[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A low partial oxygen pressure (hypoxia) occurs in many pathological environments, such as solid tumors and inflammatory lesions. Understanding the cellular response to hypoxic stress has broad implications for human diseases. As we previously reported, hypoxia significantly altered dendritic cells (DCs) to a DC2 phenotype and promoted a Th2 polarization of naïve T cells with increased IL-4 production. However, the underlying mechanisms still remain largely unknown. In this study, we found the over-expression of surface CD44 in DCs was involved in this process via ligand binding. Further investigation showed hypoxia could reduce the surface expression of membrane type 1 metalloprotease (MT1-MMP) via down-regulating the kinesin-like protein KIF2A, which subsequently alleviated the shedding of CD44 from DCs. Moreover, KIF2A expression was found negatively regulated by HIF-1α in hypoxic microenvironment. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism by which hypoxia regulates the function of DCs via KIF2A/MT1-MMP/CD44 axis, providing critical information to understand the immune response under hypoxia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional glycoprotein, has three transcripts that have distinct roles in tumors in vitro. Whether OPN transcripts have different functions in tumor processes in vivo is unclear. It has been reported that immune cell-derived OPN can promote tumor formation. We propose a hypothesis that tumor-derived OPN may facilitate tumor immune escape by affecting immune cell differentiation and function. In this study, we constructed lentiviral expression vectors of OPN transcripts and transfected them into the MCF-7 cell line. MCF-7 cells transfected with OPN transcripts were injected into the armpit of nude mice, and tumor growth was monitored. The results showed that all OPN transcripts promoted local tumor formation, but that there was no significant difference among transcripts. We also investigated the effect of the OPN expressed by tumor cells on monocyte differentiation by coculturing monocytes with tumor supernatant. We found OPN-c upregulated CD163 levels compared with OPN-a and OPN-b; however, none of the transcripts affected HLA-DR and CD206 levels. All OPN transcripts significantly inhibited TNF-α and enhanced IL-10 production by monocytes. Furthermore, we found that the overexpression of OPN transcripts significantly upregulated TGF-β1 and MCP-1 production by tumor cells. Using neutralizing antibody and recombinant cytokines, we found that OPN overexpressed by tumor cells regulates the production of TNF-α and IL-10 by monocytes partly via MCP-1 and TGF-β1, respectively. Collectively, our results show that OPN transcripts have no distinct role in breast cancer formation in vivo. We also demonstrate that OPN regulates the alternative activation of monocytes via TGF-β1 and MCP-1, which may represent an additional mechanism for tumor immune escape.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Notch signaling plays a critical role in embryonic vascular development and tumor angiogenesis. The present study was conducted to investigate the prognostic role of the angiogenesis-related Notch ligand and the receptor in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and assess whether their expression correlates with that of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin (Ang)-2. Bone marrow mononuclear cells from 60 untreated AML patients and 40 healthy controls were obtained. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to evaluate the mRNA expression of δ-like ligand 4 (Dll4), Notch1, VEGF, VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, Ang-1, Ang-2 and Tie2. Western blot analysis was used to determine the protein levels of Dll4 and Notch1. The results demonstrated that Dll4, Notch1, VEGF, VEGFR-2 and Ang-2 expression were significantly higher in untreated AML patients than in the controls. Univariate analysis of factors associated with the overall survival showed a significantly shorter survival in patients with the unfavorable karyotype, higher Dll4 expression, higher Notch1 expression, higher VEGF expression or higher Ang-2 expression. Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed that the karyotype and expression levels of Notch1, Dll4, VEGF and Ang-2 were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Additionally, the prognostic value of Dll4 expression (but not Notch1) was more significant in the subgroup consisting of patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. Subgroup analysis showed that Notch1 and Dll4 expression levels had a prognostic impact on patients with high VEGF or Ang-2 levels. Taken together, our data provide evidence that the activation of the Notch pathway may indicate an unfavorable prognosis in AML. In particular, Dll4 may be a relevant prognostic marker in intermediate-risk AML.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) is one of a family of proteins inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases, which has also been identified as a mediator for checking inflammation. Meanwhile, it is well known that inflammation causes the activation of the immune response. However, it is not clear whether TIMP-3 plays a role in the immune system. In the present study, we demonstrated a novel function of TIMP-3 in Th1/Th2 polarization through its influence on the antigen-presenting cells. First, TIMP-3 was found strikingly up-regulated by IL-4 during the differentiation of human dendritic cells via the p38MAPK pathway. Second, the expression of costimulatory molecule-CD86 was repressed by TIMP-3. Besides, the induction of IL-12 in matured dendritic cells was significantly inhibited in a PI3K-dependent manner. Furthermore, dendritic cells matured in the presence of TIMP-3 could stimulate allogeneic naive T helper (Th) cells to display a prominent Th2 polarization. Importantly, in an autoimmune disorder-primary immune thrombocytopenia, TIMP-3 showed a statistically positive correlation with IL-4 and platelet count, but a negative correlation with IFN-γ in patient blood samples. Collectively, these in vitro and in vivo data clearly suggested a novel role of TIMP-3 in Th1/Th2 balance in humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although human chemokinelike factor (CKLF)-like MAL and related proteins for vesicle trafficking transmembrane, domain-containing member 5 (CMTM5) has been proved to play an important role in carcinogenesis and apoptosis in several types of human tumors, the expression of CMTM5 in ovarian cancer remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between CMTM5 expression and the survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.
Normal surface ovarian epithelium tissues, ovarian cystadenoma tissues, ovarian cancer tissues, and 5 ovarian cancer cell lines were collected. The CMTM5 expressions were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining. The survival information was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method.
The CMTM5 expression was down-regulated in ovarian cancers. The expression of CMTM5 was absent in 30% (24 of 80) of ovarian cancers compared with 4.55% (1 of 22) of normal surface ovarian epithelium tissues and ovarian cystadenomas by immunohistochemistry. The results from the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were consistent with those from Western blotting. Furthermore, we found that although CMTM5 expression has no significant correlation with the age of the patients (P = 0.342), clinical stages (P = 0.155), pathologic types (P = 0.0605), or status of metastasis (P = 0.554), it was associated with the 3 groups of different differentiation levels (P = 0.0026) and an increase of CMTM5 loss of expression ratio in patients with preoperative CA125 level more than 500 mIU/mL compared to those with less than 500 mIU/mL (48.57% vs 16.67%, P = 0.0130). Statistical analysis by the Kaplan-Meier method showed that CMTM5 expression had no significant impact on the prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer (P = 0.24).
The reduced expression of CMTM5 correlates significantly with poorly differentiated ovarian cancer and high preoperative CA125 level. CMTM5 may contribute to the pathogenesis of human epithelial ovarian cancer.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 07/2011; 21(7):1248-55. DOI:10.1097/IGC.0b013e3182259c31 · 1.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel ultra-sensitive single-molecule-counting microarray assay (SMCMA) with a 1.8-nL sample volume for quantification of proteins was provided using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy coupled with quantum dot (QD)-labeling. In the SMCMA, the microarray consisting of ∼ 300 μm diameter microspots with the spot-to-spot pitch distance of 500 μm was fabricated by spotting 1.8 nL of solutions containing the target protein onto the substrate which was modified with primary antibody of the protein and blocked with ethanolamine and BSA using a pin-tool type microarraying robot. Then, biotinylated secondary antibody of the protein was bound to the protein to form sandwich immunocomplexes. After labeling with streptavidin-coated QDs, the whole image of the microarray was acquired using a homemade single-molecule microarray reader. The target protein was quantified based on the number of bright dots from the QDs corresponding to single target protein molecules on the microarray. Using the SMCMA, an amount as low as 1.5 × 10(-21) mole (904 molecules) for proteins could be detected. The SMCMA was applied to measure dynamic expression of osteopontin in living cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have reported that STAT3 activation is associated with poor prognosis in human epithelial ovarian cancer. STAT3 has been proposed to play an important role in ovarian cancer metastasis and chemoresistance. This mechanism, however, is still not thoroughly understood. In this study, to investigate the role of STAT3 on ovarian cancer cells, we used decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) technology to regulate STAT3 in SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells in vitro. Cell invasive power and chemo-sensitivity were assessed in the cells transfected with STAT3 decoy ODN and control ODN. Western blot analysis was used to examine the expression of EMMPRIN, P-gp, and Akt. Results showed that STAT3 decoy ODN inhibited cancer cell invasive power and enhanced sensitivity to paclitaxel for SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells. The mechanism involved the inhibition of EMMPRIN, P-gp, and pAkt by STAT3 decoy ODN. These three proteins were probably the target proteins of STAT3. These findings suggest that STAT3 is a key factor for ovarian cancer metastasis and chemoresistance. STAT3 decoy ODN may prove to be a beneficial therapeutic agent, especially for invasive or chemoresistant ovarian cancer.
Cancer genetics and cytogenetics 02/2010; 197(1):46-53. DOI:10.1016/j.cancergencyto.2009.10.004 · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia is a major characteristic of the tumor microenvironment, and its effects on immune cells are proposed to be important factors for the process of tumor immune escape. It has been reported that hypoxia affects the function of dendritic cells and the antitumor function of T cells. Here we discuss the effects of hypoxia on T-cell survival. Our results showed that hypoxia induced apoptosis of T cells. Adenosine and adenosine receptors (AR) are important to the hypoxia-related signaling pathway. Using AR agonists and antagonists, we demonstrated that hypoxia-induced apoptosis of T cells was mediated by A(2a )and A(2b) receptors. Furthermore, we are the first, to our knowledge, to report that hypoxia significantly inhibited the expression of chemokine C receptor 7 (CCR7) of T cells via the A(2)R signal pathway, perhaps representing a mechanism of hypoxia-induced apoptosis of T cells. Collectively, our research demonstrated that hypoxia induces T-cell apoptosis by the A(2)R signaling pathway partly by suppressing CCR7. Blocking the A(2)R signaling pathway and/or activation of CCR7 can increase the anti-apoptosis function of T cells and may become a new strategy to improve antitumor potential.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia is a common characteristic of many pathological and physiological conditions that can markedly change cellular metabolism and cause the accumulation of extracellular adenosine. Recent studies have shown that adenosine can modulate the function of certain immune cell types through binding with different adenosine receptors. Our previous studies have shown that hypoxia has an effect on the biological activity of dendritic cells (DCs) by inducing their differentiation towards a Th2 polarising phenotype. However, the mechanisms underlying this suppression remain unclear. In this study, we have demonstrated that hypoxic mDCs predominantly express adenosine receptor A2b. The A2b receptor antagonist MRS1754 was able to increase the production of IL-12p70 and TNF-alpha by hypoxic mDCs and elevate the amount of Th1 cytokine IFN-gamma production in a mDCs-T-cell co-culture system. We also found that the effect of hypoxia on IL-12p70 production was mediated via increased intracellular cAMP levels through the up-regulation of A2b adenosine receptor and the preferential expression of adenosine A2b receptors in hypoxic mDCs was HIF-1 alpha dependent. Therefore, the hypoxic mDCs could provide a useful tool for researching the function of A2bR in human DCs. Our results offer new insights into understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological activities of DCs in local-tissue hypoxic microenvironments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of fucoidan on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) from monocytes.
Human monocytic cell line U937 was purchased from ATCC. During the experiment, FBS-free 1640 was used and U937 was cultivated with 20 ng/ml TNF-alpha and/or different concentrations of fucoidan for 24 h. RT-PCR experiments were used to determine the MMP-9 mRNA expression. ELISA and gelatin zymography detected MMP-9 amounts and activity in the supernatant. The intracellular level of MMP-9 was assayed by Western blot, and the level of CD44 on the surface was assayed by FACS.
In this study, we showed that pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha up-regulated U937 MMP-9 mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.05). Fucoidan can increase the TNF-alpha-induced MMP-9 secretion from U937 (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was observed in MMP-9 mRNA. The intracellular level of MMP-9 treated with TNF-alpha and fucoidan was lower (P < 0.05) than that treated with TNF-alpha alone. In addition, we demonstrated that fucoidan downregulated the surface level of CD44, the main molecule to which MMP-9 attaches.
We demonstrated that fucoidan post-translationally regulated MMP-9 secretion from U937. Reduced intracellular level and decreased membrane attachment may contribute to the increase in MMP-9 secretion.
Agents and Actions 09/2009; 59(4):271-6. DOI:10.1007/s00011-009-0095-6 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is well recognized that tissue microenvironments are involved in regulating the development and function of dendritic cells (DC). Oxygen supply, which varies in different tissues, has been accepted as an important microenvironmental factor in regulating the biological functions of several immune cells and as being involved in tumour progression and metastasis. However, little is known about the effect of hypoxia on the biological functions of DC and the effect of these hypoxia-conditioned DC on tumour metastasis. In this study, we analysed the transcriptional profiles of human monocyte-derived immature DC (imDC) and mature DC (mDC) cultured under normoxia and hypoxia by microarray, and found a body of potential targets regulating the functions of DC during hypoxia. In addition, the phagocytic ability of hypoxic imDC markedly decreased compared with that of normoxic imDC. Importantly, hypoxic DC poorly induced the proliferation of allogeneic T cells, but polarized allogeneic CD4(+) naive T cells into a T helper type 2 (Th2) response. Moreover, hypoxic DC secreted large amounts of osteopontin, which were responsible for the enhanced migration of tumour cells. Therefore, our study provides new insights into the biological functions of DC under hypoxic conditions and one of mechanisms underlying tumour immune escape during hypoxia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fucoidan is a complex sulfated polysaccharide with a wide variety of biological activities for modulating immune cell functions. However, the effects of fucoidan on maturation process and activation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) remain to be elucidated. The present study demonstrated that the level of special marks and polarization phenotype of DCs was altered by fucoidan. Human monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 5 days followed by another 2 days in the presence of fucoidan or LPS. Then DCs were harvested on day 7 and were examined using functional assays. We demonstrated that fucoidan up-regulated the expression of HLA-DR and co-stimulatory molecules of DCs. However the endocytic activity was impaired markedly. Fucoidan induces their Th1-promoting tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) secretion, and enhances their allostimulatory capacity. In an allogeneic MLR assay, DCs treated with fucoidan were potent in the secretion of IL-12p70, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. Naive T cells stimulated by fucoidan-treated DCs differentiated towards a helper T cell type 1 (Th1) response depending on IL-12 secretion. These results suggest that fucoidan may induce immature DCs maturation and drive their differentiation towards a Th1-polarizing phenotype. Moreover, our data suggest that DCs appear to be a potential target for the immunomodulatory capacity of fucoidan and fucoidan may be used on DC-based vaccines for cancer immunotherapy.
International Immunopharmacology 10/2008; 8(13-14):1754-60. DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2008.08.007 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The migration of dendritic cells (DCs) from the site of antigen-encounter to regional lymphoid organs is crucial for DCs to function as potent antigen-presenting cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is critically for DCs migration across extracellular matrix (ECM). We verified in previous studies that hypoxia diminished the production of MMP-9 in human monocyte-derived DCs via an unknown mechanism. In this study, we found, for the first time to our knowledge, that hypoxia altered the expression of adenosine receptors on matured DCs (mDCs) toward the predominant expression of adenosine receptor A(2b). MRS1754 (an A(2b)-receptor specific antagonist) was able to counteract the inhibition of hypoxia on MMP-9 by mDCs. We also found that forskolin (a direct adenylate cyclase activator) can mimic the action of hypoxia on the production of MMP-9 by DCs, whereas the adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 and the PKA inhibitor H89 can abrogate the inhibition of MMP-9 produce by mDCs under hypoxia. The results herein provide initial evidence that the inhibitory effect of hypoxia on MMP-9 by mDCs requires the activation of A(2b) in a cAMP/PKA-dependent pathway. These data offer new insights into our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the migratory function of DCs in local-tissue hypoxic microenvironments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The involvement of the chemokine osteopontin has been proposed for maintaining successful pregnancy in mice and ruminants; however, little information of its function in human pregnancy is available. Osteopontin expression was assessed in decidua by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining in early pregnant women and RPL (recurrent pregnancy loss) patients. Osteopontin was expressed both in human decidual stromal cells and decidual natural killer (dNK) cells, and higher expression was detected in the later gestational phase compared to the early gestational phase. The osteopontin expression increased with pregnancy progression and higher osteopontin expression was correlated with a larger number of dNK cells. Compared with normal pregnancy, osteopontin expression and dNK cells accumulation were reduced significantly in RPL patients. Osteopontin expression was regulated by progesterone via an in vitro culture model. Our results indicated that osteopontin may play an important role in dNK recruitment and is an essential factor for successful pregnancy.
In vivo (Athens, Greece) 01/2008; 22(1):55-61. · 0.97 Impact Factor