Lin Lu

Peking University, Peping, Beijing, China

Are you Lin Lu?

Claim your profile

Publications (259)1052.77 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS), which combines battery for long-term energy management and supercapacitor for fast dynamic power regulation, is proposed for remote area renewable energy power supply systems. The operation of a passive connected HESS was examined via both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation using Matlab/Simulink. An electric inductor was further introduced to improve the performance of the HESS. An experimental test bench was developed to validate the simulation results. It was demonstrated that the HESS can stabilize energy provision, not only for the intermittent renewable energy (RE), but also for fluctuating load applications.
    Applied Energy 09/2015; 153:56-62. DOI:10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.12.008 · 5.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a set of indoor and outdoor measurement methods and procedures to determine the empirical coefficients of the Sandia Array Performance Model (SAPM) for a semi-transparent amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV module. After determining and inputting the total 39 parameters into the SAPM, the dynamic power output of the a-Si PV module was predicted. In order to validate the accuracy of using SAPM for simulating the energy output of the a-Si PV module, a long-term outdoor testing campaign was conducted. The results indicated that the SAPM with indoor and outdoor measured coefficients could accurately simulate the energy output of the a-Si PV module on sunny days, but it didn't work well on overcast days due to the inappropriate spectral correction as well as the equipment measuring error caused by the intense fluctuation of solar irradiance on overcast days. Specifically, all the errors between the simulated daily energy output and the measured one were less than 4% on sunny days. In order to achieve a better prediction performance for a-Si PV technologies, the SAPM was suggested to incorporate a more comprehensive spectral correction function to correct the impact of solar spectrum on overcast days in future.
    Renewable Energy 08/2015; 80. DOI:10.1016/j.renene.2015.02.017 · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent research has used context cues (odor or auditory cues) to target memories during sleep and has demonstrated that they can enhance declarative and procedural memories. However, the effects of external cues re-presented during sleep on emotional memory are still not fully understood. In the present study, we conducted a Pavlovian fear conditioning/extinction paradigm and examined the effects of re-exposure to extinction memory associated contextual tones during slow-wave sleep (SWS) and wakefulness on fear expression. The participants underwent fear conditioning on the first day, during which colored squares served as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and a mild shock served as the unconditioned stimulus (US). The next day, they underwent extinction, during which the CSs were presented without the US but accompanied by a contextual tone (pink noise). Immediately after extinction, the participants were required to take a nap or remain awake and randomly assigned to six groups. Four of the groups were separately exposed to the associated tone (i.e. SWS-Tone group and Wake-Tone group) or an irrelevant tone (controltone, CtrT) (i.e. SWS-CtrT group and Wake-CtrT group), while the other two groups were not (i.e. SWS-No Tone group and Wake-No Tone group). Subsequently, the conditioned responses to the CSs were tested to evaluate the fear expression. All of the participants included in the final analysis showed successful levels of fear conditioning and extinction. During the recall test, the fear responses were significantly higher in the SWS-Tone group than that in the SWS-No Tone group or the SWS-CtrT group, while the Wake-Tone group exhibited more attenuated fear responses than either the Wake-No Tone group or Wake-CtrT group. Otherwise, re-exposure to auditory tones during SWS did not affect sleep profiles. These results suggested that distinct conditions during which re-exposure to an extinction memory associated contextual cue contributes to differential effects on fear expression. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 06/2015; 123. DOI:10.1016/j.nlm.2015.06.005 · 4.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The research on heat transfer models of geothermal ground heat exchangers (GHEs) of ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system has recently advanced greatly. However, although it is important to optimize the design size of GHEs for reducing the total length of GHEs, the optimization of GHEs by means of models is a little. This paper describes the interior simulation models of borehole in which single U-tube and double U-tubes are each buried. The analytical solutions concerning the borehole's exterior heat transfer are given. All the factors that exert influences on the design size of GHEs are described based on the results of the heat transfer models. These significant parameters consist of the centre to centre distance of the U-tube, thermal conductivity of the backfill material, distance of adjacent boreholes, types of circulating liquid or underground medium, arrangement of boreholes, and the minimum temperature of the circulating liquid which enters the heat pump. Using the simulation models and computer programming, the influence degrees of the above factors are discussed in terms of the adoption of different values or types. Therefore, the initial cost and the economic performance of the system are respectively dropped and improved. The investigation on optimization of GHEs is favourable for the further development of GCHP technology.
    Applied Thermal Engineering 06/2015; 84. DOI:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2015.03.023 · 2.62 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a new spiral source heat transfer model for simulating the heat transfer performance of pile foundation ground heat exchangers (GHEs) with existence of groundwater transfusion. The model takes heat conduction and convection of groundwater into account and is more accurate than those previously proposed such as solid cylindrical model and ring-coil model to describe the heat transfer behavior. Besides, some shortages and deficiencies are improved and overcome, especially in terms of the configuration of spiral heat transfer tubes. The analytical solutions of the model are obtained to exhibit the temperature response at any point in the underground medium around the pile foundation GHEs. The parameters that exert impacts on the heat transfer process has been investigated and discussed in the paper. The pure conduction case and combined heat transfer case are compared, and the heat exchange efficiency between the pile foundation GHEs and surrounding medium can be improved as a result of the influence of groundwater transfusion. The meliorative effect is becoming increasingly evident with time or velocity of groundwater. The research contributes to more understanding of the potential for pile foundation GHEs and the degrees which the heat transfer efficiency affected by groundwater flow.
    International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 05/2015; 84. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2014.12.036 · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fear extinction forms a new memory but does not erase the original fear memory. Exposure to novelty facilitates transfer of short-term extinction memory to long-lasting memory. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Using a classical contextual fear-conditioning model, we investigated the effect of novelty on long-lasting extinction memory in rats. We found that exposure to a novel environment but not familiar environment 1 h before or after extinction enhanced extinction long-term memory (LTM) and reduced fear reinstatement. However, exploring novelty 6 h before or after extinction had no such effect. Infusion of the β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) inhibitor propranolol and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) inhibitor RU486 into the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus before novelty exposure blocked the effect of novelty on extinction memory. Propranolol prevented activation of the hippocampal PKA-CREB pathway, and RU486 prevented activation of the hippocampal extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2)-CREB pathway induced by novelty exposure. These results indicate that the hippocampal βAR-PKA-CREB and GR-Erk1/2-CREB pathways mediate the extinction-enhancing effect of novelty exposure. Infusion of RU486 or the Erk1/2 inhibitor U0126, but not propranolol or the PKA inhibitor Rp-cAMPS, into the CA1 before extinction disrupted the formation of extinction LTM, suggesting that hippocampal GR and Erk1/2 but not βAR or PKA play critical roles in this process. These results indicate that novelty promotes extinction memory via hippocampal βAR- and GR-dependent pathways, and Erk1/2 may serve as a behavioral tag of extinction. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/358308-14$15.00/0.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 05/2015; 35(21):8308-21. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0005-15.2015 · 6.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Due to the complicated structure, experimental studies of internally cooled dehumidifiers are much less than those of adiabatic ones. The complicated structure also results in error in deciding the real contact area for calculating the mass transfer coefficient. Moreover, it was found experimental studies of liquid desiccant dehumidifiers in Hong Kong were still limited and the analysis of influencing factors was not comprehensive. Therefore, in present work, a single channel internally cooled dehumidifier was designed for comprehensive investigation of its performance under various conditions. It was easy to observe the contact area with the test rig, making the calculation of mass transfer coefficient more accurate. The air state points were set on the basis of Hong Kong climate. The results indicated that the liquid desiccant dehumidification was very suited to this region. The experimental results also showed good agreement with our previous simulation results in terms of the influence of the air flow rate. In particular, the advantage of present study was that more intensive analysis of the influences of various factors was reported.
    Building and Environment 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.buildenv.2015.05.022 · 2.70 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a multi-population genetic algorithm (MPGA) program for wind turbine layout optimization in a wind farm which aims at extracting the maximum power in a minimum investment cost. The MPGA program is applied to a 2 km×2 km wind farm considering three different wind scenarios, i.e. (a): constant wind speed of 12 m/s with fixed wind direction; (b): constant wind speed of 12 m/s with variable wind direction and (c): variable wind speed of 8 m/s, 12 m/s, 17 m/s with variable wind directions. Compared with previous studies, the results of power generation cost of energy and wind farm efficiency are improved in the paper using MPGA which validate that MPGA works effectively in wind turbine layout optimization with wind farm. Additionally, a case study of wind turbine layout configuration op1timization using the MPGA program in a hypothetical offshore wind farm located in Hong Kong southeastern water is attempted using the 20 years׳ wind data from 1992 to 2011. The optimization result is beneficial for the assessment of the offshore wind power potential in Hong Kong. It is indicated that, under the optimization of wind turbines layout in the wind farm, 39.14×108 kWh/year electricity can be converted from the offshore wind farm, which occupies 9.09% of the 2012 electricity consumption in Hong Kong. Results show that the multi-population genetic algorithm program can be applied in any real-world wind farms for wind turbine layout optimization when the wind farm boundary is determined as well as the local wind condition is obtained.
    Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 04/2015; 139. DOI:10.1016/j.jweia.2015.01.018 · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A liquid desiccant air conditioning system is one possible substitute for the high energy consumption of the conventional system. The dehumidifier performance is of great importance as it is the key component of such systems. Film thickness plays a vital role in determining the heat and mass transfer performance of a falling film dehumidifier. However, no experimental studies on the liquid film thickness of the dehumidifier within liquid desiccant air conditioning systems have been conducted. Therefore, the film thickness of LiCl solution flow in a single channel dehumidifier is chosen to be investigated in this study. It was found that the mean film thickness without air flow followed the same trend as that predicted by the Nusselt relation, but was about 20% greater. The opposite air flow exerted a shear force on the liquid film to increase the mean film thickness non-linearly. The mean and changing film thickness over time are studied and comparisons made between the lower and upper points of the film. When no air flow existed, the mean film thickness at the lower point was found to be about 10.7%–16.3% thicker than at the upper point. An increase of the air velocity enhanced the wave at both the upper and lower points. The falling film statistical characteristics are also analyzed, and the probability density of the film thickness was found to effectively describe the flow condition. It was also shown that an increase in both the solution flow rate and air velocity enhanced the surface wave velocity.
    Energy 03/2015; 84. DOI:10.1016/j.energy.2015.02.091 · 4.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study presented in this paper is based on a detailed review of the literature focused on the use of phase change materials (PCM) for photovoltaic (PV) module thermal regulation and electrical efficiency improvement. The influence of high temperature on PV power generation has been examined and the findings have highlighted the importance of effective thermal regulation for PV models. Various PV cooling methods employed to maintain better PV performance are discussed and the recently emerging PV-PCM system concept for thermal regulation is introduced. A comprehensive literature review of the state-of-the-art aspects of this technology, such as system development, performance evaluation, materials selection, heat transfer improvement, numerical models, simulation, and application in practice is given. The PV-PCM system, however, might not be economically feasible if the enhancement of PV efficiency only is sought. The PV-ST-PCM system, i.e. integrated with a solar thermal (ST) system, has therefore been investigated as the stored heat can be extracted for other thermal applications. The dual PCM roles demonstrate significant application prospects for the combined technology. However, both PV-PCM and PV-ST-PCM systems are still mainly in the research and laboratory test stages, with obvious scope for practical applications but with attendant challenges. Suggestions for the future work are presented.
    Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 03/2015; 43:1273-1284. DOI:10.1016/j.rser.2014.12.003 · 5.51 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Individual response to opioid analgesics varies among patients. This study sought to clarify the impact of distinct genetic variations on pain, opioid consumption, and opioid side effects in patients with postoperative pain. A systematic review and meta-analysis of associations between genetic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and opioids used for acute postoperative pain. This meta-analysis examined all studies involving an association between genetic polymorphisms and the analgesic efficacy or clinical outcome of opioid analgesics for postoperative pain. A literature search was performed up to January 31, 2014, using the PubMed, EMBase, ISI Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. Fifty-nine studies were included in this systematic review, and 23 studies (a total of 5,902 patients) were included in the final meta-analysis. The results showed that human μ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) 118G allele variant carriers consumed more opioids for analgesia (SMD = -0.17, 95% CI = [-0.25, -0.10], P < 0.00001), but reported higher pain scores (MD = -0.11, 95% CI = [-0.17, -0.04], P = 0.002) and less nausea and vomiting (odds ratio = 1.30, 95% CI = [1.08, 1.55], P = 0.005) than the homozygous 118AA patients during the first 24 hour but not the 48 hour postoperative period. Moreover, CYP3A4*1G carriers consumed less opioids than homozygous CYP3A4*1/*1 patients during the first 24 hours postoperative period (MD = 45.12, 95% CI = [36.17, 54.06], P < 0.00001). No significant differences were found in CYP3A5*3, ABCB1 C3435T, and G2477T/A genetic polymorphisms. Some potential non-genetic factors can modify the effects of gene SNP on pain and opioid consumption during the postoperative period, such as age, gender, mood, anxiety, and drug-drug interactions. But further analyses could not be performed in the present meta-analysis due to limited information. The results indicate that among the genetic SNPs we studied which include those affecting analgesic drug metabolism, transport of analgesic agents across the blood-brain barrier, and their activity at target receptors and ion channels and in the modulation of neurotransmitter pathways, the A118G allele variant of OPRM1 has the most potent influence on pain management of postoperative patients. Opioid receptor gene information may provide valuable information for clinicians to properly manage the analgesic use of opioids individually for better pain management. Postoperative pain, meta-analysis, single-nucleotide polymorphism, opioid.
    Pain physician 03/2015; 18(2):131-52. · 4.77 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neuroplasticity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) after fear conditioning has been suggested to regulate the formation and expression of fear memory. Protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ), an isoform of protein kinase C with persistent activity, is involved in the formation and maintenance of memory. However, less is known about the role of PKMζ in the PFC in the formation of fear memory. We investigated whether the overexpression of PKMζ enhances the formation of auditory fear memory in rats. We found that microinfusion of lentiviral vector-expressing PKMζ into the prelimbic cortex (PrL) selectively enhanced the expression of PKMζ without influencing the expression of other isoforms of PKC. The overexpression of PKMζ in the PrL enhanced the formation of long-term fear memory without affecting short-term fear memory, whereas the overexpression of PKMζ in the infralimbic cortex had no effect on either short-term or long-term fear memory. The overexpression of PKMζ in the PrL had no effect on anxiety-like behavior or locomotor activity. We also found that PKMζ overexpression potentiated the fear conditioning-induced increase in the membrane levels of glutamate subunit 2 of AMPA receptors in the PrL. These results demonstrate that the overexpression of PKMζ in the PrL but not infralimbic cortex selectively enhanced the formation of long-term fear memory, and PKMζ in the PrL may be involved in the formation of fear memory.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 27 February 2015. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.56.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 02/2015; DOI:10.1038/npp.2015.56 · 7.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Psychiatric disorders have a negative impact on society and human lives. Genetic factors are involved in the occurrence and development of psychiatric diseases. ZNF804A has been identified as one of the most compelling risk genes associated with broad phenotypes related to psychosis. We conducted a systematic meta-analysis and reviewed ZNF804A variants in psychosis-related disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. We also summarized the association between other zinc finger protein genes (ZNFs) and psychiatric diseases. The meta-analysis included a total of six variants of ZNF804A and three variants of other ZNFs (ZDHHC8 and ZKSCAN4), and the effects of ZNF variants on neurocognition and neuroimaging phenotypes were reviewed. The biological functions of these variants are also presented. We verified that ZNF804A was significantly related to psychiatric diseases, and the association between ZNF804A rs1344706 and psychosis (schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) did not vary with disease or ethnicity. The main brain area regulated by ZNF804A rs1344706 was the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The effect of ZNF804A variants on cognition did not display consistency with different diseases or methodologies. These findings suggest that ZNF804A might play an important role in common pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases, and its variants are likely involved in regulating the expression of psychosis-related genes, especially the dopamine pathway genes. Further research should focus on the molecular mechanisms by which ZNF804A variants act in psychiatric diseases and related phenotypes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Schizophrenia Research 02/2015; 162(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2015.01.036 · 4.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There are three inhabited islands in Hong Kong beyond the reach of the utility grid. Currently they are powered by diesel generators with fuel supplied by barge. To reduce dependence on diesel and improve power supply quality, the government is planning to explore locally available renewable energy for power generation on the islands. In this study, several power supply options such as renewable energy and diesel power generation were considered for one remotely located community. A techno-economic analysis and a detailed hourly simulation were performed to find an optimal autonomous system configuration. The results were evaluated in terms of power supply quality, life cycle cost, payback time, and greenhouse gas emission. The effects of load variation on system configuration and cost were also examined. The feasibility study demonstrates that the hybrid solar–wind–diesel–battery system could provide the optimal techno-economic performance, and this scenario was discussed with elaborate analysis. The study also shows that the energy dispatch strategy is very important for a system consisting of two dispatchable sources. Compared to a fully renewable energy system, the introduction of a back-up diesel generator in the hybrid energy system can be a more viable option, even though high diesel fuel cost is needed.
    International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems 02/2015; 65:1–11. DOI:10.1016/j.ijepes.2014.09.023 · 3.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper studied the thermal and power performances of a ventilated photovoltaic façade under different ventilation modes, and appropriate operation strategies for different weather conditions were proposed accordingly to maximize its energy conversion efficiency. This ventilated PV double-skin façade (PV-DSF) consists of an outside layer of semi-transparent amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV laminate, an inward-openable window and a 400 mm airflow cavity. Before installation, the electrical characteristics under standard testing conditions (STC) and the temperature coefficients of the semi-transparent PV module were tested and determined in the laboratory. Field measurements were carried out to investigate the impact of different ventilation modes, namely, ventilated, buoyancy-driven ventilated and non-ventilated, on the thermal and power performances of this PV-DSF. The results show that the ventilated PV-DSF provides the lowest average solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) and the non-ventilated PV-DSF provides the best thermal insulation performance. In terms of power performance, the energy output of the ventilated PV-DSF is greater than those of the buoyancy-driven ventilated and non-ventilated PV-DSFs by 1.9% and 3%, respectively, due to its much lower operating temperature. Based on the experimental results, a conclusion was drawn that the ventilation design can not only reduce the heat gain of PV-DSF but also improve the energy conversion efficiency of PV modules by bringing down their operating temperature. In addition, an optimum operation strategy is recommended for this kind of PV-DSF to maximize its overall energy efficiency under different weather conditions.
    Applied Energy 01/2015; 138:572-583. DOI:10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.10.003 · 5.26 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To characterize trends in drug abuse in China before and after the 2005 initiation of the 'People's War on Drugs'. Retrospective self-controlled study. Annual, nation-wide surveillance from 2003 to 2010 of all registered drug users in China's National Surveillance System on Drug Abuse (NSSDA). A total of 1 184 124 drug users registered in NSSDA were involved in this study and were classified into three groups based on registered dates-pre-war group (n = 230 278) registered 2003-04, phase I group (n = 518 651) registered 2005-07 and phase II group (n = 435 195) registered 2008-10. Indicators included proportions of:(i) new and relapsed drug users, (ii) heroin and synthetic drug users among new users, (iii) people aged 35 years or younger and (iv) women. Comparisons were made across groups using annual data to describe temporal trends. Between 2003 and 2010 the proportion of heroin users decreased by 52.3% and synthetic drugs use increased 860.7% among new users, while a 12.8% decrease in the proportion of heroin users and a 918.8% increase in synthetic drug use in all users was detected. Compared with the pre-war group, the proportion of relapsed users decreased 2.6% and 29.1% in the phase I and phase II groups, respectively, but a significant increase in the proportion of new users was found in phase I (OR = 1.24, CI = 1.15-1.35, p < 0.0001), followed by an apparent decrease in phase II compared with phase I (OR = 0.75, CI = 0.70-0.80, p < 0.0001). Similarly, the proportion of heroin users decreased 15.1 and 24.2% among new drug users in phase I and phase II in comparison with the pre-war group. The decrease in proportions of drug users in China between 2003/4 and 2008/10 may suggest some positive influence of the 'People's War on Drugs', especially in the decreased proportion of relapsed users. In contrast, there was a rapid increase in new synthetic drug use over the same period. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
    Addiction 01/2015; 110 Suppl 1:4-10. DOI:10.1111/add.12769 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Standalone renewable energy (RE) systems hold the most promising solution to the electrification of remote areas without utility grid access, while a feasible energy storage is a core part for achieving a continuous and reliable power supply since RE is usually intermittent and weather dependent. In the present study, the pumped hydro storage system is proposed, which is considered as a promising technology for solar energy penetration and particularly for small autonomous systems in remote areas. The mathematical models for the major components are developed, and system reliability and economic criteria are discussed as a benchmark for optimization. The genetic algorithm (GA), along with Pareto optimality concept, is used for the system techno-economic optimization: to maximize power supply reliability and minimize system lifecycle cost simultaneously. The proposed methodology is applied on a real remote inhabited island without power supply. System sizing, simulation and optimization are carried out using single-objective and double-objective GA technique. The performance of the optimal case under zero LPSP is examined. This study demonstrates that the proposed models and optimization algorithm is effective and can be used for other similar studies in the future.
    Applied Energy 01/2015; 137:649-659. DOI:10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.06.005 · 5.26 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AimTo investigate the characteristics of the different club drugs and associated high-risk sexual behaviours in China.DesignMulticentre cross-sectional study.SettingDrug Detoxification and Rehabilitation Centres in six provinces, China.ParticipantsA total of 1434 eligible club drug users were included.MeasurementsParticipants were investigated by trained interviewers using a self-designed structured questionnaire to collect information on club drug use and associated behaviours.FindingsMethamphetamine was the most commonly abused drug in participants (73.92%), who used it in their or their friends' homes by non-injection for the purpose of feeling euphoria. Among participants with sexual behaviours after club drug use, 75.21% reported having engaged in sex with multiple partners after club drug use during the past year and 79.84% had unprotected sex after using club drug during the past year. A two-level logistic model showed that male gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 7.14; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.17–12.5], unmarried (AOR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.04–2.79), long duration of club drug use during their life-time (AOR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.28–2.42) and severe acute intoxication after using club drugs during the past year (AOR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.07–4.15) were independent risk factors of multiple sex partners during the past year. Another two-level model showed that the club drug users who were female (AOR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.03–3.11) and had polydrug use during their lifetime (AOR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.01–2.34) had more risk for unprotected sex during the past year than without these characteristics.Conclusion High-risk sexual behaviours are common among club drug users in China. The prevention and intervention of club drug use could decrease the risk of sexual behaviours which further prevent HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted infections in China.
    Addiction 01/2015; 110(S1). DOI:10.1111/add.12770 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Anatase TiO2 nanowires (ATN) have been successfully synthesized via a topotactic chemical transformation. The as-prepared ATN have an average diameter of around 30 nm with 1-2 micrometers in length. The electrochemical properties are investigated by constant current discharge/charge measurements. When charged at a rate of 150 mAg−1, the initial discharge capacity is about 400 mAh g−1, a reversible capacity of 168 mAh g−1 was retained after 100 charge-discharge cycles,. This method is shown to be an effective and facile technique for improving the electrochemical performance for applications in rechargeable LIBs. The TiO2 nanowire was shown to be a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries, especially on the fast charging and discharging performance.
    Energy Procedia 12/2014; 61:2562-2566. DOI:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.12.046
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With widespread application of ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system, heat transfer process of pile ground heat exchanger (PGHE) has attracted much attention. Previous researches, studying the impact of groundwater flow, mainly focus on the PGHE with cast-in U-tubes. However, compared with the PGHE with U-tubes, PGHE with cast-in spiral coils has better heat transfer performance and is more suitable for a modern city with high building density. Therefore, in this paper, a 3-D simulation model and a simplified analytical model are established to investigate the influence of groundwater flow on the thermal performance of PGHE with cast-in spiral coils. A comparison between these two models is carried out. Both numerical and analytical results show that the groundwater flow has an enhancing effect on the heat transfer performance of the PGHE with spiral coils and can accelerate the heat transfer process into stability. When the seepage velocity is 1e-5 m/s, the average enhancing rate is 22.98%.
    Energy Procedia 12/2014; 61:1784-1788. DOI:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.12.212

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,052.77 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2015
    • Peking University
      • Institute of Mental Health
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2002–2015
    • The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
      • Department of Building Services Engineering
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2004–2014
    • The University of Hong Kong
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2010
    • Ningbo University
      Ning-po, Zhejiang Sheng, China
    • Capital Medical University
      • School of Public Health and Family Medicine
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2007
    • National Institute on Drug Abuse
      Роквилл, Maryland, United States
  • 2005
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States