Joy E Lawn

University of São Paulo, San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Publications (142)2054.52 Total impact

  • Joy E Lawn, Mary Kinney
    Science translational medicine 11/2014; 6(263):263ed21. · 10.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Cause-of-death distributions are important for prioritising interventions. We estimated proportions, risks, and numbers of deaths (with uncertainty) for programme-relevant causes of neonatal death for 194 countries for 2000-2013, differentiating between the early (days 0-6) and late (days 7-27) neonatal periods. Methods: For 65 high-quality VR countries, we used the observed early and late neonatal proportional cause distributions. For the remaining 129 countries, we used multinomial logistic models to estimate the early and late proportional cause distributions. We used separate models, with different inputs, for low and high neonatal mortality countries. We applied these cause-specific proportions to neonatal death estimates from the United Nations by country/year to estimate cause-specific risks and numbers of deaths. Findings: Of the 2.76 million neonatal deaths in 2013, 0.99 (uncertainty: 0.70-1.31) million (35.7%) were estimated to be from preterm complications, 0.64 (uncertainty: 0.46-0.84) million (23.4%) from intrapartum-related complications, and 0.43 (0.22-0.66) million (15.6%) from sepsis. Preterm (40.8%) and intrapartum-related (27.0%) complications accounted for the majority of early neonatal deaths while infections caused nearly half of late neonatal deaths. In every region, preterm was the leading cause of neonatal death, with the highest risks in Southern Asia (11.9 per 1000 livebirths) and Sub-Saharan Africa (9.5). Conclusion: The neonatal cause-of-death distribution differs between the early and late periods, and varies with NMR level and over time. To reduce neonatal deaths, this knowledge must be incorporated into policy decisions. The Every Newborn Action Plan provides stimulus for countries to update national strategies and include high-impact interventions to address these causes.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The days immediately after birth are the most risky for human survival, yet neonatal mortality risks are generally not reported by day. Early neonatal deaths are sometimes under-reported or might be misclassified by day of death or as stillbirths. We modelled daily neonatal mortality risk and estimated the proportion of deaths on the day of birth and in week 1 for 186 countries in 2013. We reviewed data from vital registration (VR) and demographic and health surveys for information on the timing of neonatal deaths. For countries with high-quality VR we used the data as reported. For countries without high-quality VR data, we applied an exponential model to data from 206 surveys in 79 countries (n=50 396 deaths) to estimate the proportions of neonatal deaths per day and used bootstrap sampling to develop uncertainty estimates. 57 countries (n=122 757 deaths) had high-quality VR, and modelled data were used for 129 countries. The proportion of deaths on the day of birth (day 0) and within week 1 varied little by neonatal mortality rate, income, or region. 1·00 million (36.3%) of all neonatal deaths occurred on day 0 (uncertainty range 0·94 million to 1·05 million), and 2·02 million (73.2%) in the first week (uncertainty range 1·99 million to 2·05 million). Sub-Saharan Africa had the highest risk of neonatal death and, therefore, had the highest risk of death on day 0 (11·2 per 1000 livebirths); the highest number of deaths on day 0 was seen in southern Asia (n=392 300). The risk of early neonatal death is very high across a range of countries and contexts. Cost-effective and feasible interventions to improve neonatal and maternity care could save many lives. Save the Children's Saving Newborn Lives programme. Copyright © 2014 Oza et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Published by .. All rights reserved.
    The Lancet Global Health. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Trend data for causes of child death are crucial to inform priorities for improving child survival by and beyond 2015. We report child mortality by cause estimates in 2000–13, and cause-specific mortality scenarios to 2030 and 2035. Methods We estimated the distributions of causes of child mortality separately for neonates and children aged 1–59 months. To generate cause-specific mortality fractions, we included new vital registration and verbal autopsy data. We used vital registration data in countries with adequate registration systems. We applied vital registration-based multicause models for countries with low under-5 mortality but inadequate vital registration, and updated verbal autopsy-based multicause models for high mortality countries. We used updated numbers of child deaths to derive numbers of deaths by causes. We applied two scenarios to derive cause-specific mortality in 2030 and 2035. Findings Of the 6·3 million children who died before age 5 years in 2013, 51·8% (3·257 million) died of infectious causes and 44% (2·761 million) died in the neonatal period. The three leading causes are preterm birth complications (0·965 million [15·4%, uncertainty range (UR) 9·8−24·5]; UR 0·615–1·537 million), pneumonia (0·935 million [14·9%, 13·0–16·8]; 0·817–1·057 million), and intrapartum-related complications (0·662 million [10·5%, 6·7–16·8]; 0·421–1·054 million). Reductions in pneumonia, diarrhoea, and measles collectively were responsible for half of the 3·6 million fewer deaths recorded in 2013 versus 2000. Causes with the slowest progress were congenital, preterm, neonatal sepsis, injury, and other causes. If present trends continue, 4·4 million children younger than 5 years will still die in 2030. Furthermore, sub-Saharan Africa will have 33% of the births and 60% of the deaths in 2030, compared with 25% and 50% in 2013, respectively. Interpretation Our projection results provide concrete examples of how the distribution of child causes of deaths could look in 15–20 years to inform priority setting in the post-2015 era. More evidence is needed about shifts in timing, causes, and places of under-5 deaths to inform child survival agendas by and beyond 2015, to end preventable child deaths in a generation, and to count and account for every newborn and every child. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
    Lancet. 09/2014;
  • Joy E Lawn
    The Lancet 09/2014; 384(9947):931-3. · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Maternal mortality has declined by nearly half since 1990, but over a quarter million women still die every year of causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. Maternal-health related targets are falling short of the 2015 Millennium Development Goals and a post-2015 Development Agenda is emerging. In connection with this, setting global research priorities for the next decade is now required.
    Reproductive health. 08/2014; 11(1):61.
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    The Lancet Global Health. 08/2014; 2(8):e446.
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    ABSTRACT: Universal coverage of essential interventions would reduce neonatal deaths by an estimated 71%, benefit women and children after the first month, and reduce stillbirths. However, the packages with the greatest effect (care around birth, care of small and ill newborn babies), have low and inequitable coverage and are the most sensitive markers of health system function. In eight of the 13 countries with the most neonatal deaths (55% worldwide), we undertook a systematic assessment of bottlenecks to essential maternal and newborn health care, involving more than 600 experts. Of 2465 bottlenecks identified, common constraints were found in all high-burden countries, notably regarding the health workforce, financing, and service delivery. However, bottlenecks for specific interventions might differ across similar health systems. For example, the implementation of kangaroo mother care was noted as challenging in the four Asian country workshops, but was regarded as a feasible aspect of preterm care by respondents in the four African countries. If all high-burden countries achieved the neonatal mortality rates of their region's fastest progressing countries, then the mortality goal of ten per 1000 livebirths by 2035 recommended in this Series and the Every Newborn Action Plan would be exceeded. We therefore examined fast progressing countries to identify strategies to reduce neonatal mortality. We identified several key factors: (1) workforce planning to increase numbers and upgrade specific skills for care at birth and of small and ill newborn babies, task sharing, incentives for rural health workers; (2) financial protection measures, such as expansion of health insurance, conditional cash transfers, and performance-based financing; and (3) dynamic leadership including innovation and community empowerment. Adapting from the 2005 Lancet Series on neonatal survival and drawing on this Every Newborn Series, we propose a country-led, data-driven process to sharpen national health plans, seize opportunities to address the quality gap for care at birth and care of small and ill newborn babies, and systematically scale up care to reach every mother and newborn baby, particularly the poorest.
    The Lancet 08/2014; · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The end of 2015 will signal the end of the Millennium Development Goal era, when the world can take stock of what has been achieved. The Countdown to 2015 for Maternal, Newborn, and Child Survival (Countdown) has focused its 2014 report on how much has been achieved in intervention coverage in these groups, and on how best to sustain, focus, and intensify efforts to progress for this and future generations. Our 2014 results show unfinished business in achievement of high, sustained, and equitable coverage of essential interventions. Progress has accelerated in the past decade in most Countdown countries, suggesting that further gains are possible with intensified actions. Some of the greatest coverage gaps are in family planning, interventions addressing newborn mortality, and case management of childhood diseases. Although inequities are pervasive, country successes in reaching of the poorest populations provide lessons for other countries to follow. As we transition to the next set of global goals, we must remember the centrality of data to accountability, and the importance of support of country capacity to collect and use high-quality data on intervention coverage and inequities for decision making. To fulfill the health agenda for women and children both now and beyond 2015 requires continued monitoring of country and global progress; Countdown is committed to playing its part in this effort.
    Lancet. 06/2014;
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    The Lancet 05/2014; · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Progress in newborn survival has been slow, and even more so for reductions in stillbirths. To meet Every Newborn targets of fewer than 12 neonatal deaths and fewer than 12 stillbirths per 1000 births in every country by 2030 will necessitate accelerated scale-up of the most effective care targeting major causes of newborn deaths. We have systematically reviewed interventions across the continuum of care and various delivery platforms, and then modelled the effect and cost of scale-up in the 75 high-burden Countdown countries. Closure of the quality gap through the provision of effective care for all women and newborn babies delivering in facilities could prevent an estimated 113 000 maternal deaths, 531 000 stillbirths, and 1·325 million neonatal deaths annually by 2020 at an estimated running cost of US$4·5 billion per year (US$0·9 per person). Increased coverage and quality of preconception, antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal interventions by 2025 could avert 71% of neonatal deaths (1·9 million [range 1·6–2·1 million]), 33% of stillbirths (0·82 million [0·60–0·93 million]), and 54% of maternal deaths (0·16 million [0·14–0·17 million]) per year. These reductions can be achieved at an annual incremental running cost of US$5·65 billion (US$1·15 per person), which amounts to US$1928 for each life saved, including stillbirths, neonatal, and maternal deaths. Most (82%) of this effect is attributable to facility-based care which, although more expensive than community-based strategies, improves the likelihood of survival. Most of the running costs are also for facility-based care (US$3·66 billion or 64%), even without the cost of new hospitals and country-specific capital inputs being factored in. The maximum effect on neonatal deaths is through interventions delivered during labour and birth, including for obstetric complications (41%), followed by care of small and ill newborn babies (30%). To meet the unmet need for family planning with modern contraceptives would be synergistic, and would contribute to around a halving of births and therefore deaths. Our analysis also indicates that available interventions can reduce the three most common cause of neonatal mortality—preterm, intrapartum, and infection-related deaths—by 58%, 79%, and 84%, respectively.
    The Lancet 05/2014; · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Progress towards MDG4 for child survival in South Africa requires effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV including increasing exclusive breastfeeding, as well as a new focus on reducing neonatal deaths. This necessitates increased focus on the pregnancy and early post-natal periods, developing and scaling up appropriate models of community-based care, especially to reach the peri-urban poor. We used a randomised controlled trial with 30 clusters (15 in each arm) to evaluate an integrated, scalable package providing two pregnancy visits and five post-natal home visits delivered by community health workers in Umlazi, Durban, South Africa. Primary outcomes were exclusive and appropriate infant feeding at 12 weeks post-natally and HIV-free infant survival. At 12 weeks of infant age, the intervention was effective in almost doubling the rate of exclusive breastfeeding (risk ratio 1.92; 95% CI: 1.59-2.33) and increasing infant weight and length-for-age z-scores (weight difference 0.09; 95% CI: 0.00-0.18, length difference 0.11; 95% CI: 0.03-0.19). No difference was seen between study arms in HIV-free survival. Women in the intervention arm were also more likely to take their infant to the clinic within the first week of life (risk ratio 1.10; 95% CI: 1.04-1.18). The trial coincided with national scale up of ARVs for PMTCT, and this could have diluted the effect of the intervention on HIV-free survival. We have demonstrated that implementation of a pro-poor integrated PMTCT and maternal, neonatal and child health home visiting model is feasible and effective. This trial could inform national primary healthcare reengineering strategies in favour of home visits. The dose effect on exclusive breastfeeding is notable as improving exclusive breastfeeding has been resistant to change in other studies targeting urban poor families.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 01/2014; · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nearly a decade ago, The Lancet published the Neonatal Survival Series, with an ambitious call for integration of newborn care across the continuum of reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health and nutrition (RMNCH). In this first of five papers in the Every Newborn Series, we consider what has changed during this decade, assessing progress on the basis of a systematic policy heuristic including agenda-setting, policy formulation and adoption, leadership and partnership, implementation, and evaluation of effect. Substantial progress has been made in agenda setting and policy formulation for newborn health, as witnessed by the shift from maternal and child health to maternal, newborn, and child health as a standard. However, investment and large-scale implementation have been disappointingly small, especially in view of the size of the burden and potential for rapid change and synergies throughout the RMNCH continuum. Moreover, stillbirths remain invisible on the global health agenda. Hence that progress in improvement of newborn survival and reduction of stillbirths lags behind that of maternal mortality and deaths for children aged 1–59 months is not surprising. Faster progress is possible, but with several requirements: clear communication of the interventions with the greatest effect and how to overcome bottlenecks for scale-up; national leadership, and technical capacity to integrate and implement these interventions; global coordination of partners, especially within countries, in provision of technical assistance and increased funding; increased domestic investment in newborn health, and access to specific commodities and equipment where needed; better data to monitor progress, with local data used for programme improvement; and accountability for results at all levels, including demand from communities and mortality targets in the post-2015 framework. Who will step up during the next decade to ensure decision making in countries leads to implementation of stillbirth and newborn health interventions within RMNCH programmes?
    Lancet. 01/2014;
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    Lancet. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Over 40% of all deaths among children under 5 are neonatal deaths (0-28 days), and this proportion is increasing. In 2012, 2.9 million newborns died, with 99% occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Many of the countries with the highest neonatal mortality rates globally are currently or have recently been affected by complex humanitarian emergencies. Despite the global burden of neonatal morbidity and mortality and risks inherent in complex emergency situations, research investments are not commensurate to burden and little is known about the epidemiology or best practices for neonatal survival in these settings.
    Conflict and Health 01/2014; 8:8.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Bacterial infections are a leading cause of the 2·9 million annual neonatal deaths. Treatment is usually based on clinical diagnosis of possible severe bacterial infection (pSBI). To guide programme planning, we have undertaken the first estimates of neonatal pSBI, by sex and by region, for sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia, and Latin America. Methods We included data for pSBI incidence in neonates of 32 weeks' gestation or more (or birthweight ≥1500 g) with livebirth denominator data, undertaking a systematic review and forming an investigator group to obtain unpublished data. We calculated pooled risk estimates for neonatal pSBI and case fatality risk, by sex and by region. We then applied these risk estimates to estimates of livebirths in sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia, and Latin America to estimate cases and associated deaths in 2012. Findings We included data from 22 studies, for 259 944 neonates and 20 196 pSBI cases, with most of the data (18 of the 22 studies) coming from the investigator group. The pooled estimate of pSBI incidence risk was 7·6% (95% CI 6·1–9·2%) and the case-fatality risk associated with pSBI was 9·8% (7·4–12·2). We estimated that in 2012 there were 6·9 million cases (uncertainty range 5·5 million–8·3 million) of pSBI in neonates needing treatment: 3·5 million (2·8 million–4·2 million) in south Asia, 2·6 million (2·1 million–3·1 million) in sub-Saharan Africa, and 0·8 million (0·7 million–1·0 million) in Latin America. The risk of pSBI was greater in boys (risk ratio 1·12, 95% CI 1·06–1·18) than girls. We estimated that there were 0·68 million (0·46 million–0·92 million) neonatal deaths associated with pSBI in 2012. Interpretation The need-to-treat population for pSBI in these three regions is high, with ten cases of pSBI diagnosed for each associated neonatal death. Deaths and disability can be reduced through improved prevention, detection, and case management. Funding The Wellcome Trust and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation through grants to Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) and Save the Children's Saving Newborn Lives programme.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this Series paper, we review trends since the 2005 Lancet Series on Neonatal Survival to inform acceleration of progress for newborn health post-2015. On the basis of multicountry analyses and multi-stakeholder consultations, we propose national targets for 2035 of no more than 10 stillbirths per 1000 total births, and no more than 10 neonatal deaths per 1000 livebirths, compatible with the under-5 mortality targets of no more than 20 per 1000 livebirths. We also give targets for 2030. Reduction of neonatal mortality has been slower than that for maternal and child (1–59 months) mortality, slowest in the highest burden countries, especially in Africa, and reduction is even slower for stillbirth rates. Birth is the time of highest risk, when more than 40% of maternal deaths (total about 290 000) and stillbirths or neonatal deaths (5·5 million) occur every year. These deaths happen rapidly, needing a rapid response by health-care workers. The 2·9 million annual neonatal deaths worldwide are attributable to three main causes: infections (0·6 million), intrapartum conditions (0·7 million), and preterm birth complications (1·0 million). Boys have a higher biological risk of neonatal death, but girls often have a higher social risk. Small size at birth—due to preterm birth or small-for-gestational-age (SGA), or both—is the biggest risk factor for more than 80% of neonatal deaths and increases risk of post-neonatal mortality, growth failure, and adult-onset non-communicable diseases. South Asia has the highest SGA rates and sub-Saharan Africa has the highest preterm birth rates. Babies who are term SGA low birthweight (10·4 million in these regions) are at risk of stunting and adult-onset metabolic conditions. 15 million preterm births, especially of those younger than 32 weeks' gestation, are at the highest risk of neonatal death, with ongoing post-neonatal mortality risk, and important risk of long-term neurodevelopmental impairment, stunting, and non-communicable conditions. 4 million neonates annually have other life-threatening or disabling conditions including intrapartum-related brain injury, severe bacterial infections, or pathological jaundice. Half of the world's newborn babies do not get a birth certificate, and most neonatal deaths and almost all stillbirths have no death certificate. To count deaths is crucial to change them. Failure to improve birth outcomes by 2035 will result in an estimated 116 million deaths, 99 million survivors with disability or lost development potential, and millions of adults at increased risk of non-communicable diseases after low birthweight. In the post-2015 era, improvements in child survival, development, and human capital depend on ensuring a healthy start for every newborn baby—the citizens and workforce of the future.
    Lancet. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Remarkable progress has been made towards halving of maternal deaths and deaths of children aged 1–59 months, although the task is incomplete. Newborn deaths and stillbirths were largely invisible in the Millennium Development Goals, and have continued to fall between maternal and child health efforts, with much slower reduction. This Series and the Every Newborn Action Plan outline mortality goals for newborn babies (fewer than ten per 1000 livebirths) and stillbirths (fewer than ten per 1000 total births) by 2035, aligning with A Promise Renewed target for children and the vision of Every Woman Every Child. To focus political attention and improve performance, goals for newborn babies and stillbirths must be recognised in the post-2015 framework, with corresponding accountability mechanisms. The four previous papers in this Every Newborn Series show the potential for a triple return on investment around the time of birth: averting maternal and newborn deaths and preventing stillbirths. Beyond survival, being counted and optimum nutrition and development is a human right for all children, including those with disabilities. Improved human capital brings economic productivity. Efforts to reach every woman and every newborn baby, close gaps in coverage, and improve equity and quality for antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal care, especially in the poorest countries and for underserved populations, need urgent attention. We have prioritised what needs to be done differently on the basis of learning from the past decade about what has worked, and what has not. Needed now are four most important shifts: (1) intensification of political attention and leadership; (2) promotion of parent voice, supporting women, families, and communities to speak up for their newborn babies and to challenge social norms that accept these deaths as inevitable; (3) investment for effect on mortality outcome as well as harmonisation of funding; (4) implementation at scale, with particular attention to increasing of health worker numbers and skills with attention to high-quality childbirth care for newborn babies as well as mothers and children; and (5) evaluation, tracking coverage of priority interventions and packages of care with clear accountability to accelerate progress and reach the poorest groups. The Every Newborn Action Plan provides an evidence-based roadmap towards care for every woman, and a healthy start for every newborn baby, with a right to be counted, survive, and thrive wherever they are born.
    Lancet. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Pulse oximetry, a non-invasive method for accurate assessment of blood oxygen saturation (SPO2), is an important monitoring tool in health care facilities. However, it is often not available in many low-resource settings, due to expense, overly sophisticated design, a lack of organised procurement systems and inadequate medical device management and maintenance structures. Furthermore medical devices are often fragile and not designed to withstand the conditions of low-resource settings. In order to design a probe, better suited to the needs of health care facilities in low-resource settings this study aimed to document the site and nature of pulse oximeter probe breakages in a range of different probe designs in a low to middle income country. A retrospective review of job cards relating to the assessment and repair of damaged or faulty pulse oximeter probes was conducted at a medical device repair company based in Cape Town, South Africa, specializing in pulse oximeter probe repairs. 1,840 job cards relating to the assessment and repair of pulse oximeter probes were reviewed. 60.2 % of probes sent for assessment were finger-clip probes. For all probes, excluding the neonatal wrap probes, the most common point of failure was the probe wiring (>50 %). The neonatal wrap most commonly failed at the strap (51.5 %). The total cost for quoting on the broken pulse oximeter probes and for the subsequent repair of devices, excluding replacement components, amounted to an estimated ZAR 738,810 (USD $98,508). Improving the probe wiring would increase the life span of pulse oximeter probes. Increasing the life span of probes will make pulse oximetry more affordable and accessible. This is of high priority in low-resource settings where frequent repair or replacement of probes is unaffordable or impossible.
    International Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Neonatal mortality and morbidity are increasingly recognized as important globally, but detailed estimates of neonatal morbidity from conditions and long-term consequences are yet to be published.Methods:We describe the general methods for systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and modeling used in this supplement, highlighting differences from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD2010) inputs and methods. For five conditions (preterm birth, retinopathy of prematurity, intrapartum-related conditions, neonatal infections, and neonatal jaundice), a standard three-step compartmental model was applied to estimate-by region, for 2010-the numbers of (i) affected births by sex, (ii) postneonatal survivors, and (iii) impaired postneonatal survivors. For conditions included in GBD2010 analyses (preterm birth and intrapartum-related conditions), impairment at all ages was estimated, and disability weights were applied to estimate years lived with disability (YLD) and summed with years of life lost (YLL) to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).Results:GBD2010 estimated neonatal conditions (preterm birth, intrapartum-related, neonatal sepsis, and "other neonatal") to be responsible for 202 million DALYs or 8.1% (7.3-9.0%) of the worldwide total. Mortality contributed 95% of the DALYs, and the estimated 26% reduction in neonatal condition DALYs since 1990 is primarily due to a 44% reduction in neonatal mortality rate due to these conditions, counterbalanced by increased numbers of babies born (17%). Impairment following neonatal conditions remained stable globally and is therefore relatively more important, especially in high- and middle-income countries. Crucial data gaps were identified.Conclusion:These results confirm neonatal conditions as a significant burden, reemphasizing the need to reduce deaths further, to count the linked 2.6 million stillbirths, and to better measure and address their long-term effects.
    Pediatric Research 12/2013; 74 Suppl 1:4-16. · 2.67 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
2,054.52 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • University of São Paulo
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2008–2014
    • London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • BRAC University
      Mujib City, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    • University of Leeds
      • Leeds Institute of Health Sciences (LIHS)
      Leeds, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of International Health
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2013
    • Centro Nacional De Investigaciones En Salud Materno Infantil (Cenismi)
      Santo Domingo Pueblo, New Mexico, United States
  • 2009–2013
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      • Department of International Health
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi
      • Department of Paediatrics and Child Health
      Kurrachee, Sindh, Pakistan
    • World Health Organization WHO
      Islāmābād, Islāmābād, Pakistan
  • 2005–2013
    • Save the Children
      Westport, Connecticut, United States
  • 2012
    • Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2011
    • Stellenbosch University
      • Department of Psychology
      Stellenbosch, Province of the Western Cape, South Africa
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of International Health
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2009–2011
    • University of Pretoria
      • Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
      Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa
  • 2004–2009
    • Institute for Child Health Policy (ICHP)
      Cape Coral, Florida, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Split-School of Medicine
      Spalato, Splitsko-Dalmatinska, Croatia
  • 2006
    • American University Washington D.C.
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2004–2005
    • Perinatal Institute
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003
    • University College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom