Ki Sung Kang

Ulsan University Hospital, Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea

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Publications (77)174.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and curcumin are well known to naturally-occurring anticancer agents. The aim of this study was to verify the combined beneficial anticancer effects of curcumin and EGCG on PC3 prostate cancer cells, which are resistant to chemotherapy drugs and apoptosis inducers. EGCG showed weaker inhibitory effect on PC3 cell proliferation than two other prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and DU145. Co-treatment of curcumin improved antiproliferative effect of EGCG on PC3 cells. The protein expressions of p21 were significantly increased by the co-treatment of EGCG and curcumin, whereas it was not changed by the treatment with each individual compound. Moreover, treatments of EGCG and curcumin arrested both S and G2/M phases of PC3 cells. These results suggest that the enhanced inhibitory effect of EGCG on PC3 cell proliferation by curcumin was mediated by the synergic up-regulation of p21-induced growth arrest and followed cell growth arrest.
    BMB reports 12/2014; · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors and consist of three isotypes: PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ. PPARs are expressed in various cell types in the skin, including keratinocytes, fibroblasts and infiltrating immune cells. Thus, these receptors are highly studied in dermato-endocrine research, and their ligands are targets for the treatment of various skin disorders, such as photo-aging and chronological aging of skin. Intensive studies have revealed that PPARα/γ functions in photo-aging and age-related inflammation by regulating matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). However, the detailed mechanism of PPARα/γ's role in photo-aging has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we confirmed that abietic acid (AA) is a PPARα/γ dual ligand and significantly decreased UVB-induced MMP-1 expression by downregulating UVB-induced MAPK signaling and downstream transcription factors, subsequently reducing IκBα degradation and blocking NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation in Hs68 human dermal fibroblast cells. Treatment of cells with AA and GW6471 or bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), PPARα or PPARγ antagonists, respectively, reversed the effect on UVB-induced MMP-1 expression and inflammatory signaling pathway activation. Taken together, our data suggest that AA acts as a PPARα/γ dual activator to inhibit UVB-induced MMP-1 expression and age-related inflammation by suppressing NF-κB and the MAPK/AP-1 pathway and can be a useful agent for improving skin photo-aging.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Experimental Dermatology 12/2014; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of sulforaphane analogues were synthesized with various amines by treatment of carbon disulfide followed by Boc2O and DMAP. These synthesized sulforaphane analogues were tested on cisplatin treated cultured LLC-PK1 kidney cell line. Among these analogues, several compounds including SF5 show a potent effect on kidney cell protection assay at the concentration of 2.5 μM. Further studies with compound SF5 revealed that the kidney cell protection effect was related by inhibiting the apoptosis pathway through JNK-p53-caspase apoptotic cascade. Compound SF5 may be considered as a promising candidate for the development of new kidney protection agent against drug induced acute kidney disease.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Because of poor prognosis, clinical treatment of triple-negative (TN) breast cancer remains the most challenging factor in cancer treatment. Extensive research into alternative cancer therapies includes studying the naturopathic effects of the medicinal herb ginseng. This study investigates the anti-neoplastic properties of ginseng sapogenins and the derivatives: (1) (20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD), (2) 20(S)-protopanaxatriol), (3) (20(S)-dihydroprotopanaxadiol, and (4) 20(S)-dihydroprotopanaxatriol). These compounds were found to prevent the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. PPD was the most potent inhibitor, exhibiting an IC50 (5.87μM) comparable to that of the chemotherapeutic drug taxol. Furthermore, PPD induced dose-dependent cleavage of caspase-8, caspase-3, and PARP in MDA-MB-231 cells. Thus, we propose that PPD acts as anti-cancer agent by stimulating caspase-dependent apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract On the search for anti-inflammatory compounds from natural Korean medicinal sources, a bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the MeOH extract from the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceum resulted in the isolation and identification of five benzyl alcohol derivatives (1-5). In this study, their anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators were examined using RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The structures of isolates were identified by comparing their spectroscopic data with previously reported values. The analysis of their inhibitory activities on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells showed that erinacerin B (2) and hericenone E (4) decreased the levels of NO and PGE2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. Next, this study was performed to examine their mechanism of action on the regulation of NO and PGE2 production. Compounds 2 and 4 were found to block the LPS-induced phosphorylation of two major inflammatory transcription factors, NF-κB (p65/p50) and AP-1 (c-Jun and c-Fos). Taken together, these results suggest that down-regulation of LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production by compounds 2 and 4 is mediated through the modulation of NF-κB and AP-1 activation in macrophage cells. These results impact the development of potential health products for preventing and treating inflammatory diseases.
    Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 08/2014; · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a series of catabolic process mediating the bulk degradation of intracellular proteins and organelles through formation of a double-membrane vesicle, known as an autophagosome, and fusing with lysosome. Autophagy plays an important role of death-survival decisions in neuronal cells, which may influence to several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease. Chebulagic acid, the major constituent of Terminalia chebula and Phyllanthus emblica, is a benzopyran tannin compound with various kinds of beneficial effects. This study was performed to investigate the autophagy enhancing effect of chebulagic acid on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell lines. We determined the effect of chebulagic acid on expression levels of autophago-some marker proteins such as, DOR/TP53INP2, Golgi-associated ATPase Enhancer of 16 kDa (GATE 16) and Light chain 3 II (LC3 II), as well as those of its upstream pathway proteins, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Beclin-1. All of those proteins were modulated by chebulagic acid treatment in a way of enhancing the autophagy. Additionally in our study, chebulagic acid also showed a protective effect against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) - induced cytotoxicity which mimics the pathological symptom of Parkinson's disease. This effect seems partially mediated by enhanced autophagy which increased the degradation of aggregated or misfolded proteins from cells. This study suggests that chebulagic acid is an attractive candidate as an autophagy-enhancing agent and therefore, it may provide a promising strategy to prevent or cure the diseases caused by accumulation of abnormal proteins including Parkinson's disease.
    Biomolecules & therapeutics. 07/2014; 22(4):275-81.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Glucocorticoids (GCs) are commonly used in many chemotherapeutic protocols and play an important role in the normal regulation of bone remodeling. However, the prolonged use of GCs results in osteoporosis, which is partially due to apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes. In this study, effects of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) of a GC-treated murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and a GC-induced osteoporosis mouse model were investigated. Methods MC3T3-E1 cells were exposed to dexamethasone (Dex) with or without KRG and cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Real-time PCR was done to evaluate the apoptotic gene expression, osteogenic gene expression and ALP activity were also measured. Western blotting was performed to evaluate the MAPK proteins. Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis animal model was used for in vivo study. Results and conclusion: MTT assay revealed that KRG prevents a loss of cell viability against dexamethasone (Dex) induced apoptosis in MC3T3E1 cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) data showed that groups treated with both Dex and KRG exhibited lower mRNA levels of caspase-3 and -9, whereas the mRNA levels of Bcl2, IAPs and XIAP increased. Moreover, groups treated with both Dex and KRG demonstrated increased mRNA levels of ALP, RUNX2, and BMPs as well as increased ALP activity in MC3T3-E1 cells compared to cells only treate with Dex. In addition, KRG increased AKT phosphorylation and decreased JNK phosphorylation. Also, Micro-CT analysis of the femurs showed that GC implantation caused trabecular bone loss. However, a significant reduction of bone loss was observed in the KRG-treated group. These results suggest that the molecular mechanism of KRG in the GC-induced apoptosis may lead to the development of therapeutic strategies to prevent and/or delay osteoporosis.
    Journal of ginseng research 07/2014; · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a pivotal cellular process during which epithelial polarized cells become motile mesenchymal-appearing cells, which, in turn, promotes the metastatic potential of cancer. Ginseng is a perennial plant belonging to the genus Panax that exhibits a wide range of pharmacological and physiological activities. Ginsenosides 20-Rg3, which is the active component of ginseng, has various medical effects, such as anti-tumorigenic, anti-angiogenesis, and anti-fatiguing activities. In addition, ginsenosides 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 are epimers, and this epimerization is produced by steaming. However, the possible role of 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 in the EMT is unclear. We investigated the effect of 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 on the EMT. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) induces the EMT to promote lung adenocarcinoma migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance. To understand the repressive role of 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 in lung cancer migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance, we investigated the potential use of 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 as inhibitors of TGF-β1-induced EMT development in A549 lung cancer cells in vitro. Here, we show that 20(R)-Rg3, but not 20(S)-Rg3, markedly increased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and repressed Snail upregulation and expression of the mesenchymal marker vimentin during initiation of the TGF-β1-induced EMT. 20(R)-Rg3 also inhibited the TGF-β1-induced increase in cell migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance of A549 lung cancer cells. Additionally, 20(R)-Rg3 markedly inhibited TGF-β1-regulated matrix metalloproteinase-2 and activation of Smad2 and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase. Taken together, our findings provide new evidence that 20(R)-Rg3 suppresses lung cancer migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance in vitro by inhibiting the TGF-β1-induced EMT.
    Toxicology 05/2014; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anti-cancer effects were compared amongst Taraxacum coreanum extract, its fractions, and 7 ingredients (β-sitosterol, daucosterol, taraxasteryl acetate, chrysoeriol, diosmetin, luteolin, and luteoloside). Exposure to the ethyl acetate fraction (50 and 100 μg/mL) of T. coreanum extract and luteolin (10 and 50 μM) for 24 h induced the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), caspase-3, and caspase-8, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate that luteolin is the main active component of T. coreanum extract activating caspases-3 and -8 which contribute to apoptotic cell death.
    Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry 04/2014; · 0.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ginsenoside Re is a triol type triterpene glycoside and is abundantly present in ginseng berry. In the present study, we verified that ginsenoside Re can be transformed into less-polar ginsenosides, namely, Rg2, Rg6, and F4, by heat-processing. The products of heat-processed ginsenoside Re inhibited phosphorylation of CDK2 at Thr160 by upregulation of p21 level, resulting in S phase arrest. The products of heat-processed ginsenoside Re also activated caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3, followed by cleavage of PARP, a substrate of caspase-3, in a dose-dependent manner. Concurrently, alteration of mitochondrial factors such as Bcl-2 and Bax was also observed. Moreover, pretreatment with Z-VAD-fmk abrogated caspase-8, -9, and -3 activations by the products of heat-processed ginsenoside Re. We further confirmed that the anticancer effects of the products of heat-processed ginsenoside Re in AGS cells are mainly mediated via generation of less-polar ginsenosides Rg6 and F4.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 03/2014; · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Potassium arylethynyltrifluoroborates, the intermediates generated by the Sonogashira reaction of potassium ethynyltrifluoroborate with various aryl halides, were directly coupled with azides in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of CuI under aqueous conditions, and the desired 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles were isolated in good yields. Both electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents on the potassium arylethynyltrifluoroborates gave moderate to excellent yields of the isolated products.
    ChemInform 03/2014; 45(11).
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the presence and mechanism of esculin-mediated renoprotection, to assess its therapeutic potential. Esculin was orally administered at 20 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks to streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, and its effects were compared with those of the vehicle in normal and diabetic mice. After oral administration of esculin to mice, the concentrations of esculin and esculetin in blood were 159.529.8 ng/mL and 9.74.9 ng/mL at 30 min, respectively. Food and water intake were significantly increased in the diabetic mice compared to normal mice, but were attenuated in mice receiving esculin. The elevated blood glucose level and hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase expression were significantly reduced in esculin-treated diabetic mice, supporting the anti-diabetic effect of esculin. Esculin also increased the uptake of glucose and induced the insulin-evoked phosphorylation of insulin receptor, Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase 3β in C2C12 myotubes, indicating a potential for improvement of insulin sensitivity. In addition, esculin lessened the elevated blood creatinine levels in diabetic mice and ameliorated diabetes-induced renal dysfunction by reducing caspase-3 activation in the kidney. The data support the beneficial effect of esculin against diabetes and oxidative stress-related inflammatory processes in the kidney.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 01/2014; · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The structural change of ginsenoside and the generation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) are important to the increase in the biological activities of Panax ginseng. This study was carried out to identify the renoprotective active component of P. ginseng using the Maillard reaction model experiment with ginsenoside Re and leucine. Ginsenoside Re was gradually converted into less-polar ginsenosides Rg2, Rg6 and F4 by heat-processing, followed by separation of the glucosyl moiety at carbon-20. The free radical-scavenging activity of the ginsenoside Re-leucine mixture was increased by heat-processing. The improved free radical-scavenging activity by heat-processing was mediated by the generation of MRPs from the reaction of glucose and leucine. The cisplatin-induced LLC-PK1 renal cell damage was also significantly reduced by treatment with MRPs. Moreover, the heat-processed glucose-leucine mixture (major MRPs from the ginsenoside Re-leucine mixture) showed protective effects against cisplatin-induced oxidative renal damage in rats through the inhibition of caspase-3 activation.
    Food Chemistry 01/2014; 143:114-21. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Research has been conducted with regard to the development of methods for improving the pharmaceutical effect of ginseng by conversion of ginsenosides, which are the major active components of ginseng, via high temperature or high-pressure processing. The present study sought to investigate the anticancer effect of heat-processed American ginseng (HAG) in human gastric cancer AGS cells with a focus on assessing the role of apoptosis as an important mechanistic element in its anticancer actions. HAG significantly reduced the cancer cell proliferation, and the contents of ginsenosides Rb1 and Re were markedly decreased, whereas the peaks of less-polar ginsenosides [20(S,R)-Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5] were newly detected. Based on the activity-guided fractionation of HAG, ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 played a key role in inducing apoptosis in human gastric cancer AGS cells, and it was generated mainly from ginsenoside Rb1. Ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 induced apoptosis through activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9, as well as regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that heat-processing serves as an increase in the antitumor activity of American ginseng in AGS cells, and ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3, the active component produced by heat-processing, induces the activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9, which contributes to the apoptotic cell death.
    Journal of ginseng research 01/2014; 38(1):22-7. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors and expressed in various cell types in the skin, including keratinocytes, fibroblasts and infiltrating immune cells. Thus, their ligands are targets for the treatment of various skin disorders, such as photo-aging and chronological aging of skin. Intensive studies have revealed that PPARα/γ functions in photo-aging and age-related inflammation by regulating matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) via activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). However, the detailed mechanism of PPARα/γ’s role in skin aging has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we confirmed that Sargahydroquinoic acid (SHQA) as a PPARα/γ ligand significantly decreased Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNFα)-induced MMP-2/-9 expression by downregulating TNFα-induced transcription factors, subsequently reducing IκBα degradation and blocking NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation in HaCaT human epidermal keratinocyte cells. Treatment of cells with SHQA and GW6471 (PPARα antagonist) not bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (PPARγ antagonists), reversed the effect on TNFα-induced inflammatory signaling pathway activation. Taken together, our data suggest that SHQA inhibit TNFα-induced MMP-2/-9 expression and age-related inflammation by suppressing AP-1 and NF-κB pathway via PPARα and is a useful agent for improving skin aging.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neobavaisoflavone (NBIF), an isoflavone isolated from Psoralea corylifolia (Leguminosae), has striking anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. NBIF inhibits the proliferation of prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a key endogenous molecule that selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells with little or no toxicity in normal cells. However, some cancer cells, including U373MG cells, are resistant to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. We demonstrated that the cell viability, migration and invasion assay were used in U373MG glioma cells. In this study, we found that NBIF sensitizes human U373MG glioma cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Co-treatment of TRAIL and NBIF effectively induced Bid cleavage and activated caspases 3, 8, and 9. Importantly, DR5 expression was upregulated by NBIF. We also observed that the combination NBIF and TRAIL increased expression of BAX. We further demonstrate that NBIF induced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human glioma cells by suppressing migration and invasion, and by inhibiting anoikis resistance. Taken together, our results suggest that NBIF reduces the resistance of cancer cells to TRAIL and that the combination of NBIF and TRAIL may be a new therapeutic strategy for treating TRAIL-resistant glioma cells.
    Life sciences 11/2013; · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy is one of the serious complications in patients with either type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus but current treatments remain unsatisfactory. Results of clinical research studies demonstrate that Panax ginseng can help adjust blood pressure and reduce blood sugar and may be advantageous in the treatment of tuberculosis and kidney damage in people with diabetes. The heat-processing method to strengthen the efficacy of P. ginseng has been well-defined based on a long history of ethnopharmacological evidence. The protective effects of P. ginseng on pathological conditions and renal damage associated with diabetic nephropathy in the animal models were markedly improved by heat-processing. The concentrations of less-polar ginsenosides (20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1) and maltol in P. ginseng were significantly increased in a heat-processing temperature-dependent manner. Based on researches in animal models of diabetes, ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 and maltol were evaluated to have therapeutic potential against diabetic renal damage. These effects were achieved through the inhibition of inflammatory pathway activated by oxidative stress and advanced glycation endproducts. These findings indicate that ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 and maltol are important bioactive constituents of heat-processed ginseng in the control of pathological conditions associated with diabetic nephropathy.
    Journal of ginseng research 10/2013; 37(4):379-388. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The root of ginseng is a famous functional food and a herbal medicine. Research into the development of a method for increasing the pharmaceutical effect of ginseng by conversion of ginsenosides, the major active components of ginseng, by high temperature and high pressure thermal processing has been conducted. However, changes in the structures of each ginsenoside by heat-processing and their contributions to anticancer activity have not been fully elucidated yet. Here, we investigated whether anticancer activity of ginsenosides, such as Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd and Re, was associated with changes in the structures of each ginsenoside by heat-processing in human stomach cancer AGS cells. Upon heat-processing at 120°C, most peaks of ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc and Rd disappeared, and the contents of less-polar ginsenosides 20(S,R)-Rg3, Rk1 and Rg5 were newly detected. From the quantitative analysis of ginsenosides, the generated amounts of less-polar ginsenosides were the highest after heat-processing of ginsenoside Rd. After heat-processing, the diol type ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc and Rd gained significant antiproliferative activity. In particular, ginsenoside Rd induced strongest cell death among the diol type ginsenosides, whereas the triol type gisenoside Re showed weak antiproliferative activity. Ginsenoside Rd-induced cell death was associated with caspase-dependent apoptosis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that deglycosylation of Rd contributes to improved anticancer activity of ginseng, and provide new insight on the mechanism of increased anticancer effects of ginsenosides upon heat-processing.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 08/2013; · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ginsenosides are the main active components of Panax ginseng. Structural changes in diol type ginsenosides along with generation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) are strongly associated with increased free radical-scavenging activities. Ginsenoside Re, one of the major triol type ginsenosides of P. ginseng, possesses a hydrophobic four-ring steroid-like structure with hydrophilic sugar moieties at carbons-3 and -20. The aim of the present study was to identify changes in the structure, antioxidant and anticancer effects of ginsenoside Re upon Maillard reaction. Ginsenoside Re was transformed into less-polar ginsenosides, namely Rg(2), Rg(6) and F(4) by heat-processing. Free radical-scavenging activity of the ginsenoside Re-lysine mixture increased upon heat processing. This improved free radical-scavenging activity mediated by antioxidant MRPs, which were generated through Maillard reaction of a glucosyl moiety separated from carbon-20 of ginsenoside Re and lysine. The increased anticancer effect of ginsenoside Re-lysine mixture upon heat processing was mainly derived from the generation of less-polar ginsenosides through the regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax, as well as caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. These results reported here have shed significant new lights on the mechanism of increased antioxidant and anticancer effects of P. ginseng upon heat processing.
    Food Chemistry 06/2013; 138(2-3):876-83. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ginsenoside Re, one of the major triol type ginsenosides contained in Panax ginseng, has a hydrophobic four-ring steroid-like structure with hydrophilic sugar moieties at carbon-3 and -20. The aim of the present study was to identify the changes in structure and antioxidant activity of ginsenoside Re by the Maillard reaction, which has not been reported yet. The free radical-scavenging activity of ginsenoside Re-alanine mixture was increased by heat-processing. Ginsenoside Re was gradually changed into Rg(2), Rg(6) and F(4) by heat-processing, and the glucosyl moiety at carbon-20 was separated. The improved-free radical-scavenging activity by heat-processing was mediated by the generation of antioxidant Maillard reaction products (MRPs). Antioxidant MRPs were generated from the reaction of glucose and alanine. Based on the viability results of LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells, MRPs and less-polar ginsenosides contributed to the combined renoprotective effect against oxidative renal damage. Maillard reaction is importantly involved in the increased antioxidant effect of ginsenoside by heat-processing.
    Food Chemistry 12/2012; 135(4):2430-5. · 3.33 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

807 Citations
174.68 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Ulsan University Hospital
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
    • Gachon University
      Sŏngnam, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2011–2014
    • Korea Institute of Science and Technology
      • Center for Neuro-Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2013
    • Pusan National University
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 2010–2012
    • Kansas City VA Medical Center
      Kansas City, Missouri, United States
  • 2006–2012
    • University of Toyama
      • Institute of Natural Medicine
      Тояма, Toyama, Japan
    • Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University
      Тояма, Toyama, Japan
  • 2008–2009
    • Seoul National University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Busan Kyungsang College
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 2007–2008
    • Mokpo National University
      • Department of Medicinal Plant Resources
      Moppo, South Jeolla, South Korea