R Unnikrishnan

Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, Tamil Nādu, India

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Publications (10)20.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Aims This paper attempts to describe the patterns of exercise and the perceived benefits and barriers to exercise in an urban south Indian population. Methods Study participants were recruited from the baseline survey of the D-CLIP (Diabetes Community Lifestyle Improvement Program). Frequency, duration, type and location of exercise were assessed using a questionnaire, while a Likert type scale was used to assess perceived benefits of and barriers to exercise. Quality of life was measured using the EQ-5D. Results Out of 1281 participants (63.7% males), 24.1% reported doing ≥150 minutes of exercise/week (“exercisers”) compared to 75.9% “non-exercisers”. Exercisers were significantly older (47 vs.43 years), better educated (68.8% vs.60%), had a higher monthly income (41% vs.29.2%), consumed more fruits (38.2% vs. 25.6%) and vegetables (84.1% vs.77.7%) and had better perceived state of health (81.1% vs. 76.8%), compared to non-exercisers. Exercisers had significantly lower HOMA-IR, higher Matsuda index and lower prevalence of low HDL cholesterol compared to non-exercisers. However, there were no significant differences in cardio-metabolic risk factors like diabetes, hypertension and obesity between the two groups. Walking was the most common type of exercise. Both exercisers and non-exercisers perceived the benefits of exercising, but barriers weighed more heavily on exercise behavior. Conclusions Urgent steps are needed to improve overall exercise levels in India by addressing barriers and improving the quality of exercise performed so as to enhance overall metabolic health.
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 10/2014; 107(1). DOI:10.1016/j.diabres.2014.09.053 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of hypertension (HTN) and its risk factors in urban and rural India. In Phase I of the Indian Council of Medical Research-India Diabetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study, individuals aged ⩾20 years were surveyed using a stratified multistage sampling design, in three states (Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Jharkhand) and one union territory (Chandigarh) of India. Blood pressure was measured in all study subjects (n=14 059). HTN was defined as systolic blood pressure ⩾140 mm Hg, and/or DBP ⩾90 mm Hg and/or use of antihypertensive drugs. Overall age-standardized prevalence of HTN was 26.3% (self-reported: 5.5%; newly detected: 20.8%). Urban residents of Tamil Nadu, Jharkhand, Chandigarh and Maharashtra (31.5, 28.9, 30.7 and 28.1%) had significantly higher prevalence of HTN compared with rural residents (26.2, 21.7, 19.8 and 24.0%, respectively). Multivariate regression analysis showed that age, male gender, urban residence, generalized obesity, diabetes, physical inactivity and alcohol consumption were significantly associated with HTN. Salt intake ⩾6.5 g per day, showed significantly higher risk for HTN (odds ratio: 1.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.0-1.9, P=0.042) even after adjusting for confounding variables. In conclusion, prevalence of undiagnosed HTN is high in India and this calls for regular screening.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 31 July 2014; doi:10.1038/jhh.2014.57.
    Journal of Human Hypertension 07/2014; 29(3). DOI:10.1038/jhh.2014.57 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Representative data on knowledge and awareness about diabetes is scarce in India and is extremely important to plan public health policies aimed at preventing and controlling diabetes.
    05/2014; 18(3):379-85. DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.131191
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: This study assessed whether serum adiponectin could be used as a biochemical marker to differentiate type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among young Asian Indians. Research Design and Methods: We recruited age- and sex-matched individuals with physician-diagnosed T1DM (n=70) and T2DM (n=72). All were 12-27 years of age with a duration of diabetes of >2 years, at a large tertiary-care diabetes center in Chennai, southern India. Age- and sex-matched individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n=68) were selected from an ongoing population study. NGT was defined using World Health Organization criteria. Serum total adiponectin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify adiponectin cut points for discriminating T1DM from T2DM. Results: Adiponectin levels were higher in T1DM and lower in T2DM compared with the NGT group (9.89, 3.88, and 6.84 μg/mL, respectively; P<0.001). In standardized polytomous regression models, adiponectin was associated with T1DM (odds ratio [OR]=1.131 per SD; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.025-1.249) and T2DM (OR=0.628 per SD; 95% CI, 0.504-0.721) controlled for age, gender, waist circumference, body mass index, hypertension, glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, family history of T2DM, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Using ROC analysis, an adiponectin cut point of 5.1 μg/mL had a C statistic of 0.886 (95% CI, 0.836-0.953), sensitivity of 80.6%, and specificity of 80.6% to differentiate T1DM from T2DM. Using the 5.1 μg/mL cut point, 80.6% of T1DM and 81.8% of T2DM would be correctly classified. Conclusions: Serum adiponectin is a useful biochemical marker for differentiating T1DM and T2DM among young Asian Indians.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 07/2013; DOI:10.1089/dia.2012.0306 · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the pancreatic ATP sensitive K(+) channel proteins [sulfonyluea receptor 1 (SUR1) and inward rectifier K(+) channel Kir6.2 (Kir6.2), encoded by ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C member 8 (ABCC8) and potassium channel J11 (KCNJ11), respectively], are the most common cause of neonatal diabetes. We describe the clinical presentation and molecular characterization of Asian Indian children with neonatal diabetes mellitus and monogenic syndromes of diabetes. We sequenced KCNJ11, ABCC8 and insulin (INS) genes in 33 unrelated Indian probands with onset of diabetes below one year of age. A total of 12 mutations were identified which included ABCC8 mutations in seven, KCNJ11 mutations in three and INS mutations in two children. The Asp212Tyr mutation in ABCC8 was novel. We also detected two novel mutations (Val67Met and Leu19Arg) in children with syndromic forms of diabetes like Berardinelli Seip syndrome [1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta (AGPAT2)] and Fanconi Bickel syndrome [solute carrier family 2A2 (SLC2A2)]. Children carrying the KCNJ11 (Cys42Arg, Arg201Cys) and ABCC8 (Val86Ala, Asp212Tyr) mutations have been successfully switched over from insulin therapy to oral sulfonylurea. Our study is the first large genetic screening study of neonatal diabetes in India.
    Clinical Genetics 07/2012; 9999(9999). DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0004.2012.01939.x · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study reports the results of the first phase of a national study to determine the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) in India. A total of 363 primary sampling units (188 urban, 175 rural), in three states (Tamilnadu, Maharashtra and Jharkhand) and one union territory (Chandigarh) of India were sampled using a stratified multistage sampling design to survey individuals aged ≥ 20 years. The prevalence rates of diabetes and prediabetes were assessed by measurement of fasting and 2 h post glucose load capillary blood glucose. Of the 16,607 individuals selected for the study, 14,277 (86%) participated, of whom 13,055 gave blood samples. The weighted prevalence of diabetes (both known and newly diagnosed) was 10.4% in Tamilnadu, 8.4% in Maharashtra, 5.3% in Jharkhand, and 13.6% in Chandigarh. The prevalences of prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) were 8.3%, 12.8%, 8.1% and 14.6% respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, male sex, family history of diabetes, urban residence, abdominal obesity, generalised obesity, hypertension and income status were significantly associated with diabetes. Significant risk factors for prediabetes were age, family history of diabetes, abdominal obesity, hypertension and income status. We estimate that, in 2011, Maharashtra will have 6 million individuals with diabetes and 9.2 million with prediabetes, Tamilnadu will have 4.8 million with diabetes and 3.9 million with prediabetes, Jharkhand will have 0.96 million with diabetes and 1.5 million with prediabetes, and Chandigarh will have 0.12 million with diabetes and 0.13 million with prediabetes. Projections for the whole of India would be 62.4 million people with diabetes and 77.2 million people with prediabetes.
    Diabetologia 09/2011; 54(12):3022-7. DOI:10.1007/s00125-011-2291-5 · 6.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: According to the World Diabetes Atlas, India is projected to have around 51 million people with diabetes. However, these data are based on small sporadic studies done in some parts of the country. Even a few multi-centre studies that have been done, have several limitations. Also, marked heterogeneity between States limits the generalizability of results. Other studies done at various time periods also lack uniform methodology, do not take into consideration ethnic differences and have inadequate coverage. Thus, till date there has been no national study on the prevalence of diabetes which are truly representative of India as a whole. Moreover, the data on diabetes complications is even more scarce. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a large well-planned national study, which could provide reliable nationwide data, not only on prevalence of diabetes, but also on pre-diabetes, and the complications of diabetes in India. A study of this nature will have enormous public health impact and help policy makers to take action against diabetes in India.
    The Indian Journal of Medical Research 04/2011; 133(4):369-80. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: India is today facing a diabetes epidemic and has the maximum number of patients with diabetes in the world. People with diabetes are more prone to develop all types of infections. Pneumococcal infections are a common cause of morbidity and mortality, and people with diabetes are more prone to develop pneumococcal infections. With the availability of the pneumococcal vaccine, most international organizations now recommend that people with diabetes should be vaccinated against pneumococcal disease. This article tries to provide a balanced review of the place of pneumococcal vaccination in Indian diabetic patients.
    Journal of Postgraduate Medicine 01/2011; 57(1):78-81. DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.74299 · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    R Unnikrishnan, R Das, R Jaydip, C Sudhakaran, V Mohan
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    ABSTRACT: In general, Indians have low HDL cholesterol levels. Fenofibrate, a drug widely used in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia, usually also increases HDL cholesterol. There have been a few reports in the literature of a paradoxical decrease in serum HDL-cholesterol in patients treated with fenofibrate, either alone or in combination with a statin. We report three cases of paradoxical decrease in serum HDL-cholesterol in type 2 diabetic patients treated with a statin-fenofibrate combination.
    The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 03/2009; 57:180-1.
  • Swaminathan Madhu, R Unnikrishnan
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    ABSTRACT: Incluye bibliografía e índice