[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is a diagnostic challenge for the practising physician. Detailed medical history, physical examination, non-invasive laboratory tests, and radiologic examinations compose the first level in the diagnostic approach to the FUO. When a diagnosis cannot be established with these procedures, some invasive diagnostic techniques and finally exploratory laparotomy are performed. Although advanced diagnostic measures and imaging-guided less invasive procedures have decreased the need, laparotomy remains as a final diagnostic method for FUO cases. In this study we evaluate the role and importance of laparotomy in the diagnosis of our FUO cases. In 17 out of 126 patients (8 male, 9 female, the median age 35.8 years) hospitalized in our clinic between 1982 and 2002 with the diagnosis of FUO, the diagnosis was established by laparotomy. The diagnosis was made directly in 13 patients, and indirectly (by excluding other diseases) in 2 patients. In several FUO series, the contribution of laparotomy to the diagnosis of FUO was reported as 27-100%. This rate was found to be 88% in the present study. During laparotomy on 17 cases, tissue samples were taken from spleen, liver, intra-abdominal and mesenteric lymph nodes. Pathologic examination of these tissue samples revealed miliary tuberculosis in 4; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in 3; Hodgkin's lymphoma in 3; liver tumour in 1; hairy cell leukemia in 1; peritonitis carcinomatosis in 1. In the patients with miliary tuberculosis, the liver (3) and/or spleen (2), and/or lymph node (3) revealed caseating granulomas. Laparotomy diagnosed 3 of 5 cases whose abdominal ultrasonography and computerized tomography were normal. In conclusion, although advanced diagnostic methods decreased the need for laparotomy in FUO, if non-invasive and invasive diagnostic measures fail, laparotomy may contribute to the diagnosis. The selection of the patient and the timing are important for laparotomy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many different remedial operations for alkaline reflux gastritis have been described. Analysis of their efficacy is difficult, because while many of the procedures have good early results, there are long-term failures due to their own complications. The aim of this study is to evaluate our experience with patients undergoing remedial operations for alkaline reflux gastritis syndrome.
The clinical features and results of remedial operations of 65 patients with alkaline reflux gastritis syndrome were reviewed retrospectively. Data on the hospital course were collected by interviewing patients directly or by telephone contact. An assessment of each patient's response to remedial operation was then made and a Visick score assigned.
All patients had been tried on a medical treatment and dietary restriction or both prior to remedial operation. Long-term follow up was possible in 46 patients. Seventy-six percent of patients who at the final state had a truncal vagotomy, distal gestrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy have been found to show satisfactory results (Visick-I/Visick II). Three patients who had previously undergone a Roux-en-Y conversion later required re-operation for Roux-stasis syndrome and a near-total gastrectomy was performed on these patients. Other operations performed for alkaline reflux gastritis were converted to "uncut" Roux-en-Y in five patients and dismantling of gastrojejunostomy in two patients.
For patients unresponsive to medical treatment, we reccommend the following strategy: a) for patients with truncal vagotomy plus gastrojejunostomy, dismantling of gastrojejunostomy should be the first choice b) for patients with prior Billroth-II gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y conversion is the most effective corrective operation, although it has its proper including Roux statis syndrome.