Sandra L Decker

Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States

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Publications (15)102.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Although it has been shown that gaining Medicare coverage at age 65 years increases health service use among the uninsured, difficulty in changing habits or differences in the characteristics of previously uninsured compared with insured individuals may mean that the previously uninsured continue to use the healthcare system differently from others. This study uses Medicare claims data linked to two different surveys--the National Health Interview Survey and the Health and Retirement Study--to describe the relationship between insurance status before age 65 years and the use of Medicare-covered services beginning at age 65 years. Although we do not find statistically significant differences in Medicare expenditures or in the number of hospitalizations by previous insurance status, we do find that individuals who were uninsured before age 65 years continue to use the healthcare system differently from those who were privately insured. Specifically, they have 16% fewer visits to office-based physicians but make 18% and 43% more visits to hospital emergency and outpatient departments, respectively. A key question for the future may be why the previously uninsured seem to continue to use the healthcare system differently from the previously insured. This question may be important to consider as health coverage expansions are implemented.
    Health Economics 10/2012; 21(10):1155-68. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    Sandra L Decker
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    ABSTRACT: When fully implemented, the Affordable Care Act will expand the number of people with health insurance. This raises questions about the capacity of the health care workforce to meet increased demand. I used data on office-based physicians from the 2011 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey Electronic Medical Records Supplement to summarize the percentage of physicians currently accepting any new patients. Although 96 percent of physicians accepted new patients in 2011, rates varied by payment source: 31 percent of physicians were unwilling to accept any new Medicaid patients; 17 percent would not accept new Medicare patients; and 18 percent of physicians would not accept new privately insured patients. Physicians in smaller practices and those in metropolitan areas were less likely than others to accept new Medicaid patients. Higher state Medicaid-to-Medicare fee ratios were correlated with greater acceptance of new Medicaid patients. The findings serve as a useful baseline from which to measure the anticipated impact of Affordable Care Act provisions that could boost Medicaid payment rates to primary care physicians in some states while increasing the number of people with health care coverage.
    Health Affairs 08/2012; 31(8):1673-9. · 4.64 Impact Factor
  • Sandra L Decker, Eric W Jamoom, Jane E Sisk
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    ABSTRACT: By 2011 more than half of all office-based physicians were using electronic health record systems, but only about one-third of those physicians had systems with basic features such as the abilities to record information on patient demographics, view laboratory and imaging results, maintain problem lists, compile clinical notes, or manage computerized prescription ordering. Basic features are considered important to realize the potential of these systems to improve health care. We found that although trends in adoption of electronic health record systems across geographic regions converged from 2002 through 2011, adoption continued to lag for non-primary care specialists, physicians age fifty-five and older, and physicians in small (1-2 providers) and physician-owned practices. Federal policies are specifically aimed at encouraging primary care providers and small practices to achieve widespread use of electronic health records. To achieve their nationwide adoption, federal policies may also have to focus on encouraging adoption among non-primary care specialists, as well as addressing persistent gaps in the use of electronic record systems by practice size, physician age, and ownership status.
    Health Affairs 04/2012; 31(5):1108-14. · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As more physicians adopt electronic health record systems in their practices, policy interest is focusing on whether physicians are ready to meet the federal "meaningful use" criteria--a vital threshold to qualify for financial incentives. In our analysis of a 2011 nationally representative survey of office-based physicians, we found that 91 percent of physicians were eligible for Medicare or Medicaid meaningful-use incentives. About half of all physicians intended to apply. However, only 11 percent both intended to apply for the incentives and had electronic health record systems with the capabilities to support even two-thirds of the stage 1 core objectives required for meaningful use. Although the federal Medicare incentives will be available through 2016, and Medicaid incentives through 2021, widespread gaps in readiness throughout the states illustrate the challenges physicians face in meeting the federal schedule for the incentive programs.
    Health Affairs 04/2012; 31(5):1100-7. · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article aims to describe potential racial differences in dementia care among nursing home residents with dementia. Using data from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS) in regression models, the authors examine whether non-Whites are less likely than Whites to receive special dementia care--defined as receiving special dementia care services or being in a dementia special care unit (SCU)--and whether this difference derives from differences in resident or facility characteristics. The authors find that non-Whites are 4.3 percentage points less likely than Whites to receive special dementia care. The fact that non-Whites are more likely to rely on Medicaid and less likely to pay out of pocket for nursing home care explains part but not all of the difference. Most of the difference is due to the fact that non-Whites reside in facilities that are less likely to have special dementia care services or dementia care units, particularly for-profit facilities and those in the South.
    Journal of Aging and Health 03/2012; 24(4):711-31. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Racial and ethnic differences in emergency department (ED) waiting times have been observed previously. We explored how adjusting for ED attributes, particularly visit volume, affected racial/ethnic differences in waiting time. We constructed linear models using generalized estimating equations with 2007-2008 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data. We analyzed data from 54,819 visits to 431 US EDs. Our dependent variable was waiting time, measured from arrival to time seen by physician, and was log transformed because it was skewed. Primary independent variables were individual race/ethnicity (Hispanic and non-Hispanic white, black, other) and ED race/ethnicity composition (covariates for percentages of Hispanics, blacks, and others). Covariates included patient age, triage assessment, arrival by ambulance, payment source, volume, region, and teaching hospital. Geometric mean waiting times were 27.3, 37.7, and 32.7 minutes for visits by white, black, and Hispanic patients. Patients waited significantly longer at EDs serving higher percentages of black patients; per 25 point increase in percent black patients served, waiting times increased by 23% (unadjusted) and 13% (adjusted). Within EDs, black patients waited 9% (unadjusted) and 4% (adjusted) longer than whites. The ED attribute most strongly associated with waiting times was visit volume. Waiting times were about half as long at low-volume compared with high-volume EDs (P<0.001). For Hispanic patients, differences were smaller and less robust to model choice. Non-Hispanic black patients wait longer for ED care than whites primarily because of where they receive that care. ED volume may explain some across-ED differences.
    Medical care 01/2012; 50(4):335-41. · 3.24 Impact Factor
  • JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 09/2011; 306(11):1202-3; author reply 1203. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    Melissa Park, Donald Cherry, Sandra L Decker
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    ABSTRACT: The expansion of health insurance coverage through health care reform, along with the aging of the population, are expected to strain the capacity for providing health care. Projections of the future physician workforce predict declines in the supply of physicians and decreasing physician work hours for primary care. An expansion of care delivered by nurse practitioners (NPs), certified nurse midwives (CNMs), and physician assistants (PAs) is often cited as a solution to the predicted surge in demand for health care services and calls for an examination of current reliance on these providers. Using a nationally based physician survey, we have described the employment of NPs, CNMs, and PAs among office-based physicians by selected physician and practice characteristics.
    NCHS data brief 08/2011;
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    Sandra L Decker
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    ABSTRACT: Although Medicaid removes most financial barriers to receipt of dental care among children and adolescents, Medicaid recipients may not be able to access dental care if dentists decline to participate in Medicaid because of low payment levels or other reasons. To describe the association between state Medicaid dental fees in 2 years (2000 and 2008) and children's receipt of dental care. Data on Medicaid dental fees in 2000 and 2008 for 42 states plus the District of Columbia were merged with data from 33,657 children and adolescents (aged 2-17 years) in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for the years 2000-2001 and 2008-2009. Logit models were used to estimate the probability that children and adolescents had seen a dentist in the past 6 months as a function of the Medicaid prophylaxis fee and control variables including age group, race, poverty status, and state and year effects. The effect of fees on children with Medicaid relative to a control group, privately insured counterparts, served to separate Medicaid's effect on access to care from any correlation between the Medicaid fee or changes in fees by state and other attributes of states. Whether a child or adolescent had seen a dentist in the past 6 months. On average, Medicaid dental payment levels did not change significantly in inflation-adjusted terms between 2000 and 2008, although a difference existed for some states, including in 5 states plus the District of Columbia, where payments increased at least 50%. In 2008-2009, more children and adolescents covered by Medicaid (55%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 53%-57%) had seen a dentist in the past 6 months than did uninsured children (27%, 95% CI, 24%-30%), but fewer than children covered by private insurance (68%, 95% CI, 67%-70%). Changes in state Medicaid dental payment fees between 2000 and 2008 were positively associated with use of dental care among children and adolescents covered by Medicaid. For example, a $10 increase in the Medicaid prophylaxis payment level (from $20 to $30) was associated with a 3.92 percentage point (95% CI, 0.54-7.50) increase in the chance that a child or adolescent covered by Medicaid had seen a dentist. Higher Medicaid payment levels to dentists were associated with higher rates of receipt of dental care among children and adolescents.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 07/2011; 306(2):187-93. · 29.98 Impact Factor
  • Donald Cherry, Christine Lucas, Sandra L Decker
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    ABSTRACT: KEY FINDINGS: From 1998 to 2008, the proportion of physician office-based visits in the United States became increasingly concentrated on those aged 45 and over. The intensity of physician office visits, as measured by medications prescribed or continued, imaging tests ordered or provided, and time spent with physicians, also became increasingly concentrated on those aged 45 and over. Although most physicians accept Medicare patients, acceptance of Medicare was higher among ophthalmologists and general surgeons than among general or family practitioners, internists, and psychiatrists. Over the past 30 years, the specialty concentration of visits has shifted significantly. In 1978, 62 percent of visits by patients aged 65 and over were to primary care physicians compared with 45 percent in 2008. The percentage of visits to physicians with a medical or surgical specialty increased from 37 percent to 55 percent.
    NCHS data brief 08/2010;
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    Daniel Polsky, Sandra L Decker
    Annals of internal medicine 04/2010; 152(7):476-7; author reply 477. · 13.98 Impact Factor
  • Sandra L Decker, Susan M Schappert, Jane E Sisk
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    ABSTRACT: We used nationally representative data from the National Center for Health Statistics to compare 1995-96 and 2005-06 ambulatory care visit and 1996 and 2006 hospital discharge rates for adults for eight major chronic conditions. For the eight conditions combined, ambulatory care visit rates rose 21 percent, while hospital discharge rates fell 9 percent. Discharge rates fell for heart disease, cancer, and cerebrovascular disease. Ambulatory care visit rates rose at least 30 percent for arthritis, hypertension, diabetes, and depression. Medicaid recipients and black adults obtain more of their ambulatory care in hospital emergency and outpatient departments and less in physician offices than others do.
    Health Affairs 01/2009; 28(1):26-35. · 4.64 Impact Factor
  • Sandra L Decker
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    ABSTRACT: Controlling for state fixed effects and other factors, this paper estimates the effect of the generosity of Medicaid physician payment levels on the volume and site of ambulatory care received by Medicaid patients compared to privately insured patients. Results indicate that cuts in Medicaid physician fees lead to statistically significant reductions in the number of visits for Medicaid patients compared to privately insured patients. Cuts in fees also lead to a statistically significant shift away from physician offices and toward hospital emergency departments and especially outpatient departments. Primary diagnoses for which site of care shifts are most pronounced include hypertension, asthma, urinary tract infections, and diabetes.
    Inquiry: a journal of medical care organization, provision and financing 01/2009; 46(3):291-304. · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    Sandra L Decker, Irene J Higginson
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    ABSTRACT: Most American and English cancer patients prefer to die at home. Factors associated with greater likelihood of dying at home have been contradictory in many studies and no studies have compared the effects of factors in different countries. The objective of this paper is to compare the factors affecting place of cancer death in two major cities, New York and London. We use data on all individuals aged >/=40 dying of cancer in London (59 604) and New York City (51 668) in the years 1995 through 1998. The probability of death at home is examined in each city as a function of gender, age group (40-55, 56-64, 65-74, 75+), year, type of cancer, and area socioeconomic status, using multiple logistic regression. Although the probability of death at home is the same in the two cities (approximately 1 in 5), being female lowers the odds of death at home by approximately 7% in London, and raises it by approximately 22% in New York. Older age is associated with increased odds of dying at home in New York but decreased odds of dying at home in London. Being in the lowest tercile of socioeconomic status (relative to the highest) lowers the odds of death at home by 22% in London and 39% in New York. Site of death varies significantly by patient and area characteristics in both cities, an understanding, which should be taken account of in future planning of end-of-life care.
    The European Journal of Public Health 07/2007; 17(3):285-90. · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • Sandra L Decker, Catharine W Burt, Jane E Sisk
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    ABSTRACT: Using data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, logit models tested for trends in the probability that visits by adult diabetes patients to their primary care providers included recommended treatment measures, such as a prescription for an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or an angiotensin-II receptor blocker (ARB), blood pressure measurement, and diet/nutrition or exercise counseling. Results indicated that the probability that visits included prescription of an ACE or ARB and blood pressure measurement increased significantly over the 1997-2005 period, while the probability that visits documented provision of exercise counseling rose since 2001.
    The Journal of ambulatory care management 32(4):333-41.

Publication Stats

101 Citations
102.88 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • Emory University
      • Department of Emergency Medicine
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • • Division of Health Care Statistics
      • • National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
      • • National Center for Health Statistics
      Atlanta, MI, United States