[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The echinocandins are recommended as first-line therapy for Candida species infections, but drug resistance, especially among Candida glabrata, is becoming more frequent. We investigated the antifungal susceptibility of anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin against 584 isolates of Candida spp. (bloodstream, other sterile sites) collected from patients admitted to an Italian university hospital between 2000 and 2013. The susceptibility was evaluated using the broth microdilution method according to both the European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST EDef 7.2) and the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI M27-A3). The echinocandin susceptibilities were assessed on the basis of the species-specific clinical breakpoints proposed by the EUCAST version 6.1 and CLSI M27-S4 documents. The two methods were comparable by assessing essential agreement (EA), categorical agreement (CA), and Spearman’s correlation analysis (rho, r).
The modal minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs; μg ⋅ mL −1) values by both methods (EUCAST/CLSI) for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin for each species were, respectively, as follows: C. albicans, 0.03/0.12, 0.016/0.5, and 0.016/0.008; C. parapsilosis complex, 2/1, 2/2, and 2/1; C. tropicalis, 0.06/0.12, 0.06/0.12, and 0.06/0.12; C. glabrata complex, 0.03/0.25, 0.06/0.12, and 0.03/0.06; C. guilliermondii, 2/1, 2/2, and 2/2; and C. krusei, 0.06/0.12, 0.12/0.5, and 0.06/0.12. The overall resistance rates for EUCAST/CLSI were as follows: anidulafungin, 2.5/0.9 %; caspofungin, breakpoint not available/3.8 %; micafungin, 2.7/1.5 %.
Candida glabrata complex was the least susceptible to all three echinocandins, and the percentages of resistant isolates by EUCAST/CLSI were as follows: anidulafungin, 13.5/2.7 %; caspofungin, breakpoint not available/16.2 %; micafungin, 18.9/13.5 %. The overall EA was 93 % for micafungin, 92 % for anidulafungin, and 90 % for caspofungin. The CA was >90 % for all organism-drug combinations with the exception of C. glabrata and anidulafungin (89 %). Spearman’s rho for EUCAST/CLSI was 0.89 (p < 0.001) for caspofungin, 0.85 (p < 0.001) for anidulafungin, and 0.83 for micafungin (p < 0.001).
Independent of the procedure applied, no alarming resistance to the tested agents was found, although a reduced susceptibility was detected for C. glabrata complex. The EUCAST and CLSI methods produce similar MICs, indicating that using one method or the other should not result in susceptibilities different enough to affect treatment decisions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the serovirological prevalence and clinical features of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in end-stage renal failure patients and in the healthy population.
HEV infection is a viral disease that can cause sporadic and epidemic hepatitis. Previous studies unexpectedly showed a high prevalence of HEV antibodies in immunosuppressed subjects, including hemodialysis (HD) patients and patients who had undergone kidney transplant. A cohort/case-control study was carried out from January 2012 to August 2013 in two hospitals in southern Italy (Foggia and S. Giovanni Rotondo, Apulia). The seroprevalence of HEV was determined in 801 subjects; 231 HD patients, 120 renal transplant recipients, and 450 health individuals. All HD patients and the recipients of renal transplants were attending the Departments of Nephrology and Dialysis at two hospitals located in Southern Italy, and were included progressively in this study. Serum samples were tested for HEV antibodies (IgG/IgM); in the case of positivity they were confirmed by a Western blot assay and were also tested for HEV-RNA, and the HEV genotypes were determined.
A total of 30/801 (3.7%) patients were positive for anti-HEV Ig (IgG and/or IgM) and by Western blot. The healthy population presented with a prevalence of 2.7%, HD patients had a prevalence of 6.0%, and transplant recipients had a prevalence of 3.3%. The overall combined HEV-positive prevalence in the two groups with chronic renal failure was 5.1%. The rates of exposure to HEV (positivity of HEV-IgG/M in the early samples) were lower in the healthy controls, but the difference among the three groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Positivity for anti-HEV/IgM was detected in 4/30 (13.33%) anti-HEV Ig positive individuals, in 2/14 HD patients, in 1/4 transplant individuals, and in 1/12 of the healthy population. The relative risk of being HEV-IgM-positive was significantly higher among transplant recipients compared to the other two groups (OR = 65.4, 95%CI: 7.2-592.7, P < 0.001), but the subjects with HEV-IgM positivity were numerically too few to calculate a significant difference. No patient presented with chronic hepatitis from HEV infection alone.
This study indicated a higher, but not significant, circulation of HEV in hemodialysis patients vs the healthy population. Chronic hepatitis due to the HEV virus was not observed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Italian Study Group on Hospital Hygiene of the Italian Society of Hygiene, Preventive Medicine and Public Health conducted a multicentre survey aiming to evaluate undergraduate health care students’ knowledge of tuberculosis and tuberculosis control measures in Italy.
In October 2012–June 2013, a sample of medical and nursing students from 15 Italian universities were enrolled on a voluntary basis and asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire investigating both general knowledge of tuberculosis (aetiology, clinical presentation, outcome, screening methods) and personal experiences and practices related to tuberculosis prevention. Data were analysed through multivariable regression using Stata software.
The sample consisted of 2,220 students in nursing (72.6%) and medicine (27.4%) courses. Our findings clearly showed that medical students had a better knowledge of tuberculosis than did nursing students.
Although the vast majority of the sample (up to 95%) answered questions about tuberculosis aetiology correctly, only 60% of the students gave the correct responses regarding clinical aspects and vaccine details. Overall, 66.9% of the students had been screened for tuberculosis, but less than 20% of those with a negative result on the tuberculin skin test were vaccinated. Multivariable regression analysis showed that age and type of study programme (nursing vs. medical course) were determinants of answering the questions correctly.
Although our data showed sufficient knowledge on tuberculosis, this survey underlines the considerable need for improvement in knowledge about the disease, especially among nursing students. In light of the scientific recommendations concerning tuberculosis knowledge among students, progress of current health care curricula aimed to develop students’ skills in this field is needed.
BMC Public Health 09/2014; 14(1):970. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-970 · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined the in vitro antifungal activity of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) against 604 clinical yeast isolates. Amphotericin B deoxycholate (D-AmB) was tested in parallel against all the isolates. Susceptibility testing was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A3 method. Overall, L-AmB was highly active against the isolates (mean MIC = 0.42 μg/ml; MIC90= 1μg/ml; 97.2% of MICs were ≤ 1μg/ml) and comparable to D-AmB (mean MIC = 0.48μg/ml; MIC90= 1μg/ml; 97.3% of MICs were ≤ 1μg/ml). The in vitro activity of D-AmB and L-AmB was correlated (R2 = 0.61; exp (Coef.) = 2.3; 95% IC= 2.19-2.44, p<0.001). Candida albicans (mean MICs of D-AmB and L-AmB, 0.39 μg/ml and 0.31 μg/ml, respectively) and Candida parapsilosis (mean MICs of D-AmB and L-AmB, 0.38 μg/ml and 0.35 μg/ml, respectively) were the species most susceptible to the agents tested, while Candida krusei (currently named Issatchenkia orientalis) (mean MICs of D-AmB and L-AmB, 1.27 μg/ml and 1.13 μg/ml, respectively) was the least susceptible. The excellent in vitro activity of L-AmB may have important implications for empirical treatment approaches and support its role in treatment of a wide range of invasive infections due to yeasts.
Journal of Medical Microbiology 09/2014; 63(Pt 12). DOI:10.1099/jmm.0.075507-0 · 2.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Italy, between 2003 and 2010, 8/21 Regions recommended varicella routine vaccination (URV). The National Immunization Plan (PNPV) 2012-2014 scheduled the introduction of URV nationwide in 2015, following the results achieved by the eight Regions. Puglia adopted varicella URV in 2006. This study describes epidemiology and costs of varicella in Puglia between 2003 and 2012. One-dose Vaccine Effectiveness (VE) against varicella of any severity and severe hospitalized cases in children was also evaluated. Vaccination coverage (VC) was estimated from the regional immunization registry. Incidence and hospitalization rates were calculated from computerised surveillance system for communicable diseases and hospital discharge registry (CD9-CM codes: 052.x), respectively. URV impact was assessed by Incidence Rate Ratios (IIRs) and Hospitalization Risk Ratios (HRRs). Hospitalization costs were also evaluated. VE was estimated using the screening method, where PPV was VC in children aged<72 months and PCV was the proportion of cases vaccinated among notified or hospitalized cases, respectively. One-dose VC in children aged ≤ 24 months increased from 49% in the birth cohort 2006 to 91.1% in the cohort 2010; 2-dose VC was 64.8% and 28.8% in the 2005 and 1997 cohort, respectively. Comparing pre and post-vaccination era, incidence declined from 122.5 ×100 000 in 2003-2005 to 13.7 in 2009-2012 (IRR = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.10-0.12), hospitalization rate from 3.9 ×100 000 to 1.1 (HRR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.21-0.4), hospitalization costs from 319 000 Euros/year to 106 000. One-dose VE against varicella of any severity and severe hospitalized disease was 98.8% and 99%, respectively. Our findings strongly support varicella URV introduction into the Italian Essential Health Interventions, as scheduled by 2015.
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics 08/2014; 11(1). DOI:10.4161/hv.36153 · 3.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Italian National Plan of Measles and Rubella Elimination 2010-2015 has deferred the objective to reduce congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) to<1 case per 100 000 live births to 2015 and has highlighted the need to reduce to<5% susceptibility to rubella among women in childbearing-age. In Puglia region, MMR vaccine coverage is 93% in newborns (cohort 2010; one dose), 85% in children 5-6 years old and 77% in adolescents (cohort 2005 and 1997, respectively; two doses). Combining available seroepidemiological data and results of a survey on the attitude towards rubella vaccination and rubella testing before pregnancy, we could estimate that 5.7% of Apulian women in childbearing-age are currently susceptible to rubella infection. The regional infectious disease routine notification system reported no cases of CRS and rubella in pregnancy in 2001-2010 period. The inconsistency among the mentioned data triggered the evaluation of the reliability of disease reporting. We performed a retrospective case-finding for the years 2003-2011. We scanned the regional hospital discharge registry to identify hospitalizations for rubella in pregnancy and CRS and retrieve individual records. We also searched for clinical history of CRS mothers in the delivery assistance certificate registry. We identified one CRS, two confirmed and four suspected congenital infections, and seven cases of rubella in pregnancy. Passive surveillance of CRS and rubella in pregnancy appears not to be reliable in the light of strengthening rubella elimination strategies.
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics 08/2014; 11(1). DOI:10.4161/hv.36154 · 3.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Italy, vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio and hepatitis B is compulsory for infants countrywide, except in Veneto region where since 2007 Health Authorities have experimented the suspension of mandatory vaccination. In light of the recent discussion on the potential abrogation in other regions, we explored the opinion of family pediatricians who play a crucial role in promoting immunization programmes in Italy. In November 2009, we interviewed by phone the family pediatricians working in Puglia region using a standardised, ad hoc and piloted questionnaire. Of the 596 contacted, 502 (84.2%) completed the questionnaire (54% female, median age = 52 y). Among the respondents, 72 (14.3%) would agree on the hypothesis of abrogation. This judgment was associated with having a good opinion on the level of awareness of the importance of vaccinations in the general public (OR = 6.6; 95% CI: 3.6-12.1) and having the perception of adequate organization of Vaccination Services in supporting the abrogation (OR = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.7-5.9). Family pediatricians appeared really sceptical about the abrogation of compulsory vaccination that could be hypothesized only increasing public awareness, communication skills and capability of Vaccination Services personnel in offering vaccinations.
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics 08/2014; 11(1). DOI:10.4161/hv.34417 · 3.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaccination of healthcare workers (HCWs) reduces the risk of occupational infections, prevents nosocomial transmission and maintains healthcare delivery during outbreaks. Despite the European directive and national legislation on workers' protection, immunization coverage among HCWs has often been very low. In light of Italian National Vaccination Plan 2012-2014 recommendations, the aim of this study was to assess levels of immunization and factors influencing adherence to vaccinations needed for HCWs in Puglia region, South Italy. The study was conducted using an interview-based standardized anonymous questionnaire administered to hospital employees in the period November 2009-March 2011. A total of 2198 health professionals responded in 51/69 Apulian hospitals (median age: 45 years; 65.2% nurses, 22.6% doctors and 12.2% other hospital personnel). Vaccination coverage was 24.8% for influenza, 70.1% for hepatitis B, 9.7% for MMR, 3.6% for varicella, and 15.5% for Td booster. Receiving counselling from occupational health physicians (OHPs) was associated with influenza (OR = 1.8; 95%CI = 1.5-2.2; P < 0.001), hepatitis B (OR = 4.9; 95%CI = 3.9-6.3; P < 0.001), varicella (OR = 43.7; 95%CI = 18.9-101.7; P < 0.001), MMR (OR = 8.8; 95%CI = 4.1-18.6; P < 0.001) and tetanus (OR = 50.5; 95%CI = 30.1-88.3; P < 0.001) vaccine uptake. OHPs should be trained with standard guidelines specific for healthcare settings and HCWs' risk groups to facilitate their crucial role in improving vaccine coverage among HCWs and increase awareness on the duty to protect both employees and patients.
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics 08/2014; 11(1):e34415. DOI:10.4161/hv.34415 · 3.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaccination of healthcare workers (HCWs) reduces the risk of occupational infections, prevents nosocomial transmission and maintains healthcare delivery during outbreaks. Despite the European directive and national legislation on workers' protection, immunization coverage among HCWs has often been very low. In light of Italian National Vaccination Plan 2012-2014 recommendations, the aim of this study was to assess levels of immunization and factors influencing adherence to vaccinations needed for HCWs in Puglia region, South Italy. The study was conducted using an interview-based standardized anonymous questionnaire administered to hospital employees in the period November 2009-March 2011. A total of 2198 health professionals responded in 51/69 Apulian hospitals (median age: 45 years; 65.2% nurses, 22.6% doctors and 12.2% other hospital personnel). Vaccination coverage was 24.8% for influenza, 70.1% for hepatitis B, 9.7% for MMR, 3.6% for varicella, and 15.5% for Td booster. Receiving counselling from occupational health physicians (OHPs) was associated with influenza (OR = 1.8; 95%CI = 1.5-2.2; P<0.001), hepatitis B (OR = 4.9; 95%CI = 3.9-6.3; P<0.001), varicella (OR = 43.7; 95%CI = 18.9-101.7; P<0.001), MMR (OR = 8.8; 95%CI = 4.1-18.6; P<0.001) and tetanus (OR = 50.5; 95%CI = 30.1-88.3; P<0.001) vaccine uptake. OHPs should be trained with standard guidelines specific for healthcare settings and HCWs' risk groups to facilitate their crucial role in improving vaccine coverage among HCWs and increase awareness on the duty to protect both employees and patients.
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics 08/2014; 11(1). DOI:10.4161/10.4161/hv.34415 · 3.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Italy, the introduction of Universal Varicella Vaccination (UVV) has been decided but postponed, as a national programme, until 2015, when data from Regions which have already implemented it will be available. Starting from 2003, eight Italian Regions (Basilicata, Calabria, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Apulia, Sardinia, Sicily, Tuscany and Veneto) have progressively introduced UVV, in their immunization programme, with different schedules in children aged 13-15 months and 5-6 years, currently a two-dose schedule is adopted by all Regions. In June 2013, an Interregional Group on Varicella Vaccination (IGVV) has been established in order to assess the effectiveness of varicella vaccination with standardized and shared tools. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of varicella vaccination on the incidence and hospitalizations due to varicella and its complications in the period 2003-2012 in order to support the Italian decision makers on the future national adoption. Preliminary data showed that a general reduction of incidence and hospitalization rates was observed in the study period, resulting in relevant savings for the National Health Service. Immunization coverage with first dose at 24 months of age was high in all Regions (84%-95%) in 2012. Adverse events due to varicella vaccines were rare and without permanent sequelae. Underreporting of varicella cases and delays in the administration of the first dose of varicella vaccines were the main critical issues. In conclusion, solid evidences in support of universal UVV arise from the experiences available today in Italy.
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics 08/2014; 11(1). DOI:10.4161/hv.34311 · 3.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An ample volume of research evidence supports the conclusion that severe mental illness is correlated with violent behavior. While episodes of violent behavior are included in medical notes, not all episodes of violent behavior are officially reported to the police, even when they are actual crimes. We conducted a retrospective study on the already existing clinical files of four public psychiatric outpatient facilities, based in Southern Italy, in order to assess how many cases of violent behavior are actually reported and which variables are more frequently connected with the decision to report. The data shows that the episodes known to the health services, in number and seriousness, vastly outnumber the complaints actually made towards their patients.
Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology 07/2014; 25(5):574-583. DOI:10.1080/14789949.2014.943793 · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: To describe an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in people who had eaten at a hash house in southern Italy. Study design: Case control study. Methods: A clinical case of gastroenteritis was defined as a person who had eaten at the hash house from 29 August to 4 September 2011 and who experienced defined gastrointestinal symptoms within 72 hours, or a person with a laboratory-confirmed salmonella infection without symptoms. A convenience sample was enrolled as the control group. Environmental and human samples were collected, and Salmonella infantis was identified by polymerase chain reaction. Univariate analysis was performed for each food type, and multivariate analysis was performed for each food type and demographic variable (gender, age). Results: Twenty-three cases of gastroenteritis were notified between 1 and 4 September 2011, two of which were admitted to the local hospital. Multivariate analysis showed that porchetta [odds ratio (OR) 22.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.2-152.6, z = 3.13, P = 0.002] and roasted meat (OR 14.4, 95% CI 1.7-122.0, z = 2.45, P = 0.014) were associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. Environmental and human isolates exhibited the same sequence type (ST 32). Conclusions: This experience highlighted that, in the control of a foodborne outbreak, integrated epidemiological and laboratory surveillance enables rapid identification of the source of infection, thus reducing the risk of an epidemic.
Public Health 05/2014; 128(5). DOI:10.1016/j.puhe.2014.02.002 · 1.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic autoimmune illness triggered by gluten consumption in genetically predisposed individuals. Worldwide, CD prevalence is approximately 1%. Several studies suggest a higher prevalence of undiagnosed CD in patients with infertility. We described reproductive disorders and assessed the frequency of hospital admissions for infertility among celiac women aged 15-49. We conducted two surveys enrolling a convenient sample of celiac women, residing in Apulia or in Basilicata (Italy). Moreover, we selected hospital discharge records (HDRs) of celiac women and women with an exemption for CD, and matched the lists with HDRs for reproductive disorders. In the surveys we included 91 celiac women; 61.5% of them reported menstrual cycle disorders. 47/91 reported at least one pregnancy and 70.2% of them reported problems during pregnancy. From the HDRs and the registry of exemption, we selected 4,070 women with CD; the proportion of women hospitalized for infertility was higher among celiac women than among resident women in childbearing age (1.2% versus 0.2%). Our findings highlight a higher prevalence of reproductive disorders among celiac women than in the general population suggesting that clinicians might consider testing for CD women presenting with pregnancy disorders or infertility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The exhaled breath temperature (EBT) has been proven to be the expression of airways inflammation as well as of the increased vascularity. Although both these conditions characterize lung cancer pathogenesis, this is the first study where the EBT has been analysed in patients affected by non-small-cell lung cancer. The aim of this study was to verify whether and how the lung cancer being examined influences the EBT for possible future clinical implications. Eighty-two consecutive subjects with a radiological suspicion of lung cancer were enrolled and underwent standard diagnostic and staging procedures for cancer. EBT was measured in all the subjects at the enrolment with the X-Halo device. Forty patients resulted as affected by lung cancer while 42 as false-positive (controls). We found a higher EBT in NSCLC patients compared to healthy subjects. The EBT was correlated with number of packs/year and associated with the stage of lung cancer. We identified a cut-off value for the EBT that is able to screen patients with lung cancer with a high sensitivity and specificity. Our results suggest that lung cancer causes an increase in the EBT, which, whether confirmed and validated, could become a new non-invasive clinical tool in the screening and monitoring of this disease.
Medical Oncology 05/2014; 31(5):952. DOI:10.1007/s12032-014-0952-1 · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic autoimmune illness of the small intestine triggered by gluten consumption in genetically predisposed individuals. CD presentation is not limited to the gastrointestinal tract and it is still under-diagnosed. Complete resolution of clinical manifestations follows if a gluten-free diet is adopted. In western countries, CD prevalence is approximately 1%. Age of onset is often between 6 months and 7 years.We assessed the approach to diagnosis and management of celiac patients by the paediatricians in Puglia Region, Italy.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey among the 589 Apulian Family Paediatricians (FPs) during January 2011-January 2012 using a self-administered web-based standardized questionnaire including self-assessment of their knowledge, diagnostic path and type of management they would follow for CD, clinical information on their celiac patients. We assessed associations among the explored variables by defining double-entry contingency tables and calculating Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs).
The 218 (37%) FPs participating in the study reported 1,020 CD patients (representing approximately 1% of the child population covered by the enrolled FPs). Of them, 55% were female; 45% were aged 5-10 years. Weight loss and stunting were the main reported symptoms at diagnosis (41%). The majority (98%) of FPs requested anti-transglutaminase antibody (tTG-Ab) titres for CD diagnosis. Approximately 78% of FPs recommended gluten introduction in the diet of infants at the age of 6 months; 12% and 8% recommended introduction of gluten before and after 6 months of age respectively.The degree of knowledge for either CD diagnosis making process or CD related diseases was medium/high in 97% and 82% of the participating FPs respectively. FPs (83%) who had a medium or high degree of knowledge of CD patients' diet were more likely to experience low or no difficulty in providing their patients with dietary advices (OR:5.5; 95%CI:1.7-17.5).
Apulian FPs report a good degree of knowledge of CD, its diagnosis and its management. We will diffuse results and recommendations to all paediatricians in the Region. Actions aiming to continued education on CD in medical under and postgraduate trainings are crucial to prevent under-diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aims to evaluate the determinants of breakthrough infection after one dose of varicella vaccine. We designed a retrospective case-control study. Breakthrough cases were children, aged 1-15, who presented varicella symptoms ≥ 42 days after the first dose of varicella vaccine (breakthrough). Controls were children, aged 1-15 years, who attended the same class (in a school or in a kindergarten) than the cases in the year of the breakthrough onset; they received a dose of varicella vaccine ≥ 42 days before the case rash onset and they did not develop varicella symptoms. We enrolled 45 cases and 135 controls. 40% of cases (n = 18; 95% CI = 25.4-54. 6) presented at least one risk factor; this proportion was 39.2% (95% CI = 30.9-47.6) among the controls (chi-square = 0.0078; P = 0.93). Time between vaccination and virus exposure was longer among cases. Logistic regression showed that breakthrough disease was associated with duration of time from vaccination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The introduction of universal pertussis immunization and the high coverage achieved in most developed countries have largely changed the epidemiology of the disease. Although vaccination rates are high in the first year of life, the rates of booster doses are unsatisfactory and lead to the onset of outbreaks. This report describes an outbreak of pertussis affecting school students already immunized in a town of Puglia (Italy), detected at the end of April 2009.
Vaccine effectiveness is measured by calculating the incidence rates (attack rates- AR) of disease among vaccinated (ARV) and unvaccinated (ARU) people and determining the percentage reduction in the incidence rate of disease among vaccinated people compared to unvaccinated people.
The index case was a healthy child, female, 9-years-old who attended a local elementary school and developed pertussis on 27 April 2009. The secondary cases were the aunt and the cousin of the index case who developed a cough on 10 May 2009. In the elementary class of the index case, a cluster occurred. The overall AR was 15.8%, in particular 20% in children who did not receive the booster doses at 5--6 years old (ARU) and 14.3% in children receiving the booster (ARV). The VE of booster dose in this setting was 28.5%. Moreover, only the index case developed a persistent cough; the VE against moderate to severe pertussis was 100%. A cluster was detected in the middle school class that the cousin of the index case attended; AR was 44.4% (12/27); ARU was 50% (10/20) and ARV 28.6% (2/7). VE in this setting was 42.8%.
Our results confirm the need to administer booster doses; failure the booster is the principal determinant for the outbreak onset.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared the risk factors, the diagnostic tools and the outcome of filamentous fungal infections (FFIs) in hematological patients (HAEs) and non-hematological patients (non-HAEs).
Prospective surveillance (2009-2011) of proven and probable FFIs was implemented in 23 Italian hospitals.
Out of 232 FFIs, 113 occurred in HAEs and 119 in non-HAEs. The most frequent infection was invasive aspergillosis (76.1 % for HAEs, 56.3 % for non-HAEs), and the localization was principally pulmonary (83.2 % for HAEs, 74.8 % for non-HAEs). Neutropenia was a risk factor for 89.4 % HAEs; the main underlying condition was corticosteroid treatment (52.9 %) for non-HAEs. The distribution of proven and probable FFIs was different in the two groups: proven FFIs occurred more frequently in non-HAEs, whereas probable FFIs were correlated with the HAEs. The sensitivity of the galactomannan assay was higher for HAEs than for non-HAEs (95.3 vs. 48.1 %). The overall mortality rate was 44.2 % among the HAEs and 35.3 % among the non-HAEs. The etiology influenced the patient outcomes: mucormycosis was associated with a high mortality rate (57.1 % for HAEs, 77.8 % for non-HAEs).
The epidemiological and clinical data for FFIs were not identical in the HAEs and non-HAEs. The differences should be considered to improve the management of FFIs according to the patients' setting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pneumococcal disease epidemiology has changed after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Seven-valent vaccine (PCV7) has been effective in reducing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). In Europe, PCV13 effectiveness was estimated at 78% (95% CI: -18-96%) for 2-priming doses. In Italy, PCV7 was introduced in 2006 in the childhood immunization schedule and replaced with PCV13 in 2010. In Apulia, vaccination coverage has reached 95.1% (birth-cohort 2010). We estimated PCV program effectiveness and its impact on S.pneumoniae diseases. PCV Effectiveness We used the screening method. We calculated the Proportion of Population Vaccinated from immunization registries and detected cases through a laboratory-confirmed surveillance among hospitalized children ≤60 mo. A confirmed IPD case was a child with PCR positive for S.pneumoniae. Differences among children were assessed with the Chi-square or the Fisher exact test (P value<0.05). PCV Impact: We constructed time series using outcome-specific Poisson regression models: hospitalization rate in pre-PCV era and hospitalization Risk Ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs for both PCV7 and PCV7/PCV13 shifting era. We calculated hospitalization RR with 95% CIs comparing pre-PCV years with vaccination period. The PCV effectiveness was 84.3%(95% CI: 84.0-84.6%). In May 2010-January 2013, we enrolled 159 suspected IPD of whom four were confirmed. Two (fully vaccinated) were caused by serotype 9V, one (not vaccinated) by serotype 3, one (vaccinated with 2 PCV13 doses) by 15B/C. The most important reduction was for pneumococcal pneumonia (RR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.21-0.90). The PCV program show promising results in terms of both PCV13 effectiveness and its impact in reducing IPD in children<5 y.