A M Gehman

University of Nebraska at Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, United States

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Publications (12)23.42 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the effects substituting soybean meal with a yeast-derived microbial protein (YMP) on rumen and blood metabolites, dry matter intake, and milk production of high-producing dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows (12multiparous and 4 primiparous), 93±37 DIM (mean ± SD) at the beginning of the experiment, were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with four 28-d periods. Cows were blocked by parity and production, with 1 square consisting of 4 animals fitted with rumen cannulas. Basal diets, formulated for 16.1% crude protein and 1.56Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, contained 40% corn silage, 20% alfalfa hay, and 40% concentrate mix. During each period, cows were fed 1 of 4 treatment diets corresponding to YMP (DEMP; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) concentrations of 0, 1.14, 2.28, and 3.41% DM. Soybean meal (44% CP) was replaced by YMP to attain isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets. Dietary treatments had no effect on pH and on most ruminal volatile fatty acid concentrations, with the exception of isovalerate, which decreased linearly with the addition of YMP. Rumen ammonia concentration decreased linearly, whereas free amino acids, total amino acid nitrogen, and soluble proteins weighing more than 10kDa showed a cubic response on rumen N fractionation. A quadratic response was observed in oligopeptides that weighed between 3 and 10kDa and peptides under 3kDa when expressed as percentages of total amino acids and total nitrogen. Although nonesterified fatty acid concentration in blood did not differ between treatments, β-hydroxybutyrate and plasma glucose increased linearly as YMP increased. Dry matter intake showed a cubic effect, where cows fed 1.14, and 3.41% YMP had the highest intake. Milk production was not affected by YMP, whereas a trend was observed for a quadratic increase for 4% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk. Medium- and long-chain fatty acid concentrations in milk increased quadratically, which elicited similar effects on milk fat concentration and yield. Total solids percentage and yield, and milk urea nitrogen also showed quadratic effects as YMP increased in the diet. No effects were observed on feed efficiency, milk protein, and lactose percentage or yield. A complementary in vitro study demonstrated a quadratic tendency for apparent and true dry matter digestibility as YMP was added to the diet. It was concluded that the substitution of soybean meal with YMP increased the percentage of total solids in milk and tended to improve energy-corrected and fat-corrected milk production in high-producing dairy cows consuming high-forage diets.
    Journal of Dairy Science 08/2012; 95(10):5888-900. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • The Canadian veterinary journal. La revue veterinaire canadienne 06/2011; 91(2):331-339. · 0.47 Impact Factor
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    A M Gehman, P J Kononoff
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of feeding a combination of modified wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) and wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) on nutrient digestion, purine derivative excretion, and N utilization. Multiparous (n=20) and primiparous (n=20) cows were arranged in a replicated 5 x 5 Latin square with 21-d periods. Animals were fed one of 5 treatment diets during each period: 1) 0% co-products (control); 2) 15% WDGS (15WDGS); 3) 15% WCGF (15WCGF); 4) 7.5% WDGS and 7.5% WCGF (15MIX); and 5) 15% WDGS and 15% WCGF (30MIX; dry matter basis). A portion of forages, corn, and soy-based protein was replaced with WDGS, or WCGF, or both. Dry matter intake was greater for 15WDGS (25.1 kg/d) and 30MIX (25.5 kg/d) than for control (22.4 kg/d), 15WCGF (23.2 kg/d), or 15MIX (23.5 kg/d). Dry matter digestibility was greatest for 15WCGF and 30MIX (63.6 and 64.1%, respectively) and least for 15WDGS (59.8%), and neutral detergent fiber and N digestibility were greatest for 30MIX (50.7 and 68.6%, respectively) and lowest for 15WDGS (41.3 and 61.5%, respectively). Excretion of purine derivatives in urine was greater for co-product treatment diets than for control. Fecal N was greatest for 15WDGS compared with other treatment diets (311.0 vs. 263.3 g/d), whereas urinary N was greatest for 30MIX (330.0 g/d), intermediate for 15WCGF and 15MIX (319.3 and 320.5 g/d, respectively), and lowest for control and 15WDGS (308.5 and 312.2 g/d, respectively). Manure N (fecal+urinary N) was greatest for 15WDGS, intermediate for 15MIX and 30MIX, and lowest for control and 15WCGF. Treatment diets did not differ in 4% fat-corrected milk production. Compared with the ration containing WDGS, the ration with a 30% mixture of WDGS and WCGF improved nutrient digestibility and N utilization with reduced manure N excretion and increased N retention. Thus, it appears feeding WDGS and WCGF in combination reduces some of the negative effects of feeding WDGS alone.
    Journal of Dairy Science 08/2010; 93(8):3641-51. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    A M Gehman, P J Kononoff
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of forage type on nutrient digestibility, purine derivative excretion, nitrogen utilization, and milk production in dairy cattle consuming rations containing high levels of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS). Primiparous (n=8) and multiparous (n=20) Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square. Animals were fed 1 of 4 treatments during each 21-d period: 1) CONT-CS, 0% WDGS and high corn silage; 2) CONT-AS, 0% WDGS and high alfalfa silage; 3) WDGS-CS, 25% WDGS and high corn silage; and 4) WDGS-AS, 25% WDGS and high alfalfa silage (dry matter basis). Intake and milk data were collected daily and averaged for d 15 to 21 of each period. Dry matter intake was lower for CONT-CS than for CONT-AS, WDGS-CS, and WDGS-AS (22.5, 24.6, 24.6, and 24.8 kg/d, respectively). Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and N were not affected by treatment, averaging 59.6, 62.3, 40.1, and 58.6%, respectively. Excretion of urinary purine derivatives was greatest for WDGS-AS, followed by WDGS-CS, and then CONT-CS and CONT-AS. Thus, by calculation, estimated microbial protein flow was highest for WDGS-AS (2,189.9 g/d) followed by WDGS-CS (1,996.2 g/d), CONT-AS (1,640.0 g/d), and CONT-CS (1,627.0 g/d). Mass of fecal N was not different among treatments (averaging 287.1+/-14.8 g/d), but urinary and manure N were reduced for rations with WDGS compared with those not including WDGS. Observed 4% fat-corrected milk was greatest for WDGS-AS, followed by WDGS-CS, and then CONT-CS and CONT-AS (30.7, 29.7, 28.3, and 27.2 kg/d, respectively). Milk protein yield was greatest for WDGS-AS (1.00 kg/d), followed by WDGS-CS, and then CONT-AS and CONT-CS (0.96, 0.91, 0.86 kg/d, respectively). This research demonstrated that rations can be balanced for dairy cattle to include up to 25% WDGS and result in increased microbial protein synthesis, milk production, and milk protein yield.
    Journal of Dairy Science 07/2010; 93(7):3166-75. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding 3 corn-milling coproducts on intake, milk production, ruminal fermentation, and digestibility of lactating Holstein cows. In experiment 1, three corn-milling coproducts were fed at 15% of the diet dry matter (DM) to 28 Holstein cows averaging (+/-SD) 625 +/- 81 kg of body weight and 116 +/- 33 d in milk to determine effects on DM intake and milk production. In experiment 2, the same rations were fed to 4 ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows averaging 677 +/- 41 kg of body weight and 144 +/- 5 d in milk to determine the effects on ruminal fermentation and digestibility. In both experiments, cows and treatments were assigned randomly in 4 x 4 Latin squares over four 21-d periods. Treatments were formulated by replacing portions of forage and concentrate feeds with 15% coproduct and included 1) 0% coproduct (control), 2) dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS), 3) dehydrated corn germ meal (germ), and 4) high-protein dried distillers grains (HPDDG). Feed intake was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected on d 19 to 21 of each period for analysis of major components. Rumen fluid was collected at 10 time points over 24 h post feeding on d 21 of experiment 2. In experiment 1, DM intake was greater for the germ (24.3 kg/d) and DDGS treatments (23.8 kg/d), but DDGS was not different from the control (22.9 kg/d) and HPDDG treatments (22.4 kg/d). Milk production paralleled DM intake and tended to be greater for the germ (32.1 kg/d) and DDGS treatments (30.9 kg/d), but the DDGS treatment was not different from the control (30.6 kg/d) and HPDDG treatments (30.3 kg/d). However, yields of milk fat, milk protein, and 3.5% FCM were similar and averaged (+/-SEM) 1.1 +/- 0.1, 0.9 +/- 0.03, and 31.7 +/- 1.3 kg/d. Milk urea nitrogen was greater for the HPDDG (15.9 mg/dL) and germ treatments (15.5 mg/dL) than for the control (15.0 mg/dL) and DDGS treatments (14.9 mg/dL). In experiment 2, DM intake and milk production were not different across treatments and averaged 26.1 +/- 2.3 and 28.3 +/- 3.9 kg/d. Ruminal pH (6.26 +/- 0.08) and total concentration of volatile fatty acids (125.3 +/- 4.2 mM) were similar. Acetate concentration was higher for the control treatment than the DDGS, germ, and HPDDG treatments (81.7 vs. 75.8, 75.0, and 78.4 mM). Concentrations of propionate and butyrate were not different and averaged 27.8 +/- 1.2 and 14.3 +/- 0.9 mM across treatments. The acetate:propionate ratios for the control, germ, and HPDDG treatments were greater than for the DDGS treatment (3.02, 2.88, and 2.91 vs. 2.62). Dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities were similar across treatments and averaged 63.5 +/- 2.7, 67.3 +/- 2.2, and 43.5 +/- 4.2%. Milk production followed DM intake in experiment 1, and yield of major milk components was not affected. Results of these experiments indicate that dairy rations can be successfully formulated to include 15% of diet DM as corn-milling coproducts while maintaining or increasing DM intakes and yields of milk and milk components.
    Journal of Dairy Science 10/2009; 92(10):5120-32. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feeding high-protein distillers dried grains (HPDDG) on rumen degradability, dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows (12 multiparous and 4 primiparous) averaging 80 +/- 14 d in milk were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments in a 2 x 2 crossover design. A portion of forage and all soy-based protein in the control diet were replaced by HPDDG (20% dry matter). Milk production and dry matter intake were recorded daily and averaged for d 19 to 21 of each 21-d period. Milk samples were collected on d 20 to 21 of each period. Milk yield increased with the inclusion of HPDDG (33.4 vs. 31.6 +/- 2.13 kg/d), and 3.5% FCM was higher for the ration containing HPDDG (36.3 vs. 33.1 +/- 2.24 kg/d). Percentage protein was not affected by treatment (average 3.04 +/- 0.08%), but protein yield increased with inclusion of HPDDG (0.95 to 1.00 +/- 0.05 kg/d). Milk fat concentration was not different between treatments (average 3.95 +/- 0.20%), but fat yield increased for the ration containing HPDDG (1.35 vs. 1.21 +/- 0.09 kg/d). Dry matter intake was not affected and averaged 21.9 +/- 0.80 kg across treatments. Because of greater milk production, feed conversion was improved by the inclusion of HPDDG (1.47 to 1.73 +/- 0.09). Milk urea N was greater for the HPDDG ration than the control (14.5 vs. 12.8 +/- 0.67 mg/dL). This research suggests that HPDDG may effectively replace soy-based protein in lactating dairy cow diets.
    Journal of Dairy Science 07/2009; 92(6):2911-4. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two studies were performed to evaluate the effects of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on the lactational performance of dairy cows. The intent of experiment 1 was to evaluate the effects of feeding increasing concentrations of DDGS on the feed intake and production of Holstein dairy cows. Twenty multiparous Holstein cows averaging 76 +/- 24 d in milk and 638 +/- 68 kg of body weight were randomly assigned to one of five 4 x 4 Latin squares. During each of the 28-d periods, cows were offered 1 of 4 diets: 1) control, 0% DDGS, 2) 10% DDGS, 3) 20% DDGS, or 4) 30% DDGS. For the treatment diets, DDGS replaced a portion of both forages and concentrates. Dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing concentrations of DDGS (21.4, 22.4, 23.0, and 24.0 +/- 0.98 kg/d). Similarly, milk production increased linearly (27.4, 28.5, 29.3, and 30.6 +/- 1.44 kg/d). The intent of experiment 2 was to evaluate the effect of feeding DDGS on feed intake, milk production, and excretion of urinary purine derivatives (PD). Excretion of PD was used to estimate the effects on rumen microbial crude protein production. Twenty-one multiparous and 13 primiparous Holstein cows, averaging 178 +/- 36 d in milk and 651 +/- 65 kg of body weight were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 diets in a 3-period crossover design. Cows were offered 1 of 2 rations during each 21-d period. Dietary treatments were either a control (0% DDGS) or 30% dietary dry matter of DDGS. Dry matter intake increased when feeding DDGS (22.8 vs. 24.1 +/- 0.74 kg/d for 0 and 30% DDGS, respectively) but milk production, percentages of milk fat and protein, and the ratio of PD to creatinine were not significantly different between the control and DDGS diets. Results of this study suggest a dairy ration may be formulated to contain as much as 30% of dietary dry matter as DDGS.
    Journal of Dairy Science 10/2008; 91(9):3544-53. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty midlactation Holstein cows (4 ruminally fistulated) averaging 101 +/- 34 d in milk and weighing 674 +/- 77 kg were used to compare rations with brown midrib corn silage (bm3) to rations with dual-purpose control silage (DP) on N utilization and milk production. The effect of monensin in these rations was also examined. Animals were assigned to one of five 4 x 4 Latin squares with treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial. Cows were fed 1 of 4 treatments during each of the four 28-d periods. Treatments were 1) 0 mg/d monensin and bm3 corn silage, 2) 0 mg/d monensin and DP corn silage, 3) 300 mg/d monensin and bm3 corn silage, and 4) 300 mg/d monensin and DP corn silage. In vitro 30-h neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility was greater for bm3 corn silage (61.0 vs. 49.1 +/- 0.62). Dry matter intake (DMI) tended to be greater for cows consuming bm3 corn silage (21.3 vs. 20.2 kg/d). Neither hybrid nor monensin affected milk production, fat, or protein (37.7 kg, 3.60%, or 3.04%). Monensin tended to increase rumen pH (5.89 vs. 5.79 +/- 0.07) compared with the control treatment. In addition, bm3 corn silage resulted in a significant decrease in rumen pH (5.72 vs. 5.98 +/- 0.07). Supplementing monensin had no effect on molar proportions of acetate, propionate, or butyrate. In contrast, an increase was observed in branched-chain volatile fatty acids. No treatment interactions were observed for rumen pH or molar proportion of propionate but monensin decreased the molar proportion of acetate and increased the molar proportion of butyrate when cattle consumed bm3 silage. Dry matter, N, and acid detergent fiber digestibility were lower for the bm3 ration, whereas NDF digestibility was not different between treatments. There was no effect of hybrid on microbial protein synthesis (1,140 g/d) as estimated by urinary concentration of purine derivatives. Cows consuming bm3 excreted more fecal N than cows consuming DP (38.2 vs. 34.4% N intake); however, based on spot sampling, estimated urinary and manure N were not different between treatments (35.8 and 71.9% N intake). Monensin had no effect on DMI, digestibility of any nutrients, or N metabolism, and there were no hybrid by monensin interactions. Rations including bm3 corn silage tended to increase DMI but did not affect production. The reduction in the digestibility of some nutrients when cows consumed bm3 may have been caused by increased DMI and possible increased digestion in the lower gut. This increase in DMI appeared to also have negatively affected N digestibility but not NDF digestibility. This resulted in a greater amount of N excreted in feces but did not affect total mass of manure N.
    Journal of Dairy Science 02/2008; 91(1):288-300. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thirty-nine lactating Holstein cows (23 multiparous and 16 primiparous) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments in a crossover design. Dietary treatments differed by the proportion of corn bran [10, 17.5, and 25% dry matter (DM); designated as low, medium, and high] replacing corn silage and alfalfa. The corn bran coproduct contained 8.2% moisture and 12.9% crude protein, 30.4% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 45.0% nonfiber carbohydrate, 9.9% ether extract, and 0.70% P (DM basis). The low treatment consisted of 15.8% NDF from forage (fNDF) and 33.1% total NDF; the medium treatment consisted of 12.9% fNDF and 32.5% total NDF; and the high diet contained 9.9% fNDF and 31.8% total NDF. Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. The percent milk fat decreased by 0.26% with the inclusion of corn bran from 10 to 25% of the diet DM, but total milk fat yield was not affected. In comparison, corn bran increased yield of milk protein 0.12 kg/d when bran increased from 10 to 25% of the diet DM. Total milk yield tended to increase when bran increased from 10 to 25% of the diet DM, but no differences were observed on 3.5% fat-corrected milk. Lastly, feed conversion significantly improved with increasing inclusion: 1.39, 1.39, and 1.55 +/- 0.05 kg of milk/kg of DMI for low, medium, and high, respectively. Observed effects were likely due to the increase in energy intake associated with increasing levels of corn bran.
    Journal of Dairy Science 10/2007; 90(9):4313-6. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine if feeding carbohydrate supplements with faster degradation rates than corn to dairy cows grazing ryegrass would improve nitrogen capture, milk production, and components. Treatments were grain supplements based on: 1) corn (CORN), 2) barley and molasses (BM), or 3) citrus pulp and molasses (CM). For BM and CM, the diet composition was the same as that of CORN except that a portion of the corn was replaced with barley and molasses or citrus pulp and molasses, respectively, on a dry matter basis. Cows grazed ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pasture. Yield of milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, and milk fat, as well as milk fat percentage, were not different among treatments. True milk protein percentage was higher for CORN (2.81%) compared with CM (2.70%), but was not different for BM (2.77%). However, true milk protein yield was not different among treatments. Milk urea N was higher for BM (11.43 mg/dL) compared with both CORN and CM (average: 9.95 mg/dL). There were no differences among CORN, BM, and CM treatments for overall BUN (average: 10.60 mg/dL). At 0400 h, however, cows on CORN had higher BUN than cows on CM (11.43 vs. 9.96 mg/dL), but there were no differences between CORN and BM (average: 11.21 mg/dL) or BM and CM (average: 10.48 mg/dL), and there were no differences among treatments at other time points. The CM diet might have shown more advantage if the pasture crude protein content was higher. Partial replacement of corn with citrus pulp for grazing cows should be further studied using pasture with higher crude protein content. Although cows receiving CM and BM did not produce more milk than cows on CORN, if barley or citrus pulp is less expensive than corn, they may be viable replacements for a portion of the corn supplement for grazing cows.
    Journal of Dairy Science 08/2006; 89(7):2659-67. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    Amanda M. Gehman
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    ABSTRACT: Thesis (M.S.)--Clemson University, 2005.
    01/2006;
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