[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cigarette smoke (CS) causes oxidative stress and severe damage to proteins in the lungs. One of the main systems to protect cells from the accumulation of damaged proteins is the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In the present study, we were interested whether CS exposure of alveolar epithelial cells induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response by accumulation of damaged proteins that are inefficiently degraded by the proteasomes. The hypothesis was tested in human alveolar epithelial cell line (A549) exposed to gas-phase CS. Exposure to gas-phase CS for 5 min caused an increase in the amount of ubiquitin-protein conjugates within 4 h. CS exposure also induced the ER stress response marker eIF2alpha, followed by a significant reduction of nascent protein synthesis and increase in the level of free intracellular amino acids. Moreover, CS exposure significantly reduced all three proteasomal activities (caspase-, trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like activity) within 4 h, which was still present after 24 h. It can be concluded that gas-phase CS induces ER stress in A549 alveolar epithelial cells leading to inadequate protein turnover caused by an accumulation of damaged proteins, reduction in nascent protein synthesis and inhibition of the proteasome. We suggest that prolonged ER stress may lead to an excessive cell death with disruption of the epithelial barrier, contributing to COPD development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to measure soluble dipeptidyl peptidase IV (sDPPIV) activity in sera of patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in comparison to healthy controls. The main goal was to assess changes in the enzyme activity in relation to severity of the disease, age and smoking history and to evaluate diagnostic accuracy for prediction of COPD by level of serum sDPPIV activity.
The study included 106 patients with stable COPD (GOLD II-GOLD IV stages) and 38 healthy controls. Serum sDPPIV activity as well as some inflammatory markers (CRP, total and differential leukocyte counts) was measured. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to analyze association of sDPPIV activity and inflammatory markers in risk estimation for COPD development.
sDPPIV activity in COPD patients was significantly reduced when compared to healthy controls. Decrease was observed already in GOLD II stage. Age and smoking history did not influence sDPPIV activity. Very good diagnostic accuracy (AUC=0.833; sensitivity and specificity of 85.7% and 78.9%, respectively) for GOLD II and good diagnostic accuracy (AUC=0.801; sensitivity and specificity of 65.1% and 86.8%, respectively) for total cohort of COPD patients were found. The multivariate logistic regression model showed that the use of sDPPIV in combination with CRP and lymphocyte proportion improved diagnostic strength and gave an AUC of 0.933.
sDPPIV activity is decreased in COPD patients as early as in GOLD II stage. Very good diagnostic accuracy of sDPPIV activity suggests it as a candidate biomarker for early diagnosis of COPD.