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ABSTRACT: We performed a retrospective study to examine the prevalence of bone disease (BD) among cirrhotic patients being evaluated for liver transplantation (OLT) using bone densitometry dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in the hip/femoral neck and lumbar spine. The associations of BD with demographic and clinical data, disease etiology and liver function were studied by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Osteopenia and osteoporosis were defined by World Health Organization criteria.
We included 486 patients (79% men of mean age, 53 ± 8.8 years (range, 21-69) who included 62.6% smoker and 23.7% diabetic subjects. Body mass index (BMI) was 28.8 ± 5.7 kg/m(2) (range, 16-43). The liver disease was Child-Pugh class A (22%), B (51%), or C (27%); the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was 14.6 ± 5.4 (range, 7-33). The disease etiology was alcohol (59%), hepatitis C (32%), hepatitis B (10%), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) (2.3%), secondary biliary cirrhosis, (2%) or other causes (10%). In all, 350 patients (72%) had BD in the hip/femoral neck and/or lumbar spine: Global hip, 26% (osteopenia, 22%; osteoporosis, 4%); femoral neck, 48% (osteopenia, 43%; osteoporosis, 5%) and lumbar spine, 63% (osteopenia, 40%; osteoporosis, 23%). Univariate analysis showed the BD risk to increase with the following variables: Female gender (odds ratio [OR], 1.88; P = .023) and lower BMI (OR, 0.95; P = .012). Upon multivariate analysis, female gender (OR, 2.43; P = .004), lower BMI (OR, 0.96; P = .016), and tobacco use (OR, 1.59; P = .043) were significant. PBC showed BD in 100% of cases. By adjusting bone mineral density (BMD) values to age (Z-score) in relation to that defined by T-score, we observed a decrease in BD prevalence in both the femoral neck (20% vs 48%) and the lumbar spine (44% vs 63%).
BD, especially in the lumbar spine, is common among cirrhotic patients under evaluation for OLT. Cirrhosis is a major BD risk factor that remains even when BMD values are adjusted for age. Female gender, lower BMI, and tobacco consumption are major risk factors for BD in cirrhotic patients. Bone densitometry must be included in the OLT evaluation of all patients.
Transplantation Proceedings 07/2012; 44(6):1496-8. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2012.05.011 · 0.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the rate of and factors associated with a response to recombinant hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination using 4 intramuscular doses (40 μg) administered at 0, 1, 2, and 6 months among 278 cirrhotic patients being evaluated for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). We re-vaccinated 57 non-responders with the same schedule. The 39.2% overall response rate to vaccination included 36% after three and 40.7% after four doses, namely, a median anti-HBs level of 100 IU/mL (range, 10 to 1000 IU/mL). The 51% revaccination response rate achieved a median hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) level of 99 IU/mL (range, 11 to >1000 IU/mL). Upon univariate analysis, variables associated with a higher response were: better liver function (Child-Pugh class [A, 53.8% B, 33.3%, C, 30.1%; P = .002), Model for End-stage Liver-Disease (MELD) score (11.4 versus 13.6; P = .001]), absence of diabetes (43.6% versus 20.8%; P = .002), presence of isolated hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) positivity (80% versus 37.7%; P = .007), and younger age (< 45 years, 52.2%; range, 45 to 55 years, 40.4%; > 55 years, 34.1%; P = .031). Upon multivariate logistic regression analysis, lower MELD score (odds ratio [OR]: 0.922; P = .046), absence of diabetes (OR:0.359; P = .008) and isolated anti-HBc positivity (OR:5.826; P = .034) were associated with a higher response. No differences were observed to be associated with gender, weight, body mass index, etiology or tobacco consumption. Among the same patient cohort (n = 79), the responses after the third and fourth doses were 36.7% and 51.9% respectively. In conclusion, the response rate to HBV vaccination in cirrhotic patients evaluated for OLT reached more than 35% among those who received at least 3 doses. It was higher among patients who showed isolated anti-HBc positivity, better liver function, younger age, and non-diabetic status. The fourth dose only increased the response rate by 24% over that obtained after the first three doses, whereas a revaccination achieved a 50% response rate, which probably accounts for revaccination after no response to 3 doses. Vaccination should be introduced against HBV in the early stages of the disease.
Transplantation Proceedings 07/2012; 44(6):1499-501. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2012.05.071 · 0.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the absence of immunity, vaccination against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) is recommended for patients with chronic liver disease and those evaluated for liver transplantation (OLT) HAV and HBV infections after OLT which are frequent in this setting, are associated with a worse prognosis. The aim of this study was to estimate the need for vaccination against HBV and HAV among cirrhotic patients who were candidates for OLT and associations with gender, age, and etiologic factors. HBV and HAV serological markers HBsAg, anti-HBc, antiHBs, immunoglobulin G (IgG)-anti-HAV were investigated among 568 patients, including 75% men. The overall mean age was 53.6 ± 8.9 years range 17-69, and 20% were diabetic. This etiologies were alcohol (68%), hepatitis C virus (35%) or other causes (10.4%). Child-Pugh classes were: A (26%), B (44%), and C (30%). In contrast with 359 patients (63.2%) who had negative HBV markers, 209 (36.8%) were positive: HBsAg (+), 43 (7.6%), isolated anti-HBc (+), 57 (10%), isolated anti-HBs (+), 19 (3.3%), anti-HBc (+)/anti-HBs (+), 90 (15.8%). HBV vaccine indication was performed in 416 patients (73.2%) who either had negative HBV markers or isolated anti-HBc (+). It was more frequently performed in women (82.3% versus 70.3%, P = .005), albeit with no differences according to age or etiology. There were only 8.2% (44/538) IgG-anti-HAV-negative, an indication for vaccination against HAV, which was more frequent affecting patients who were younger [≤ 45 years (27.6%), 46-55 (7.2%), >55 (2.6%); P < .0001)]; nondiabetic (9.5% versus 2.8%, P = .023); nonalcoholic (11.4% versus 6.6%, P = .056); and displayed negative HBV markers (10.2% versus 4.6%, P = .023). Only three patients with IgG-anti- HAV (-) were over 60 years. In conclusion, there is a frequent indication for HBV vaccination among cirrhotic and especially HAV vaccine for under 45 year old patients undergoing evaluation for OLT.
Transplantation Proceedings 07/2012; 44(6):1502-4. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2012.05.020 · 0.98 Impact Factor