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Publications (4)24.86 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), an increasingly recognized, immune-mediated form of chronic pancreatitis. Current treatment options are limited and disease relapse is frequent. We investigated factors that contribute to the development of AIP and new therapeutic strategies. We used quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemical, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent analyses to measure the expression of cytokines and chemokines in tissue and serum samples from patients with and without AIP. We created a mouse model of human AIP by overexpressing lymphotoxin (LT)α and β specifically in acinar cells (Ela1-LTab mice). Messenger RNA levels of LTα and β were increased in pancreatic tissues from patients with AIP, compared with controls, and expression of chemokines (CXCL13, CCL19, CCL21, CCL1, and B-cell-activating factor) was increased in pancreatic and serum samples from patients. Up-regulation of these factors was not affected by corticosteroid treatment. Acinar-specific overexpression of LTαβ (Ela1-LTαβ) in mice led to an autoimmune disorder with various features of AIP. Chronic inflammation developed only in the pancreas but was sufficient to cause systemic autoimmunity. Acinar-specific overexpression of LTαβ did not cause autoimmunity in mice without lymphocytes (Ela1-LTab/Rag1(-/-)); moreover, lack of proinflammatory monocytes (Ela1-LTab/Ccr2(-/-)) failed to prevent AIP but prevented early pancreatic tissue damage. Administration of corticosteroids reduced pancreatitis but did not affect production of autoantibodies, such as antipancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in Ela1-LTab mice. In contrast, inhibition of LTβR signaling reduced chemokine expression, renal immune-complex deposition, and features of AIP in Ela1-LTab mice. Overexpression of LTαβ specifically in acinar cells of mice causes features of AIP. Reagents that neutralize LTβR ligands might be used to treat patients with AIP.
    Gastroenterology 08/2012; 143(5):1361-74. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The level of pancreatic stone protein/regenerating protein (PSP/reg), a secretory protein produced in the pancreas, increases dramatically during pancreatic disease. However, after stress (e.g., anesthesia), PSP/reg levels are increased transiently in animals without pancreatic injury. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether PSP/reg is an acute-phase protein after nonpancreatic trauma. Eighty-three polytraumatic patients without pancreatic damage. We compared serum PSP/reg levels from polytraumatic patients without pancreatic damage with those in healthy controls (n = 38). C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, procalcitonin, and leukocyte numbers were also compared. The expression of CD62L and CD11b on neutrophils after exposure to PSP/reg was analyzed by flow cytometry. Thirty-three patients (39%) developed sepsis, 32 (38%) had local infections, and 18 (21%) had no infections. At admission, PSP/reg serum levels (10.2 [6.2-14.5] ng/mL; median [interquartile range]) were comparable with those in healthy controls (10.4 [7.5-12.3] ng/mL). During hospital stay, PSP/reg levels were elevated significantly in patients with sepsis (146.4 ng/mL) and in patients with infections (111.4 ng/mL) compared with patients without infections (22.8 ng/mL). Furthermore, binding of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled recombinant PSP/reg to human neutrophils was demonstrated. Recombinant PSP/reg elicited a dose-dependent shedding of L-selectin (CD62L) and upregulation of beta2-integrin (CD11b) in neutrophils, which indicates that PSP/reg activates neutrophils. We conclude that PSP/reg is up-regulated in blood after trauma, and the PSP/reg level is related to the severity of inflammation. Furthermore, PSP/reg binds to and activates neutrophils. Therefore, PSP/reg might be an acute-phase protein that could serve as a marker for posttraumatic complications.
    Critical care medicine 04/2009; 37(5):1642-8. · 6.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is increased in human chronic pancreatitis. We recently demonstrated in a model of chronic pancreatitis (WBN/Kob rat) that inhibition of COX-2 activity reduces and delays pancreatic inflammation and fibrosis. Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 mRNA and PGE(2) were significantly reduced, correlating with a decreased infiltration of macrophages. MCP-1 plays an important role in the recruitment of macrophages to the site of tissue injury. The aim of our study is to identify mechanisms by which macrophages and acinar cells maintain an inflammatory reaction. The expression profile of E prostanoid receptors EP(1-4) and MCP-1 was analyzed by RT-PCR from pancreatic specimens and AR42J cells. MCP-1 secretion was detected by ELISA from rat pancreatic lobuli. We determined EP(1-4) mRNA levels in WBN/Kob rats with chronic pancreatic inflammation. Individual isoforms were highly increased in rat pancreas, concurrent with MCP-1 mRNA expression. In supernatants of pancreatic lobuli and AR42J cells, MCP-1 was detectable by ELISA. In the presence of TNF-alpha, MCP-1 was upregulated. Coincubation with PGE(2) enhanced the TNF-alpha-induced MCP-1 synthesis significantly. Similarly, TNF-alpha mRNA was synergistically upregulated by TNF-alpha and PGE(2). Furthermore, the synergistic effect of TNF-alpha and PGE(2) was abolished by inhibition of PKA but not of PKC. We conclude that EP receptors are upregulated during chronic pancreatic inflammation. PGE(2) modulates the TNF-alpha-induced MCP-1 synthesis and secretion from acinar cells. This synergistic effect is controlled by PKA. This mechanism might explain the COX-2-dependent propagation of pancreatic inflammation.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 01/2008; 293(6):G1196-204. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Regenerating protein (reg) and pancreatic stone protein (PSP) have been discovered independently in the fields of diabetes and pancreatitis. These proteins are identical; however, because of the gap between the endocrine and exocrine field, there was never a consensus and the nomenclature has not been rectified. Since the time of the initial discovery, more isoforms have been unified. Historically, PSP was discovered long before reg, yet, in many areas outside of the pancreatitis research field, reg is being used. For PSP/reg, a role in proliferation and regeneration of islet cells has been postulated. A hitherto insufficiently understood phenomenon is the massive up-regulation of PSP/reg in pancreatic tissue and juice under conditions of stress. Similarly, PAP (pancreatitis-associated protein)/reg III has been attributed various functional roles. Structurally, the ability to form fibrils after tryptic cleavage is a striking common features of both proteins. However, this biochemical transformation is in itself not enough to gain functional insight. Thus, physiological and genetic approaches are required to further characterize the role of these proteins in the pancreas. Recently, more evidence has been presented in support of the theory that PSP/reg plays a key role in islet neogenesis/regeneration. In this review we discuss the debate on the localization and functional roles of PSP/reg and PAP/regIII. Therefore, we have summarized hypotheses and experimental results supporting such hypotheses.
    Journal of Surgical Research 07/2006; 133(2):113-20. · 2.02 Impact Factor