Alba Gómez-Cabello

Centro Universitario de la Defensa, Caesaraugusta, Aragon, Spain

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Publications (31)73.21 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To summarize the current literature regarding the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) therapy on the health-related physical fitness of children and adolescents with disabilities. Methods A literature search using MEDLINE–PubMed, SPORT DISCUS, and EMBASE databases was conducted up to August 2013. A total of 22 articles were included in this review (eight randomized controlled trials, four non–randomized controlled trials, three case reports, and seven reviews). Results Most of the studies showed positive effects of WBV on health-related physical fitness in children and adolescents with disabilities. Overall, 10–20 minutes at least three times per week, for a minimum of 26 weeks, with high frequency (between 15 and 35 Hz) and low amplitude (no more than 4 mm of peak-to-peak displacement) might be an appropriate protocol to achieve improvement in body composition and muscular strength. Conclusions Because no serious adverse events have been observed, WBV might be defined as a safe treatment to be applied in children and adolescents with disabling conditions. Further research is recommended to explore the minimum dose of exposure to WBV required to elicit an optimal response in children and adolescents for improving health-related physical fitness. These may be translated into a more specific WBV protocol.
    Journal of Adolescent Health 01/2014; · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the changes in physical fitness over two years of following up in octogenarian people and to check whether a sedentary lifestyle modify these variations. Methods: Physical fitness of 182 subject (48 men, 134 women) with a mean age of 82,3 ± 2,3 years were evaluated using 8 different tests. A repeated measures analysis was carried out to see the differences between the two evaluation periods and to see the physical fitness differences between sedentary people (sit ≥4 hours/day) and non sedentary people (sit < 4 hours/day). Results: Between the two evaluation periods, we found a significant decrease in the agility test (p < 0.05), walking speed (p < 0.01) and endurance (p < 0.01). In relation to the subjects who spent sitting 4 hours/day there was a decrease in the walking speed test between the two evaluations (p < 0.05). Moreover, there was a decrease of walking speed and endurance between the two evaluation periods in both sedentary and nonsedentary people (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In two years of following up, there are adverse changes in the level of physical fitness in octogenarians. Long periods of sitting time may translate into a loss of agility. Walking speed and endurance seem to be the components of physical fitness more affected by the ageing process in this population; and this loss is not determined by the hours of sitting per day.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 01/2014; 29(n04):894-900. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The aims of this study were to identify if the associations of physical activity (PA) and muscle strength may vary throughout the ageing process; to study the differences among genders in the relationships between PA and strength in elderly people and to test whether these differences are explained by the hormonal, nutritional and inflammatory status. Study design A total of 1741 people ≥65 years of age participated in this cross-sectional study. Main outcome measures Upper- and lower-limbs maximal voluntary isometric strength was obtained using standardized techniques and equipment. PA was recorded by a validated questionnaire. The associations of PA with strength were assessed using generalized linear regression models with a Gamma-distributed dependent variable. Results A significant gender by PA interaction was found for all strength-related variables (all P < 0.01). Moreover, when sexual hormones, albumin or C-Reactive protein were taken into account in the model, the results did not significantly change. In women, PA was positively associated with upper and lower-body strength; however in men, PA was only associated with grip and knee strength (both P < 0.01). Higher strength values were associated with higher levels of PA, especially in women. However, this tendency had a different pattern across the age range, showing a stronger association in the ‘young’ elderly compared with the ‘old’ elderly. Conclusion Higher levels of PA are related to greater muscle strength, especially in women and those who were younger.
    Maturitas 01/2014; · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Down syndrome (DS) has been described as one of the main contributors for low bone mineral density (BMD). Physical activity (PA) is a key factor in skeletal health and thus, PA levels might be associated to the risk of developing osteoporosis. Therefore, the aims were (1) to describe PA patterns in adolescents with DS compared to their counterparts and (2) to determine the relationships between PA and the risk of having low bone mass in adolescents with DS. Nineteen adolescents (10 girls) with DS and 14 without disabilities (7 girls) participated in the study. Minutes in different PA intensities were objectively assessed with accelerometers (ActiTrainer). Moreover adolescents with DS were classified into PA tertiles taking into account the amount of total minutes of PA at any intensity, resulting in those performing low, medium or high of PA (lowPA, medPA and highPA). BMD was measured at the whole body, hip and lumbar spine with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and the BMD Z-score was calculated for each region taking into account age- and sex-matched reference data. Student's unpaired t-tests and analysis of covariance were used to compare variables between different conditions (DS vs. control) and PA levels (low, medium and high). None of the adolescents with DS achieved the minimum of 60 min of daily moderate to vigorous PA (VPA) intensity recommended by PA guidelines; adolescents with DS group spent less time in sedentary and in VPA and more time in light PA than those without DS (p < 0.05). Adolescents with DS showed lower BMD Z-score values than those without (p < 0.05). Those adolescents with DS allocated in the lowPA tertile showed significant lower BMD Z-score at the hip and a general tendency towards lower BMD Z-score was found at whole body and lumbar spine compared to those in highPA tertile and (p < 0.05). Adolescents with DS in the highPA tertile showed lower risk of developing future osteoporosis by having higher BMD Z-score at the hip. This data provides an idea regarding the importance of accumulated minutes of PA, and not only moderate or vigorous in the bone health in adolescents with DS.
    BMC Endocrine Disorders 07/2013; 13(1):22. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: We aimed to clarify whether a short-term whole body vibration training has a beneficial effect on bone mass and structure in elderly men and women. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. METHODS: A total of 49 non-institutionalised elderly (20 men and 29 women) volunteered to participate in the study. Participants who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to one of the study groups (whole body vibration or control). A total of 24 elderly trained squat positioned on a vibration platform 3 times per week for 11 weeks. Bone-related variables were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Two-way repeated measures one-way analysis of variance (group by time) was used to determine the effects of the intervention on the bone-related variables and also to determinate the changes within group throughout the intervention period. Analysis of covariance was used to test the differences between groups for bone-related variables in pre- and post-training assessments and in the percentage of change between groups. All analysis were carried out including age, height, subtotal lean mass and daily calcium intake as covariates. RESULTS: 11 weeks of whole body vibration training led to no changes in none of the bone mineral content and bone mineral density parameters measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry through the skeleton. At the tibia, total, trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral density decreased significantly in the whole body vibration group (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A short-term whole body vibration therapy is not enough to cause any changes on bone mineral content or bone mineral density and it only produces a slight variation on bone structure among elderly people.
    Journal of science and medicine in sport / Sports Medicine Australia. 05/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) before and after 20 weeks of WBV training. Repeated measures of ANOVA adjusting by height, weight and Tanner stage were used to analyze possible group by time interactions on body composition. The adjusted percentages of change in body composition were also compared between control and WBV groups. No group by time interactions were found for any variable, but the WBV group showed a higher reduction in body fat at the upper limbs (p<0.05), and a tendency toward higher percent increase in whole body lean body mass. Overall, a 20-week WBV training is not enough by itself for increasing lean body mass in adolescents with DS, but it might be helpful for improving body composition in this population. Its relationship with health and autonomy enhances the importance of these results.
    Research in developmental disabilities 03/2013; 34(5):1426-1433. · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to clarify whether a short-term whole body vibration (WBV) training has a beneficial effect on physical fitness in elderly people. Forty-nine non-institutionalized elderly (75.0±4.7 years) participated in the study. Twenty-four of them trained on a vibration platform for 11 weeks. Physical fitness included balance, lower- and upper-body strength and flexibility, agility, walking speed and endurance. In the WBV group most of the physical tests improved through the intervention (all P<0.01) while in the control group only an increment was detected in lower-body strength (P<0.05). In conclusion, a short-term WBV training is beneficial for physical fitness among elderly people.
    Maturitas 01/2013; · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is widely recognized that the risk of fractures is closely related to the typical decline in bone mass during the ageing process in both women and men. Exercise has been reported as one of the best non-pharmacological ways to improve bone mass throughout life. However, not all exercise regimens have the same positive effects on bone mass, and the studies that have evaluated the role of exercise programmes on bone-related variables in elderly people have obtained inconclusive results. This systematic review aims to summarize and update present knowledge about the effects of different types of training programmes on bone mass in older adults and elderly people as a starting point for developing future interventions that maintain a healthy bone mass and higher quality of life in people throughout their lifetime. A literature search using MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases was conducted and bibliographies for studies discussing the effect of exercise interventions in older adults published up to August 2011 were examined. Inclusion criteria were met by 59 controlled trials, 7 meta-analyses and 8 reviews. The studies included in this review indicate that bone-related variables can be increased, or at least the common decline in bone mass during ageing attenuated, through following specific training programmes. Walking provides a modest increase in the loads on the skeleton above gravity and, therefore, this type of exercise has proved to be less effective in osteoporosis prevention. Strength exercise seems to be a powerful stimulus to improve and maintain bone mass during the ageing process. Multi-component exercise programmes of strength, aerobic, high impact and/ or weight-bearing training, as well as whole-body vibration (WBV) alone or in combination with exercise, may help to increase or at least prevent decline in bone mass with ageing, especially in postmenopausal women. This review provides, therefore, an overview of intervention studies involving training and bone measurements among older adults, especially postmenopausal women. Some novelties are that WBV training is a promising alternative to prevent bone fractures and osteoporosis. Because this type of exercise under prescription is potentially safe, it may be considered as a low impact alternative to current methods combating bone deterioration. In other respects, the ability of peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) to assess bone strength and geometric properties may prove advantageous in evaluating the effects of training on bone health. As a result of changes in bone mass becoming evident by pQCT even when dual energy X-ray absortiometry (DXA) measurements were unremarkable, pQCT may provide new knowledge about the effects of exercise on bone that could not be elucidated by DXA. Future research is recommended including longest-term exercise training programmes, the addition of pQCT measurements to DXA scanners and more trials among men, including older participants.
    · 5.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Swimming, a sport practiced in hypogravity, has sometimes been associated with decreased bone mass. This systematic review aims to summarize and update present knowledge about the effects of swimming on bone mass, structure and metabolism in order to ascertain the effects of this sport on bone tissue. A literature search was conducted up to April 2013. A total of 64 studies focusing on swimmers bone mass, structure and metabolism met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. It has been generally observed that swimmers present lower bone mineral density than athletes who practise high impact sports and similar values when compared to sedentary controls. However, swimmers have a higher bone turnover than controls resulting in a different structure which in turn results in higher resistance to fracture indexes. Nevertheless, swimming may become highly beneficial regarding bone mass in later stages of life. Swimming does not seem to negatively affect bone mass, although it may not be one of the best sports to be practised in order to increase this parameter, due to the hypogravity and lack of impact characteristic of this sport. Most of the studies included in this review showed similar bone mineral density values in swimmers and sedentary controls. However, swimmers present a higher bone turnover than sedentary controls that may result in a stronger structure and consequently in a stronger bone.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e70119. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To study the independent association of fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) with bone mass and to study the differences in bone mass by weight and fat status in 223 seniors (aged 65-89 years) from the city of Zaragoza (Spain), after controlling for age, height, physical activity (PA) and LM. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: LM, FM, bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) were measured with dual energy X-ray absortiometry. The relationships of FM and LM with bone-related variables (subtotal body, hip, femoral neck and lumbar spine) were analyzed by linear regression and differences between weight and fat status were analyzed by one-way analysis of covariance. RESULTS: In men, there were no significant associations between FM and BMC or BMD. In women FM was positively associated with bone-related variables after adjustment for age, height and PA, whereas adjustment for LM removed all these significant associations. Overweight/obese elderly women had higher BMC and BMD than their non-overweight peers in all regions studied. Additional adjustment for PA did not change the differences between weight status groups, while adjusting for LM removed some of the associations. Overfat/obese men and women did not show higher levels of bone mass than their non-overfat peers. LM was positively associated with bone variables in both sexes. Additional adjustment for PA and FM did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: The association between fat mass and bone mass of elderly women is mediated by the independent association between lean mass and bone mass.
    Maturitas 10/2012; · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Obesity, defined as an excess of total body fat, is a matter of concern all over the world, and its prevalence is still increasing among elderly people. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether sedentary behaviour (hours sitting per day) is associated with higher risk of central obesity, overweight-obesity and overfat in a representative sample of non-institutionalized Spanish elderly population and if so, whether hours walking per day modified this association. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study in a sample of 3136 people ≥65 years of age. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standardized techniques and equipment. Active and sedentary behaviours were recorded by questionnaire. RESULTS: For both men and women, the higher prevalence of overweight-obesity, central obesity and overfat was found in those who spent sitting more than 4h per day and walk less than 1h, compared with those who spent sitting less than 4h per day and walk more than 1h (all p<0.001, except for central obesity in women). In men, more than 4h sitting per day was associated with 1.7-fold higher odds of having central obesity compared with those sitting less than 4h per day (p<0.01). In women, this sedentary behaviour increased the risk of overweight-obesity and overfat by 1.5 and 1.4, respectively (p<0.01). Age or time spent walking did not significantly change these results. CONCLUSION: Sitting time increases the risk of overweight-obesity and overfat in women and the risk of central obesity in men, independently of walking time.
    Maturitas 09/2012; · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to describe the structure and strength of the tibia and radius of adolescents with Down syndrome. We observed that despite higher levels of volumetric bone mineral density in determined skeletal sites, they are at higher risk of developing osteoporotic fractures in the future due to their lower bone strength indexes. INTRODUCTION: The aims of the study were to describe the cortical and trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone mineral content (BMC), area, and bone strength in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) and to compare them with adolescents without disabilities. METHODS: Thirty adolescents (11 girls) with DS and 28 without disabilities (10 girls) participated in the study. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography measurements were taken at proximal and distal sites of the tibia and radius. Values of total, trabecular, and cortical BMC; vBMD; and area were obtained of each scan. Cortical thickness and endosteal and periosteal circumferences were also measured, and different bone strength indexes were calculated. Student's t tests were applied between groups. RESULTS: The DS group showed greater vBMD at distal radius, BMC at proximal radius, and total and cortical vBMD at proximal tibia. The non-DS group showed higher total and trabecular area at the distal radius and total, cortical, and trabecular BMC and area at distal tibia. Higher values of periosteal and endosteal circumference and bone strength were also found in non-DS group. CONCLUSIONS: From these results, it can be believed that even with higher vBMD in determined skeletal sites, adolescents with DS are at higher risk of suffering bone fractures due to an increased fragility by lower resistance to load bending or torsion.
    Osteoporosis International 06/2012; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: To establish the influence of a sedentary behavior (sit time) on body composition in elderly women from Aragón. Methods: A total of 457 women participated in the study. Hours of walking were used to define the active behavior (> 1 vs. < 1 h/day) and hours of sitting were used to establish the sedentary behavior (> 4 vs. < 4 h/day). Anthropometric evaluation was conducted following the ISAK recommendations. Fat mass was estimated through electrical bio-impedance. Differences between groups were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression analysis was used to study the association between active and sedentary behaviors with body composition. Results: The sedentary group had higher weight, BMI, waist circumference and fat mass than the non-sedentary group (all p < 0.05). In addition, those women who sat more than 4 h/day had 1.7, 2.7 and 1.7-fold higher odds ratio for having overweight, obesity and central obesity, respectively, regardless of the hours of walking (95% IC [1.006-2.739]; [1.518-4.491] y [1.154-2.565]). When activity and sedentary levels were studied together, active and sedentary women were 2.0 times more likely to be overweight (95% CI [0.995-3.961]), 4.4 to be obese (95% CI [2.101-9.264]) and 2.3 for having central obesity (95% CI [1.329-3.939]) than women with an active and non-sedentary behavior. Conclusion: Being sitting more than 4 hours a day increases the risk of overweight, obesity and central obesity, regardless of the hours of walking in postmenopausal women.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 06/2012; 27(3):865-70. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Physical fitness is gaining in importance in all population groups, including elderly, but data are still scarce. The aim of this study was to report gender and age specific physical fitness levels in non-institutionalized Spanish elderly. A representative sample of 3136 elderly (≥ 65 y), 724 men and 2412 women, from 6 Regions of Spain: Madrid, Aragón, Castilla y León, Castilla-La Mancha, Extremadura and Canarias were assessed in the elderly EXERNET multi-center study between 2008 and 2009. The authors assessed static balance, muscular strength, flexibility, agility, walking speed and cardiorespiratory fitness using eight different fitness tests: one leg balance, chair stand, arm curl, chair sit-and-reach, back scratch, 8-foot up-and-go, 30-m walk, and 6 min walk tests. The authors derived gender and age-specific normative values for physical fitness in the non-institutionalized Spanish elderly. The figures showed greater physical fitness in the elderly men than in women, except for the flexibility test, and a trend toward decreased physical fitness in both genders as their age increased. The normative values hereby provided will enable evaluation and correct interpretation of independent non-institutionalized Spanish elderly fitness status.
    Archives of gerontology and geriatrics 03/2012; 55(2):406-16. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether the bone mass of young people with Down syndrome may increase, following a 21-week conditioning training programme including plyometric jumps. Twenty-eight participants with Down syndrome (13 females, 15 males) aged 10 to 19 years were divided into exercise (DS-E; n=14; eight females, six males mean age 13y 8mo, SD 2y 6mo) and non-exercise (DS-NE; n=14; five females, nine males mean age 15y 5mo, SD 2y 6mo) groups. Total and regional (hip and lumbar spine [L1-L4]) bone mineral content (BMC) and total lean mass were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and after a 25-minute training session performed twice a week. Repeated-measures analyses of variation were applied to test differences between pre- and posttraining values for BMC and total lean mass. Differences between increments were studied with the Student's t-test. Linear regression models were fitted to test independent relationships. After the intervention, higher increments in total and hip BMC, and total lean mass, were observed in the DS-E group (all p<0.05). A time × exercise interaction was found for total lean mass (p<0.05). The increment in total lean mass, height, and Tanner stage accounted for almost for 60% in the increment in total BMC in the DS-NE group (p<0.05). Twenty-one weeks of training have a positive effect on the acquisition of bone mass in young people with Down syndrome.
    Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 03/2012; 54(6):552-6. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is widely recognized that the risk of fractures is closely related to the typical decline in bone mass during the ageing process in both women and men. Exercise has been reported as one of the best non-pharmacological ways to improve bone mass throughout life. However, not all exercise regimens have the same positive effects on bone mass, and the studies that have evaluated the role of exercise programmes on bone-related variables in elderly people have obtained inconclusive results. This systematic review aims to summarize and update present knowledge about the effects of different types of training programmes on bone mass in older adults and elderly people as a starting point for developing future interventions that maintain a healthy bone mass and higher quality of life in people throughout their lifetime. A literature search using MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases was conducted and bibliographies for studies discussing the effect of exercise interventions in older adults published up to August 2011 were examined. Inclusion criteria were met by 59 controlled trials, 7 meta-analyses and 8 reviews. The studies included in this review indicate that bone-related variables can be increased, or at least the common decline in bone mass during ageing attenuated, through following specific training programmes. Walking provides a modest increase in the loads on the skeleton above gravity and, therefore, this type of exercise has proved to be less effective in osteoporosis prevention. Strength exercise seems to be a powerful stimulus to improve and maintain bone mass during the ageing process. Multi-component exercise programmes of strength, aerobic, high impact and/or weight-bearing training, as well as whole-body vibration (WBV) alone or in combination with exercise, may help to increase or at least prevent decline in bone mass with ageing, especially in postmenopausal women. This review provides, therefore, an overview of intervention studies involving training and bone measurements among older adults, especially postmenopausal women. Some novelties are that WBV training is a promising alternative to prevent bone fractures and osteoporosis. Because this type of exercise under prescription is potentially safe, it may be considered as a low impact alternative to current methods combating bone deterioration. In other respects, the ability of peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) to assess bone strength and geometric properties may prove advantageous in evaluating the effects of training on bone health. As a result of changes in bone mass becoming evident by pQCT even when dual energy X-ray absortiometry (DXA) measurements were unremarkable, pQCT may provide new knowledge about the effects of exercise on bone that could not be elucidated by DXA. Future research is recommended including longest-term exercise training programmes, the addition of pQCT measurements to DXA scanners and more trials among men, including older participants.
    Sports Medicine 02/2012; 42(4):301-25. · 5.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The increase in life expectancy occurred during the last decades has resulted in a growth of the elderly population, being estimated that a third of the Spanish population will be elderly (> 65 years) in the year 2050. Human aging involves many changes, such as a variation in body composition. Different factors work together leading to an increase in fat mass, decreased muscle mass and reduced bone mass among seniors. These characteristic changes among elderly people may lead to suffer several diseases such as obesity, sarcopenia and osteoporosis and may result in decreased quality of life, increased dependence and increased risk of mortality in this population. In the late 90´s, "sarcopenic obesity" was a concept that emerged in order to define those people who simultaneously have an excess of body fat and a significant loss of muscle mass. Recently, for the first time in Spain (the elderly EXERNET multi-centre study), it has been shown that the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in a representative sample of non-institutionalized seniors reaches values of 15%.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 02/2012; 27(1):22-30. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The increase in life expectancy occurred during the last decades has resulted in a growth of the elderly population, being estimated that a third of the Spanish population will be elderly (> 65 years) in the year 2050. Human aging involves many changes, such as a variation in body composition. Different factors work together leading to an increase in fat mass, decreased muscle mass and reduced bone mass among seniors. These characteristic changes among elderly people may lead to suffer several diseases such as obesity, sarcopenia and osteoporosis and may result in decreased quality of life, increased dependence and increased risk of mortality in this population. In the late 90's, "sarcopenic obesity" was a concept that emerged in order to define those people who simultaneously have an excess of body fat and a significant loss of muscle mass. Recently, for the first time in Spain (the elderly EXERNET multi-centre study), it has been shown that the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in a representative sample of non-institutionalized seniors reaches values of 15%.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 02/2012; 27(1):22-30. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The elderly EXERNET multi-centre study aims to collect normative anthropometric data for old functionally independent adults living in Spain. To describe the standardization process and reliability of the anthropometric measurements carried out in the pilot study and during the final workshop, examining both intra- and inter-rater errors for measurements. A total of 98 elderly from five different regions participated in the intra-rater error assessment, and 10 different seniors living in the city of Toledo (Spain) participated in the inter-rater assessment. We examined both intra- and inter-rater errors for heights and circumferences. For height, intra-rater technical errors of measurement (TEMs) were smaller than 0.25 cm. For circumferences and knee height, TEMs were smaller than 1 cm, except for waist circumference in the city of Cáceres. Reliability for heights and circumferences was greater than 98% in all cases. Inter-rater TEMs were 0.61 cm for height, 0.75 cm for knee-height and ranged between 2.70 and 3.09 cm for the circumferences measured. Inter-rater reliabilities for anthropometric measurements were always higher than 90%. The harmonization process, including the workshop and pilot study, guarantee the quality of the anthropometric measurements in the elderly EXERNET multi-centre study. High reliability and low TEM may be expected when assessing anthropometry in elderly population.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e41752. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to determine whether youths with Down syndrome (DS) are able to increase lean mass and decrease fat mass, after 21 weeks of conditioning combined with a plyometric jumps training program. Twenty-six participants with DS (15 males) aged 10-19 years joined the study. Participants were divided into two comparable groups, exercise (EG; n = 13) and control (CG). Total and regional (trunk, upper and lower limbs) lean and fat masses were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), at baseline and after the intervention. ANCOVA tests were used to evaluate differences between groups in pre- and post-training moments. Repeated measures of ANOVA adjusted by the increments in height and Tanner were applied to test the differences between pre and post-training moments. Adjusted percentages of change were calculated and differences between groups evaluated with Student's t test. After the training period, EG showed an increase in total and lower limbs lean mass, while no changes in adiposity depots were observed. CG did not change neither the lean mass nor the fat mass except for decreased upper limbs fat mass (all p < 0.05) during the same period of time. As a result, time by exercise interactions were found for whole body and lower limbs lean mass (both p < 0.05). No differences in the percentage of fat were observed between groups at baseline or post-training. Overall, 21 weeks of conditioning combined with plyometric jumps training was an effective method for increasing lean mass in youths with DS; however, no changes in fat mass were observed.
    Research in developmental disabilities 08/2011; 32(6):2383-8. · 4.41 Impact Factor