this Golgi-based signaling response is only partially understood to date. Here we report on several approaches that are suitable for the study of traffic-initiated and KDELR-dependent signaling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Channel activators (potentiators) of cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), can be used for the treatment of the small subset of CF patients that carry plasma membrane-resident CFTR mutants. However, approximately 90% of CF patients carry the misfolded ΔF508-CFTR and are poorly responsive to potentiators, because ΔF508-CFTR is intrinsically unstable at the plasma membrane (PM) even if rescued by pharmacological correctors. We have demonstrated that human and mouse CF airways are autophagy deficient due to functional sequestration of BECN1 and that the tissue transglutaminase-2 inhibitor, cystamine, or antioxidants restore BECN1-dependent autophagy and reduce SQSTM1/p62 levels, thus favoring ΔF508-CFTR trafficking to the epithelial surface. Here, we investigated whether these treatments could facilitate the beneficial action of potentiators on ΔF508-CFTR homozygous airways. Cystamine or the superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase-mimetic EUK-134 stabilized ΔF508-CFTR at the plasma membrane of airway epithelial cells and sustained the expression of CFTR at the epithelial surface well beyond drug withdrawal, overexpressing BECN1 and depleting SQSTM1. This facilitates the beneficial action of potentiators in controlling inflammation in ex vivo ΔF508-CFTR homozygous human nasal biopsies and in vivo in mouse ΔF508-CFTR lungs. Direct depletion of Sqstm1 by shRNAs in vivo in ΔF508-CFTR mice synergized with potentiators in sustaining surface CFTR expression and suppressing inflammation. Cystamine pre-treatment restored ΔF508-CFTR response to the CFTR potentiators genistein, Vrx-532 or Vrx-770 in freshly isolated brushed nasal epithelial cells from ΔF508-CFTR homozygous patients. These findings delineate a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of CF patients with the ΔF508-CFTR mutation in which patients are first treated with cystamine and subsequently pulsed with CFTR potentiators.