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Publications (3)19.1 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: NF-κB activation within the epithelium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma, yet the exact role of epithelial NF-κB in allergen-induced inflammation and airway remodeling remains unclear. In the current study, we used an intranasal house dust mite (HDM) extract exposure regimen time course in BALB/c mice to evaluate inflammation, NF-κB activation, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and airway remodeling. We used CC10-IκBαSR transgenic mice to evaluate the functional importance of epithelial NF-κB in response to HDM. After a single exposure of HDM, mRNA expression of proinflammatory mediators was significantly elevated in lung tissue of wild-type (WT) mice, in association with increases in nuclear RelA and RelB, components of the classical and alternative NF-κB pathway, respectively, in the bronchiolar epithelium. In contrast, CC10-IκBαSR mice displayed marked decreases in nuclear RelA and RelB and mRNA expression of proinflammatory mediators compared with WT mice. After 15 challenges with HDM, WT mice exhibited increases in inflammation, AHR, mucus metaplasia, and peribronchiolar fibrosis. CC10-IκBαSR transgenic mice displayed marked decreases in neutrophilic infiltration, tissue damping, and elastance parameters, in association will less peribronchiolar fibrosis and decreases in nuclear RelB in lung tissue. However, central airway resistance and mucus metaplasia remained elevated in CC10-IκBαSR transgenic mice, in association with the continued presence of lymphocytes, and partial decreases in eosinophils and IL-13. The current study demonstrates that following airway exposure with an asthma-relevant allergen, activation of classical and alternative NF-κB pathways occurs within the airway epithelium and may coordinately contribute to allergic inflammation, AHR, and fibrotic airway remodeling.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Obesity is a major risk factor for asthma; the reasons for this are poorly understood, although it is thought that inflammatory changes in adipose tissue in obesity could contribute to airway inflammation and airway reactivity in individuals who are obese. Objectives: To determine if inflammation in adipose tissue in obesity is related to late-onset asthma, and associated with increased markers of airway inflammation and reactivity. Methods: We recruited a cohort of obese women with asthma and obese control women. We followed subjects with asthma for 12 months after bariatric surgery. We compared markers in adipose tissue and the airway from subjects with asthma and control subjects, and changes in subjects with asthma over time. Measurements and Main Results: Subjects with asthma had increased macrophage infiltration of visceral adipose tissue (P < 0.01), with increased expression of leptin (P < 0.01) and decreased adiponectin (p < 0.001) when controlled for body mass index. Similar trends were observed in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Airway epithelial cells expressed receptors for leptin and adiponectin, and airway reactivity was significantly related to visceral fat leptin expression (rho = -0.8; P < 0.01). Bronchoalveolar lavage cytokines and cytokine production from alveolar macrophages were similar in subjects with asthma and control subjects at baseline, and tended to increase 12 months after surgery. Conclusions: Obesity is associated with increased markers of inflammation in serum and adipose tissue, and yet decreased airway inflammation in obese people with asthma; these patterns reverse with bariatric surgery. Leptin and other adipokines may be important mediators of airway disease in obesity through direct effects on the airway rather than by enhancing airway inflammation.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 07/2012; 186(7):598-605. · 11.04 Impact Factor
  • Olga Sideleva, Kendall Black, Anne E Dixon
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a major risk factor for asthma, but the mechanisms for the development of asthma in the setting of obesity are not known. The purpose of this article is to review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation in patients with asthma, and to discuss the effects of obesity on airway reactivity in patients with asthma. Obesity is particularly a risk factor for non-atopic asthma. Airway eosinophilic inflammation is not increased in obesity, in fact the preponderance of the evidence suggests that airway eosinophilia is decreased in obesity. There is some preliminary data suggesting that airway neutrophilia may be increased in obesity, and that this may be particularly related to dietary fats. Obesity also alters adaptive immunity, and may suppress lymphocyte function typically associated with asthmatic airway inflammation. Population based studies are somewhat inconsistent on the relationship between airway reactivity and asthma, however, recent studies in bariatric surgery show that weight loss surgery in severely obese patients decreases airway reactivity. One study suggested that this was particularly the case for those with low IgE (a marker of a low T(H)2 asthma phenotype), suggesting there may be some heterogeneity in asthma in obesity. There are likely to be two phenotypes of asthma in the obese: one group with early onset disease and asthma complicated by obesity, and a 2nd group with late onset disease with asthma consequent to obesity. Obesity leads to profound changes in airway function, and adaptive and innate immune responses which alter the nature of pre-existing allergic airway disease, and also cause new onset asthmatic disease.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 05/2012; · 2.54 Impact Factor