Lin Lu

Peking University, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (219)842.17 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There are three inhabited islands in Hong Kong beyond the reach of the utility grid. Currently they are powered by diesel generators with fuel supplied by barge. To reduce dependence on diesel and improve power supply quality, the government is planning to explore locally available renewable energy for power generation on the islands. In this study, several power supply options such as renewable energy and diesel power generation were considered for one remotely located community. A techno-economic analysis and a detailed hourly simulation were performed to find an optimal autonomous system configuration. The results were evaluated in terms of power supply quality, life cycle cost, payback time, and greenhouse gas emission. The effects of load variation on system configuration and cost were also examined. The feasibility study demonstrates that the hybrid solar–wind–diesel–battery system could provide the optimal techno-economic performance, and this scenario was discussed with elaborate analysis. The study also shows that the energy dispatch strategy is very important for a system consisting of two dispatchable sources. Compared to a fully renewable energy system, the introduction of a back-up diesel generator in the hybrid energy system can be a more viable option, even though high diesel fuel cost is needed.
    International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems 01/2015; 65:1–11. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Repeated exposure to a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) in the absence of a noxious unconditioned stimulus (US) elicits fear memory extinction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of mild tone exposure (CS) during slow wave sleep (SWS) on fear memory extinction in humans.
    Sleep 10/2014; · 5.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel blue phase-mixed anatase-rutile TiO2 heterogeneous junctions composite, as anode material in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), is built via surface defect induced method. The as-synthesized composites exhibit outstanding rate capability (93 mAh g-1 at 20 C), and good cyclic stability (7.35% capacity loss after 200 cycles at 10 C).
    RSC Advances 09/2014; · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • Renewable Energy 09/2014; 69:7–15. · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Ronghui Qi, Lin Lu
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    ABSTRACT: LDAC (liquid desiccant air-conditioning system) is promising for reducing the energy consumption, and improving the indoor air quality. In this paper, the operation performance of LDAC with internally cooled/heated dehumidifier/regenerator was simulated and optimized. The cooling tower and solar collectors were employed as the cooling/heating source. Four nested iteration loops were developed and solved for system modeling. A typical commercial building in Hong Kong was selected as a case study, which air-conditioning load was obtained by Energy-plus. Results show that with the increase of solar collector area, the electricity consumption of AC (air-conditioning systems) system reduced by 11–35% in original system, but only a part of dehumidification demand was handled with liquid desiccant ventilation, which led to a low chiller COP (coefficient of performance). By adding a cooling coil for the solution entering dehumidifier, the electricity saving effectively increased to 22–47%, while the heat demand for regeneration also increased by 17%. So, a heat exchanger between water leaving regenerator and solution leaving dehumidifier was introduced. With the lower thermal requirement (reduced by 20%) and higher solar fraction (increased from 30 to 40%), the saving further increased to 29–49%, and the required collector area obviously reduced by 50–60% for the similar energy saving purpose.
    Energy 08/2014; 73:801–808. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A simulation model for modeling photovoltaic (PV) system power generation and performance prediction is described in this paper. First, a comprehensive literature review of simulation models for PV devices and determination methods was conducted. The well-known five-parameter model was selected for the present study, and solved using a novel combination technique which integrated an algebraic simultaneous calculation of the parameters at standard test conditions (STC) with an analytical determination of the parameters under real operating conditions. In addition, the simulation performance of the model was compared with other models, and further validated by outdoor tests, which indicate that the proposed model fits well the entire set of experimental field test I–V curves of the PV module, especially at the characteristic points. After validation, this model was employed to predict the PV system power output under real conditions. The results show that the predictions agree very well with the PV plant field collected data. Thus, the operating performance of a standalone PV system located on a remote island in Hong Kong has been further evaluated with the aid of this model. It is found that the PV array power output is restricted by the status of the battery bank. This research demonstrates that the PV simulation model developed during the study is simple, but very helpful to PV system engineers in understanding the I–V curves and for accurately predicting PV system power production under outdoor conditions.
    Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 08/2014; 36:304–315. · 5.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Optimal WT (wind turbine) layout patterns relate in detail to the specific conditions of OWF (offshore wind farm) environments and therefore each is different. This paper presents an investigation into optimal WT layout patterns for three OWF configurations (aligned, staggered, scattered) in HK (Hong Kong) waters. A hypothetical OWF (6930 m × 9072 m) are analysed based on twenty years of wind data (1992–2011). For the aligned and staggered WFs, different WT layout separations are studied. The separations varied between 5.0D and 15.0D along the PWD (prevailing wind direction) and 5.0D to 12.0D in the CWD (crosswind direction), where D is the WT rotor diameter. A range of 25 and 45 WTs are placed in the scattered WF, with their layout optimized using the Multi-Population Genetic Algorithm. WF performance is reported for the best ten layout patterns following studies of many different layouts. Results show for this hypothetical OWF, that the optimal WT separation is 14.5D in the PWD and 11.0D in the CWD for the aligned and staggered cases. Thirty WTs are recommended as the optimum number for the scattered WF. The LCOE (levelized costs of energy) were calculated in HK$ terms 1.474/kWh (aligned), 1.467/kWh (staggered), and 1.290/kWh (scattered). APG (annual energy generation) is determined to be 40.80 × 108 kWh (aligned), 40.42 × 108 kWh (staggered), and 33.98 × 108 kWh (scattered), representing 9.48% (aligned), 9.39% (staggered), and 7.89% (scattered) of the annual electricity consumption for HK in 2012. The approach presented can be regarded as a generic method for WT layout optimization.
    Energy 08/2014; 73:430–442. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Maladaptive memories elicited by exposure to environmental stimuli associated with drugs of abuse are often responsible for relapse among addicts. Interference with the reconsolidation of drug memory can inhibit drug seeking. Previous studies have indicated that the dephosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 α-subunit (eIF2α) plays an important role in synaptic plasticity and long-term memory consolidation, but its role in the reconsolidation of drug memory remains unknown. The amygdala is required for the reconsolidation of a destabilized drug memory after retrieval of drug-paired stimuli. Here, we used conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration procedures to determine whether amygdala eIF2α dephosphorylation is required for the reconsolidation of morphine and cocaine memories in rats. We found that the levels of eIF2α phosphorylation (Ser51) and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) were decreased after reexposure to a previously morphine- or cocaine-paired context (i.e., a memory retrieval procedure) in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) but not in the central amygdala. Intra-BLA infusions of Sal003, a selective inhibitor of eIF2α dephosphorylation, immediately after memory retrieval disrupted the reconsolidation of morphine- or cocaine-induced CPP, leading to a long-lasting suppression of drug-paired stimulus-induced craving. Advanced knockdown of ATF4 expression in the BLA by lentivirus-mediated short-hairpin RNA blocked the disruption of the reconsolidation of morphine-induced CPP induced by Sal003 treatment. Furthermore, inhibition of eIF2α dephosphorylation in the BLA immediately after light/tone stimulus retrieval decreased subsequent cue-induced heroin-seeking behavior in the self-administration procedure. These results demonstrate that eIF2α dephosphorylation in the BLA mediates the memory reconsolidation of drug-paired stimuli.
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 07/2014; 34(30):10010-21.
  • Source
    Ronghui Qi, Lin Lu, Fei Qin
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    ABSTRACT: The film wetted area is a significant parameter affecting the heat and mass transfer of falling film liquid desiccant air-conditioning system. In this paper, a theoretical model with the analytical solution was developed for calculating the wetted area accurately, by solving the desiccant interface concentration and temperature gradients. Comparing with the experimental data on a single channel internally heated regenerator, the results with the new model showed better agreement than those of the previous model. The average error reduced significantly from 16.4% to 4.8% for the experiments with different solution temperatures, and decreased from 10.8% to 7.0% for those with different plate surface temperatures. With this new model, decreasing the film thickness and contact angle could significantly increase the film area, and the area also increased with the air and extra fluid temperature. This research is useful to help to predict the wetted area accurately and to increase the area for improving system efficiency of liquid desiccant air-conditioning system and other falling film applications.
    International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 07/2014; 74:206–209. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between thyroid function and depression has long been recognized. Patients with thyroid disorders are more prone to develop depressive symptoms and conversely depression may be accompanied by various subtle thyroid abnormalities. However, the daily rhythm alteration of the functions of the hypothalamus pituitary thyroid axis (HPT) is uncertain. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) on the daily rhythm alterations of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in the plasma. We found that CUMS led to depressive-like behavior and the daily rhythm of T3, T4, and TSH in the plasma being disturbed, as well the plasma levels of T3 and T4 decreased compared to control group. Our findings indicate that CUMS not only induce hypofunction of HPT axis but also the disturbance of daily rhythm of PHT axis in rats.
    Endocrine. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Repeated exposure to nicotine increases psychomotor activity. Long-lasting neural plasticity changes that contribute to the nicotine-induced development of locomotor sensitization have been identified. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signalling pathway is involved in regulating the neuroplasticity of the central nervous system. In this study, we examined the role of mTORC1 in the amygdala in nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1, was infused into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and central amygdala (CeA) or systemically administered to investigate the role of the mTORC1 in the development and expression of nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization. We found that locomotor activity progressively increased during the initiation of nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization and the expression of nicotine sensitization was induced by nicotine challenge injection (0.35 mg/kg s.c.) after five days of withdrawal. The initiation of nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization was accompanied by the increased phosphorylated level of mTORC1 downstream target proteins including p-p70s6k and p-4EBP in the BLA, but not CeA. Intra-BLA infusion or systemic administration of rapamycin blocked locomotor activity. Increased p-p70s6k and p-4EBP were also observed in the expression of nicotine sensitization, which was demonstrated to be inhibited by systemic rapamycin administration. Our findings indicated that mTORC1 activity in the BLA, but not the CeA, mediated the initiation and expression of nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization, and may become a potential target for the treatment of nicotine addiction.
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    ABSTRACT: Drug abuse has resulted in a huge burden on public health and the economy in China. Since the reemergence of drug abuse in China in the 1980s, the number of drug addicts has increased dramatically, especially the proportion of users of synthetic drugs, such as amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS). Further, the proportion of opiate addicts has decreased among the new initiates. This review describes the new pattern of drug abuse and the resultant intervention strategy in China.
    Current opinion in psychiatry 05/2014; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The persistence of physical dependence and craving in addicts is considered to contribute to relapse. Increasing evidence indicates that neuropeptide systems are associated with several phases of drug addiction, but little is known about whether the neuropeptide trefoil factor affects withdrawal symptoms. This study aims to investigate the potential effects of the neuropeptide trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent mice. Mice received increasing doses of morphine over 3 days. On day 4, the mice were injected with TFF3 (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min after the last dose of morphine. Thirty minutes after TFF3 treatment, naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected, and body weight, jumping behavior, wet-dog shakes, and locomotor activity were assessed 30 min later. Naloxone caused significant weight loss and increased jumping behavior and wet-dog shakes in morphine-dependent mice. TFF3 (1.0 mg/kg) reversed these behavioral symptoms caused by morphine withdrawal, suggesting that TFF3 might ameliorate physical dependence associated with opiate addiction. Furthermore, TFF3 pretreatment significantly reduced morphine withdrawal-induced increases in plasma corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels. The glucocorticoid receptor agonist RU486 blocked the behavioral effects of TFF3 on morphine withdrawal symptoms. Finally, Fos expression in the medial prefrontal cortex which was decreased during morphine withdrawal was increased by TFF3 pretreatment. These findings indicate that TFF3 might be a potential therapeutic candidate for opiate addiction by regulating glucocorticoid secretion and neuronal activation in the prefrontal cortex.
    Psychopharmacology 05/2014; · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extinction therapy has been suggested to suppress the conditioned motivational effect of drug cues to prevent relapse. However, extinction forms a new inhibiting memory rather than erasing the original memory trace and drug memories invariably return. Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are a specialized extracellular matrix around interneurons in the brain that have been suggested to be a permissive factor that allows synaptic plasticity in the adolescent brain. The degradation of PNNs caused by chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) may generate induced juvenile-like plasticity (iPlasticity) and promote experience-dependent plasticity in the adult brain. In the present study, we investigated the effect of removing PNNs in the amygdala of rat on the extinction of drug memories. We found that extinction combined with intra-amygdala injections of ChABC (0.01 U/side) prevented the subsequent priming-induced reinstatement of morphine-induced and cocaine-induced, but not food -induced, conditioned place preference (CPP). Intra-amygdala injections of ChABC alone had no effect on the retention, retrieval, or relearning of morphine-induced CPP and storage of acquired food-induced CPP. Moreover, we found that the procedure facilitated the extinction of heroin- and cocaine-seeking behavior and prevented the spontaneous recovery and drug-induced reinstatement of heroin- and cocaine-seeking behavior. We also found that the effect of PNNs degradation combined with extinction may be mediated by the potentiation of several plasticity-related proteins in the amygdala. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that a combination of extinction training with PNNs degradation in the amygdala erases drug memories and suggest that ChABC may be an attractive candidate for the prevention of relapse.
    Journal of Neuroscience 05/2014; 34(19):6647-58. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Time-dependent increases in cue-induced nicotine and methamphetamine craving during abstinence were recently reported in human drug-dependent individuals. In the present study, we sought to determine whether this ‘incubation of craving’ phenomenon also occurs in alcoholics. Four groups of 80 inpatient adult male alcoholics were assessed in a single session (between-group design) for cue-induced alcohol craving at 7, 14, 30 and 60 days of abstinence. Another group that included 19 patients was repeatedly tested for cue-induced alcohol craving at the same abstinence days as above. Other psychological and physiological measures were assessed at the four abstinence timepoints. Cue-induced alcohol craving measured with visual analogue scales was the highest at 60 days of abstinence both between and within groups. However, heart rate, blood pressure and skin conductance responses did not differ between abstinent groups. These results provide evidence of the incubation of alcohol craving in humans, extending previous reports with smokers and methamphetamine addicts.
    Addiction Biology 05/2014; · 5.91 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Time-dependent increases in cue-induced nicotine and methamphetamine craving during abstinence were recently reported in human drug-dependent individuals. In the present study, we sought to determine whether this 'incubation of craving' phenomenon also occurs in alcoholics. Four groups of 80 inpatient adult male alcoholics were assessed in a single session (between-group design) for cue-induced alcohol craving at 7, 14, 30 and 60 days of abstinence. Another group that included 19 patients was repeatedly tested for cue-induced alcohol craving at the same abstinence days as above. Other psychological and physiological measures were assessed at the four abstinence timepoints. Cue-induced alcohol craving measured with visual analogue scales was the highest at 60 days of abstinence both between and within groups. However, heart rate, blood pressure and skin conductance responses did not differ between abstinent groups. These results provide evidence of the incubation of alcohol craving in humans, extending previous reports with smokers and methamphetamine addicts.
    Addiction Biology 04/2014; · 5.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The delayed onset of therapeutic outcomes is a major drawback of the current antidepressants. The blood-brain barrier is the most important bottleneck impeding drug transport into the brain. Therefore, development of novel antidepressant medications with rapid onset and sustained activity is urgent. RGD liposomes showed an excellent effect of brain-targeting drug delivery and increased the entering rate to the brain. In the present study, we prepared cyclic RGD liposomes loaded with edaravone (cRGD-ERLs) and evaluated the potential antidepressant-like effects of this drug delivery system in rats. The results showed single injection of cRGD-ERLs produced significant antidepressant-like effects in both forced swim and novelty suppressed feeding test. Moreover, acute cRGD-ERLs increased the expression of c-fos in the medial prefrontal cortex, suggesting that cRGD-ERLs could activate the neuronal function. Furthermore, cRGD-ERLs reversed the increase of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced plasma cytokine IL-1β and IL-6, suggesting that normalization of cytokine level might be involved in the behavioral response of cRGD-ERLs. Finally, cRGD-ERLs prevented the increase of immobility induced by LPS in the forced swim test. Overall, the current data revealed a novel brain-target drug delivery system, which can be used to improve the therapeutic outcomes of antidepressants by increase of crossing rate to the brain.
    European journal of pharmaceutical sciences: official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences 04/2014; · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Climate change and energy security are forcing Hong Kong to shift from a fossil fuel-based to a clean and low-carbon energy structure. In this article, a simulation model for Hong Kong's energy system is developed to examine the present energy structure and analyse alternative future sustainable energy strategies. First, a reference model is established and validated based on year 2009 data. Secondly, three scenarios are modelled. The BAU (business-as-usual) scenario for Hong Kong's energy system in 2020 is presented and simulated. To address the energy security and environmental sustainability challenges posed by the BAU outcomes, two alternative scenarios are then studied. The first alternative is a fuel mix for 2020 proposed by the government which is characterized by importing more nuclear power from the mainland. As a result of the Fukushima nuclear incident, however, this proposal has been held in abeyance. Therefore, a second alternative for Hong Kong in 2020 is proposed in this study, using more RE (renewable energy) to replace nuclear power. The results show that both the governmentally proposed scenario and the RE scenario can achieve the carbon reduction target. However, the RE scenario would be much better than the government scenario in terms of environmental, social benefits and long-term sustainability.
    Energy 04/2014; 68:301–310. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The paper aims to overview various mathematical models for modeling the simultaneous heat and mass transfer process in the liquid desiccant dehumidifier. Firstly, the dehumidification principle is introduced briefly. Then the models are interpreted in terms of two classes of dehumidifiers. For the adiabatic dehumidifier, the models are mainly classified into three types: finite difference model, effectiveness NTU (ε–NTU) model, and simplified models. For the internally cooled dehumidifier, there are also three kinds of models: models without considering liquid film thickness, models considering uniform liquid film thickness, and models considering variable liquid film thickness. This review is meaningful for comprehending the development process and research status of the models and choosing suitable models for prediction. In addition, some suggestions are proposed for the model improvement.
    Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 03/2014; 31:587–599. · 5.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined and compared two energy storage technologies, i.e. batteries and pumped hydro storage (PHS), for the renewable energy powered microgrid power supply system on a remote island in Hong Kong. The problems of energy storage for off-grid renewable energy were analyzed. The sizing methods and economic models were developed, and finally applied in the real project (case study). The results provide the most suitable energy storage scheme for local decision-makers. The two storage schemes were further divided into 4 options. Accordingly, the life-cycle costs (LCC), levelized costs for the renewable energy storage system (LCRES) and the LCC ratios between all options were calculated and compared. It was found that the employment of conventional battery (Option 2) had a higher LCC value than the advanced deep cycle battery (Option 1), indicating that using deep cycle batteries is more suitable for a standalone renewable power supply system. The pumped storage combined with battery bank option (Option 3) had only 55% LCC of that of Option 1, making this combined option more cost-competitive than the sole battery option. The economic benefit of pumped storage is even more significant in the case of purely pumped storage with a hydraulic controller (Option 4), with the lowest LCC among all options at 29–48% of Option 1. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that PHS is even more cost competitive by controlling some adjustments such as increasing energy storage capacity and days of autonomy. Therefore, the renewable energy system coupled with pumped storage presents technically feasible opportunities and practical potential for continuous power supply in remote areas.
    Energy Conversion and Management 03/2014; 79:387–397. · 3.59 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
842.17 Total Impact Points


  • 2006–2014
    • Peking University
      • Institute of Mental Health
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2003–2014
    • National Institute on Drug Abuse
      • Research Branch Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
      Maryland, United States
  • 2002–2014
    • The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
      • Department of Building Services Engineering
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2008–2013
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • Jilin University
      • School of Public Health
      Jilin, Jilin Sheng, China
    • Sichuan University
      Hua-yang, Sichuan, China
  • 2012
    • Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology
      • Institute of Psychology
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
    • Tianjin Medical University
      T’ien-ching-shih, Tianjin Shi, China
    • Peking University Third Hospital
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2011–2012
    • Yale University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      New Haven, CT, United States
    • South China Normal University
      • Department of Psychology
      Guangzhou, Guangdong Sheng, China
    • Fourth Military Medical University
      • Department of Radiology
      Xi’an, Liaoning, China
  • 2008–2011
    • Hebei Medical University
      Chentow, Hebei, China
  • 2006–2011
    • Guiyang Medical University
      Kuei-yang, Guizhou Sheng, China
  • 2010
    • Capital Medical University
      • School of Public Health and Family Medicine
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Ningbo University
      Ning-po, Zhejiang Sheng, China
  • 2007
    • Tangshan Gongren Hospital
      Tangshan, Jiangxi Sheng, China
  • 2004–2007
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Section on Cellular Neurobiology
      Bethesda, MD, United States