Alba Gómez-Cabello

Centro Universitario de la Defensa, Caesaraugusta, Aragon, Spain

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Publications (42)92.05 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to provide information about the relationship of bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) with some physical-fitness-related variables in a sample of women with fibromyalgia (FM) and age-matched women without FM. Twenty-eight women clinically diagnosed with FM (age 51.1 ± 8.4 yr, M ± SD) and 22 age-matched controls participated in the study. Whole-body BMC and BMD, lean mass, handgrip strength, quadriceps strength, and cardiovascular fitness were measured in all participants. The association between physical-fitness variables and bone-related variables was tested by linear regression controlling for body weight as a possible confounder. There were no differences in BMC or BMD between groups. Women with FM had lower values of handgrip strength, quadriceps strength, and VO2peak than the control group. Handgrip strength and aerobic capacity were associated with BMC and BMD and quadriceps strength was associated with BMD in women with FM; however, only VO2peak was associated with BMC in the group of women without FM. Bone mass of women with FM may be more susceptible to changes in physical fitness than that of the women without fibromyalgia.
    Adapted physical activity quarterly: APAQ 04/2015; 32(2):125-136. DOI:10.1123/APAQ.2014-0193 · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte 03/2015; 8(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ramd.2014.10.030
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    Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte 03/2015; 8(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ramd.2014.10.029
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    Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte 03/2015; 8(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ramd.2014.10.037
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse whether there are differences in bone mass in girls playing different sports. Two hundred girls (10.6 ± 1.5 years old, Tanner stages I-III) participated in the study and were divided into groups of 40 (swimmers, soccer players, basketball players, handball players and controls). Bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) (whole body and hip) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The degree of sexual development was determined using Tanner test, and physical activity habits were recorded through a questionnaire designed ad hoc for this research. Girls were divided by pubertal stage and the type of sport. In the prepubertal group, intertrochanteric BMD was significantly higher in both handball and soccer players compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, in the pubertal group, total BMD, mean arms BMD, pelvis BMD, femoral neck BMD, intertrochanteric BMD and Ward's triangle BMD were significantly higher in soccer and handball players compared with the control group (P < 0.05), and the swimmers showed significantly higher values in the mean arms BMD compared with the control group (P < 0.01). Our data suggest that sport practice during puberty, especially in activities that support the body weight, may be an important factor in achieving a high peak bone mass and improving bone health in girls.
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    ABSTRACT: To ascertain the effects of 21 weeks of circuit training, including plyometric jumps, on cardiorespiratory fitness of youths with Down syndrome (DS).
    SD Revista Medica Internacional sobre el Sindrome de Down 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/S1138-2074(14)70053-3
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    ABSTRACT: To ascertain the effects of 21 weeks of circuit training, including plyometric jumps, on cardiorespiratory fitness of youths with Down's syndrome (DS).
    12/2014; DOI:10.1016/S2171-9748(14)70053-4
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the associations between physical fitness levels, health related quality of life (HRQoL) and sarcopenic obesity (SO) and to analyze the usefulness of several physical fitness tests as a screening tool for detecting elderly people with an increased risk of suffering SO. Cross-sectional analysis of a population-based sample. Non-institutionalized Spanish elderly participating in the EXERNET multi-centre study. 2747 elderly subjects aged 65 and older. Body weight, height and body mass index were evaluated in each subject. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Four SO groups were created based on percentage of body fat and relative muscle mass; 1) normal group, 2) sarcopenic group, 3) obesity group and 4) SO group. Physical fitness was evaluated using 8 tests (balance, lower and upper body strength, lower and upper body flexibility, agility, walking speed and aerobic capacity). Three tertiles were created for each test based on the calculated scores. HRQoL was assessed using the EuroQol visual analogue scale. PARTICIPANTS with SO showed lower physical fitness levels compared with normal subjects. Better balance, agility, and aerobic capacity were associated to a lower risk of suffering SO in the fittest men (odds ratio < 0.30). In women, better balance, walking speed, and aerobic capacity were associated to a lower risk of suffering SO in the fittest women (odds ratio < 0.21) Superior perceived health was associated with better physical fitness performance. Higher levels of physical fitness were associated with a reduced risk of suffering SO and better perceived health among elderly. SO elderly people have lower physical functional levels than healthy counterparts.
    The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12603-014-0530-4 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The aims of this study were to identify if the associations of physical activity (PA) and muscle strength may vary throughout the ageing process; to study the differences among genders in the relationships between PA and strength in elderly people and to test whether these differences are explained by the hormonal, nutritional and inflammatory status. Study design A total of 1741 people ≥65 years of age participated in this cross-sectional study. Main outcome measures Upper- and lower-limbs maximal voluntary isometric strength was obtained using standardized techniques and equipment. PA was recorded by a validated questionnaire. The associations of PA with strength were assessed using generalized linear regression models with a Gamma-distributed dependent variable. Results A significant gender by PA interaction was found for all strength-related variables (all P < 0.01). Moreover, when sexual hormones, albumin or C-Reactive protein were taken into account in the model, the results did not significantly change. In women, PA was positively associated with upper and lower-body strength; however in men, PA was only associated with grip and knee strength (both P < 0.01). Higher strength values were associated with higher levels of PA, especially in women. However, this tendency had a different pattern across the age range, showing a stronger association in the ‘young’ elderly compared with the ‘old’ elderly. Conclusion Higher levels of PA are related to greater muscle strength, especially in women and those who were younger.
    Maturitas 06/2014; 78(2). DOI:10.1016/j.maturitas.2014.03.007 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the changes in physical fitness over two years of following up in octogenarian people and to check whether a sedentary lifestyle modify these variations. Methods: Physical fitness of 182 subject (48 men, 134 women) with a mean age of 82,3 ± 2,3 years were evaluated using 8 different tests. A repeated measures analysis was carried out to see the differences between the two evaluation periods and to see the physical fitness differences between sedentary people (sit ≥4 hours/day) and non sedentary people (sit < 4 hours/day). Results: Between the two evaluation periods, we found a significant decrease in the agility test (p < 0.05), walking speed (p < 0.01) and endurance (p < 0.01). In relation to the subjects who spent sitting 4 hours/day there was a decrease in the walking speed test between the two evaluations (p < 0.05). Moreover, there was a decrease of walking speed and endurance between the two evaluation periods in both sedentary and nonsedentary people (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In two years of following up, there are adverse changes in the level of physical fitness in octogenarians. Long periods of sitting time may translate into a loss of agility. Walking speed and endurance seem to be the components of physical fitness more affected by the ageing process in this population; and this loss is not determined by the hours of sitting per day.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 04/2014; 29(n04):894-900. DOI:10.3305/nh.2014.29.4.7212 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To summarize the current literature regarding the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) therapy on the health-related physical fitness of children and adolescents with disabilities. Methods A literature search using MEDLINE–PubMed, SPORT DISCUS, and EMBASE databases was conducted up to August 2013. A total of 22 articles were included in this review (eight randomized controlled trials, four non–randomized controlled trials, three case reports, and seven reviews). Results Most of the studies showed positive effects of WBV on health-related physical fitness in children and adolescents with disabilities. Overall, 10–20 minutes at least three times per week, for a minimum of 26 weeks, with high frequency (between 15 and 35 Hz) and low amplitude (no more than 4 mm of peak-to-peak displacement) might be an appropriate protocol to achieve improvement in body composition and muscular strength. Conclusions Because no serious adverse events have been observed, WBV might be defined as a safe treatment to be applied in children and adolescents with disabling conditions. Further research is recommended to explore the minimum dose of exposure to WBV required to elicit an optimal response in children and adolescents for improving health-related physical fitness. These may be translated into a more specific WBV protocol.
    Journal of Adolescent Health 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.11.001 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: El sedentarismo ha aumentado de modo espectacular en este siglo. La mecanización y el desarrollo de la electrónica han reducido el trabajo manual, y caminar ya no es un modo común de transporte. El sedentarismo favorece la aparición de dos grandes problemas de salud: 1) por un lado favorece el avance rápido de enfermedades crónicas, como el infarto o la angina de pecho, la obesidad y la diabetes, que comienzan a muy temprana edad (a los 10-15 años) y se van desarrollando lentamente, hasta que se manifiestan al cabo de los años como una enfermedad, y 2) Provoca una pérdida acelerada de la movilidad de las articulaciones y de la fuerza muscular, todo lo cual empeora notablemente la calidad de vida de la persona sedentaria cuando llega a la vejez. En el siglo XXI, debido al trepidante aumento del sedentarismo y sus adversas consecuencias, necesitaremos añadir las dosis necesarias de ejercicio físico en nuestra vida habitual. El interés sobre el envejecimiento también ha crecido exponencialmente en las últimas décadas. Alguno de sus aspectos, como la discapacidad y la fragilidad, se han convertido en centro de atención de la investigación básica, clínica y poblacional. El perfil demográfico de España ha experimentado un cambio espectacular a lo largo del pasado siglo; la población general española se duplicó, la de mayores de 65 años se multiplicó por 7 y la de octogenarios por 13. La pérdida de masa y cualidades musculares, especialmente la potencia muscular, que acontece en el envejecimiento y en la fragilidad está directamente relacionada con una reducción en la movilidad y en la capacidad de realizar las denominadas actividades básicas o instrumentales de la vida diaria. La inactividad física que frecuentemente asocia el envejecimiento es uno de los factores fundamentales que contribuye a la aparición de sarcopenia, aspecto central de la fragilidad. Los programas de ejercicio físico multicomponente y particularmente el entrenamiento de la fuerza, constituyen las intervenciones más eficaces para retrasar la discapacidad y otros eventos adversos. Así mismo, han demostrado su utilidad en otros dominios frecuentemente asociados a este síndrome como las caídas, el deterioro cognitivo y la depresión. Se sabe que la mejor manera de evitar este deterioro es realizar ejercicio físico de modo frecuente y adaptado a cada individuo; cualquier edad es buena para comenzar. Las enfermedades más importantes sobre las que el ejercicio físico ejerce una acción protectora son: las del corazón (que desembocan en el infarto de miocardio o la angina de pecho), las de los vasos sanguíneos (hipertensión, accidentes cerebro-vasculares), las del aparato digestivo (cáncer de colon) y las debidas a alteraciones del funcionamiento de la grasa (obesidad y colesterol alto), de los glúcidos (diabetes tipo II), y del calcio (osteoporosis). Por otro lado, la práctica de ejercicio físico evita, en gran medida, la impresionante pérdida de resistencia, fuerza muscular y movilidad de las articulaciones que se da con la edad en las personas sedentarias, y que acaba llevándoles a tener que depender de los demás cuando, por ejemplo, no pueden vestirse por sí mismas por falta de movilidad articular, no pueden levantarse de la cama por falta de fuerza muscular, o no pueden pasear por falta de resistencia cardiovascular. En la mayoría de los países desarrollados, el gran aumento de enfermedades asociadas al sedentarismo y los bajos niveles de condición física necesarios para una vida saludable, son quizás, uno de los mayores problemas de salud pública. Una de las principales soluciones posiblemente sea la puesta en marcha de programas que hagan que la población sea más activa, añadiendo cantidad de ejercicio físico en su vida diaria. En la siguiente guía, se presenta desde un punto de vista práctico, la información necesaria para el diseño de programas de ejercicio físico que juegan un papel fundamental en la prevención y tratamiento de diferentes factores de riesgo de todas estas enfermedades.
    Segunda Edición edited by Exercycle S.L. BH Group, 01/2014; , ISBN: 978-84-695-6935-1
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the usefulness of different fitness test to detect the risk of sarcopenic obesity (SO) in octogenarian people. Methods: 306 subjects (76 men, 230 women) with a mean age of 82.5 ± 2.3 years from the Multi-center EXERNET Project sample fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Body composition was assessed in all subjects by bioelectrical impedance. Four groups were created based on the percentage of fat mass and muscle mass: 1) normal, 2) high fat mass, 3) low muscle mass and 4) SO. Physical fitness was assessed using 8 different tests modified from the batteries "Senior Fitness Test" and Eurofit (EXERNET battery). The risk of suffering SO depending on the fitness level was studied by logistic regression. Results: Among the studied physical fitness tests, those that better predicted the risk of SO were leg strength, arm strength, agility, walking speed and balance in men; 95% CI [(0.606-0.957) (0.496-0.882), (0.020-2.014), (0.17-1.39), (0.913-1.002), all p.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 11/2013; 28(6):1877-83. DOI:10.3305/nh.2013.28.6.6951 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle energy metabolism has been a research focus of physiologists for more than a century. Yet, how the use of intramuscular carbohydrate and lipid energy stores are coordinated during different types of exercise remains a subject of debate. Controversy arises from contradicting data from numerous studies, which used different methodological approaches. Here we review the "pros and cons" of previously used histochemical methods and describe an optimized method to ensure the preservation and specificity of detection of both intramyocellular carbohydrate and lipid stores. For optimal preservation of muscle energy stores, air drying cryosections or cycles of freezing-thawing need to be avoided. Furthermore, optimization of the imaging settings in order to specifically image intracellular lipid droplets stained with oil red O or Bodipy-493/503 is shown. When co-staining lipid droplets with associated proteins, Bodipy-493/503 should be the dye of choice, since oil red O creates precipitates on the lipid droplets blocking the light. In order to increase the specificity of glycogen stain, an antibody against glycogen is used. The resulting method reveals the existence of two metabolically distinct myosin heavy chain I expressing fibers: I-1 fibers have a smaller crossectional area, a higher density of lipid droplets, and a tendency to lower glycogen content compared to I-2 fibers. Type I-2 fibers have similar lipid content than IIA. Exhaustive exercise lead to glycogen depletion in type IIA and IIX fibers, a reduction in lipid droplets density in both type I-1 and I-2 fibers, and a decrease in the size of lipid droplets exclusively in type I-1 fibers.
    PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e77774. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0077774 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Swimming, a sport practiced in hypogravity, has sometimes been associated with decreased bone mass. This systematic review aims to summarize and update present knowledge about the effects of swimming on bone mass, structure and metabolism in order to ascertain the effects of this sport on bone tissue. A literature search was conducted up to April 2013. A total of 64 studies focusing on swimmers bone mass, structure and metabolism met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. It has been generally observed that swimmers present lower bone mineral density than athletes who practise high impact sports and similar values when compared to sedentary controls. However, swimmers have a higher bone turnover than controls resulting in a different structure which in turn results in higher resistance to fracture indexes. Nevertheless, swimming may become highly beneficial regarding bone mass in later stages of life. Swimming does not seem to negatively affect bone mass, although it may not be one of the best sports to be practised in order to increase this parameter, due to the hypogravity and lack of impact characteristic of this sport. Most of the studies included in this review showed similar bone mineral density values in swimmers and sedentary controls. However, swimmers present a higher bone turnover than sedentary controls that may result in a stronger structure and consequently in a stronger bone.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e70119. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0070119 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Down syndrome (DS) has been described as one of the main contributors for low bone mineral density (BMD). Physical activity (PA) is a key factor in skeletal health and thus, PA levels might be associated to the risk of developing osteoporosis. Therefore, the aims were (1) to describe PA patterns in adolescents with DS compared to their counterparts and (2) to determine the relationships between PA and the risk of having low bone mass in adolescents with DS. Nineteen adolescents (10 girls) with DS and 14 without disabilities (7 girls) participated in the study. Minutes in different PA intensities were objectively assessed with accelerometers (ActiTrainer). Moreover adolescents with DS were classified into PA tertiles taking into account the amount of total minutes of PA at any intensity, resulting in those performing low, medium or high of PA (lowPA, medPA and highPA). BMD was measured at the whole body, hip and lumbar spine with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and the BMD Z-score was calculated for each region taking into account age- and sex-matched reference data. Student's unpaired t-tests and analysis of covariance were used to compare variables between different conditions (DS vs. control) and PA levels (low, medium and high). None of the adolescents with DS achieved the minimum of 60 min of daily moderate to vigorous PA (VPA) intensity recommended by PA guidelines; adolescents with DS group spent less time in sedentary and in VPA and more time in light PA than those without DS (p < 0.05). Adolescents with DS showed lower BMD Z-score values than those without (p < 0.05). Those adolescents with DS allocated in the lowPA tertile showed significant lower BMD Z-score at the hip and a general tendency towards lower BMD Z-score was found at whole body and lumbar spine compared to those in highPA tertile and (p < 0.05). Adolescents with DS in the highPA tertile showed lower risk of developing future osteoporosis by having higher BMD Z-score at the hip. This data provides an idea regarding the importance of accumulated minutes of PA, and not only moderate or vigorous in the bone health in adolescents with DS.
    BMC Endocrine Disorders 07/2013; 13(1):22. DOI:10.1186/1472-6823-13-22 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The aging process is accompanied by several changes, such as a decrease in physical fitness. Aims: To establish the relationship between a sedentary behavior (sit =?4 hours/day) and physical fitness in 457 women aged 65 years or older. Methods: Physical fitness was evaluated by 8 adapted tests from "Senior Fitness Test" and "Eurofit Testing Battery". ANOVA was used to analyze differences between groups according to the hours of sitting and logistic regression analysis was used to study the association of the sedentary behavior with low fitness, using as reference the 20th percentile of the normative values in Spain (EXERNET Project). Results: Sedentary women had lower balance, legs and arms strength, arms flexibility, walking speed and endurance (p < 0.05). In addition, those women who sat =?4 hours/day had higher odds for having low fitness in most of the mentioned tests, regardless of the hours of walking (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Sitting for a long time has a negative influence on physical fitness among postmenopausal women independently of walking time.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 07/2013; 28(4):1053-1059. DOI:10.3305/nh.2013.28.4.6459 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to the increased dietary requirements. Objective: To describe the nutritional status of adolescent cyclist and a group of normoactive controls. Methods: The HELENA Dietary Assessment Tool was used to evaluate the nutritional intake of 20 adolescent cyclists and 17 controls. Total energy intake, resting energy expenditure (REE), total energy expenditure (TEE), macronutrients and several micronutrients were registered and compared with dietary guidelines. Results: REE was lower and TEE higher in cyclists than in controls (both P < 0.01). Significant differences were observed in phosphorus and vitamin B1 being higher in cyclists (P < 0.05). Most participants, both cyclist and controls, did not reach the diet requirements for macronutrients, vitamins and minerals. Conclusion: Nutritional status of adolescent cyclists and controls seems not to fulfil the requirements in quantity and quality. Possible implications for actual and future health especially in athlete adolescents need further research.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 07/2013; 28(4):1184-1189. DOI:10.3305/nh.2013.28.4.6513 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To clarify whether a short-term whole body vibration (WBV) training has an effect on lean mass (LM) in the elderly. Method: 49 non-institutionalized elderly (20 men) participated in the study. Participants who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to the WBV or control group. A total of 24 elderly trained squat positioned on a vibration platform 3 times per week for 11 weeks. LM at the whole body, upper and lower limbs was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine the effects of the intervention on the studied variables and also to determinate the changes within group throughout the intervention period including age and height as covariates. Results: 11 weeks of WBV training led to no changes in none of the LM parameters. Conclusion: A short-term WBV therapy is not enough to cause significant changes on LM in non-institutiona - lized seniors.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 07/2013; 28(4):1255-1258. DOI:10.3305/nh.2013.28.4.6491 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine inter-methods agreement between dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in male adolescent cyclists for assessing percentage of body fat (PBF). Methods: PBF of 24 male adolescent cyclists was assessed by DXA and ADP. Agreement between ADP and DXA was determined according to a Bland-Altman plot; validity and lack of agreement was assessed by calculating inter-methods difference. The limits of agreement and differences between methods were also calculated by paired t-tests. Heteroscedasticity was also examined. Results: The values obtained by DXA were higher than those obtained by ADP, and the graph presented heteroscedasticity (both p < 0.05; r = 0.74). Conclusion: DXA and ADP methods were not comparable in terms of PBF assessment in our sample of male adolescent cyclists; it needs to be taken into account when evaluating longitudinal changes in this determined population.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 07/2013; 28(4):1049-1052. DOI:10.3305/nh.2013.28.4.6502 · 1.25 Impact Factor