Fan Ding

Tsinghua University, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (3)7.31 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between glutamate signaling and inflammation has not been well defined. This study aimed to investigate the role of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) in the expression and release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) from macrophages and the underlying mechanisms. A series of approaches, including confocal microscopy, immunofluorescency, flow cytometry, ELISA and Western blotting, were used to estimate the expression of AMPAR and downstream signaling molecules, TNF-α release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. The results demonstrated that AMPAR was expressed in RAW264.7 cells. AMPA significantly enhanced TNF-α release from RAW264.7 cells, and this effect was abolished by CNQX (AMPAR antagonist). AMPA also induced elevation of ROS production, phosphorylation of c-Src and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in RAW264.7 cells. Blocking c-Src by PP2, scavenging ROS by glutathione (GSH) or inhibiting NF-κB activation by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) decreased TNF-α production from RAW264.7 cells. We concluded that AMPA promotes TNF-α release in RAW264.7 macrophages likely through the following signaling cascade: AMPAR activation → ROS generation → c-Src phosphorylation → NF-κB activation → TNF-α elevation. The study suggests that AMPAR may participate in macrophage activation and inflammation.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2015; 461(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.04.015 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) is a food flavour enhancer and its potential harmfulness to the heart remains controversial. We investigated whether MSG could induce cardiac arrhythmias and apoptosis via the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor. Myocardial infarction (MI) was created by ligating the coronary artery and ventricular arrhythmias were monitored by electrocardiogram in the rat in vivo. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were isolated and cultured. Cell viability was estimated by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-yl)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) assay. Calcium mobilization was monitored by confocal microscopy. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was evaluated by acridine orange staining, flow cytometry, DNA laddering, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. MSG (i.v.) decreased the heart rate at 0.5 g/kg and serious bradycardia at 1.5 g/kg, but could not induce ventricular tachyarrhythmias in normal rats in vivo. In rats with acute MI in vivo, however, MSG (1.5 g/kg, i.v.) induced ventricular tachyarrhythmias and these arrhythmias could be prevented by blocking the AMPA and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Selectively activating the AMPA or NMDA receptor induced ventricular tachyarrhythmias in MI rats. At the cellular level, AMPA induced calcium mobilization, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in cultured cardiomyocytes, especially when the AMPA receptor desensitization were blocked by cyclothiazide. The above toxic cellular effects of AMPA were abolished by AMPA receptor blockade or by H2O2 scavengers. MSG induces bradycardia in normal rats, but triggers lethal tachyarrhythmias in myocardial infarcted rats probably by hindering AMPA receptors. AMPA receptor overstimulation also induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which may facilitate arrhythmia.
    Chinese medical journal 04/2013; 126(7):1323-32. DOI:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0366-6999.20120497 · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac fibrosis is a hallmark of heart disease and plays a vital role in cardiac remodeling during heart diseases, including hypertensive heart disease. Hexarelin is one of a series of synthetic growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) possessing a variety of cardiovascular effects via action on GHS receptors (GHS-Rs). However, the role of hexarelin in cardiac fibrosis in vivo has not yet been investigated. In the present study, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were treated with hexarelin alone or in combination with a GHS-R antagonist for 5 wk from an age of 16 wk. Hexarelin treatment significantly reduced cardiac fibrosis in SHRs by decreasing interstitial and perivascular myocardial collagen deposition and myocardial hydroxyproline content and reducing mRNA and protein expression of collagen I and III in SHR hearts. Hexarelin treatment also increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activities and decreased myocardial mRNA expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 in SHRs. In addition, hexarelin treatment significantly attenuated left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, LV diastolic dysfunction, and high blood pressure in SHRs. The effect of hexarelin on cardiac fibrosis, blood pressure, and cardiac function was mediated by its receptor, GHS-R, since a selective GHS-R antagonist abolished these effects and expression of GHS-Rs was upregulated by hexarelin treatment. In summary, our data demonstrate that hexarelin reduces cardiac fibrosis in SHRs, perhaps by decreasing collagen synthesis and accelerating collagen degradation via regulation of MMPs/TIMP. Hexarelin-reduced systolic blood pressure may also contribute to this reduced cardiac fibrosis in SHRs. The present findings provided novel insights and underscore the therapeutic potential of hexarelin as an antifibrotic agent for the treatment of cardiac fibrosis.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 07/2012; 303(6):H703-11. DOI:10.1152/ajpheart.00257.2011 · 4.01 Impact Factor