Partha P. Banerjee

University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio, United States

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Publications (250)229.45 Total impact

  • Han Li · Joseph W. Haus · Partha P. Banerjee ·
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    ABSTRACT: Generalization of the transfer matrix method is developed to analyze Type I second-harmonic generation in linear-nonlinear multilayer one-dimensional photonic bandgap structures for oblique incidence of a nondepleted fundamental. The advantage of the transfer matrix method is that it takes into account reflections and interferences between all forward and backward propagating fundamental and second-harmonic waves. The conversion efficiency is calculated as a function of the incident angle of the fundamental and the thicknesses of the linear and nonlinear layers. Specific incident angles and thicknesses may generate relatively high conversion efficiency inside nonlinear material. Our analytical and numerical analyses show that the conversion efficiency of second-harmonic generation depends on the fundamental pump power, second-order susceptibility, and field enhancement in the photonic bandgap structure. Upper bounds on pump intensity can be found for a given incidence angle and sample thickness where the nondepleted pump approximation can be used to model such a nonlinear structure.
    Journal of the Optical Society of America B 07/2015; 32(7):1456. DOI:10.1364/JOSAB.32.001456 · 1.97 Impact Factor
  • P. Banerjee · U. Abeywickrema · M. Basunia · S. Praharaj ·
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    ABSTRACT: The amplitude and phase of the complex optical field in the Helmholtz equation obey a pair of coupled equations, arising from equating the real and imaginary parts. The imaginary part yields the transport of intensity equation (TIE), which can be used to derive the phase distribution at the observation plane. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of TIE to recover the 3D image of an amplitude object embedded in a phase object. The phase object is created by heating a liquid, comprising a solution of red dye in alcohol, using a focused 514 nm laser beam to the point where self-phase modulation of the beam is observed. The induced phase due to the pump beam is also obtained using regular in-line holography and compared with results obtained from TIE. Our work can find applications in, for instance, referenceless 3D imaging of debris in a fireball, and is also well suited for moving objects.
  • U. Abeywickrema · P. P. Banerjee · N. T. Banerjee ·
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    ABSTRACT: The use of a low-power laser beam to characterize self-phase modulation (SPM) and bubble formation during thermal blooming (TB), as well as manipulation of the bubbles, is reported. First, a low-power 633 nm laser beam is used to characterize the induced refractive index profile during SPM of a focused 514 nm pump beam in absorbing liquid media, e.g., a solution of red dye in isopropyl alcohol. The induced phase change is also characterized using digital holography via the 633 nm source as the probe and reference. During TB at higher pump powers, bubble formation occurs in the liquid. Using a modified setup, which minimizes the effects of gravity, buoyancy, and convection, stable bubbles are generated. These are characterized using in-line digital holography with the 633 nm probe beam. It is shown that the bubble size depends on exposure time of the pump and that the bubble can be steered by moving a focused low-power laser beam. Finally, possible applications of these thermally generated bubbles are discussed.
    Applied Optics 04/2015; 54(10). DOI:10.1364/AO.54.002857 · 1.78 Impact Factor
  • Logan A. Williams · Georges Nehmetallah · Rola Aylo · Partha P. Banerjee ·
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    ABSTRACT: Fresnel transform implementation methods using numerical preprocessing techniques are investigated in this paper. First, it is shown that up-sampling dramatically reduces the minimum reconstruction distance requirements and allows maximal signal recovery by eliminating aliasing artifacts which typically occur at distances much less than the Rayleigh range of the object. Second, zero-padding is employed to arbitrarily scale numerical resolution for the purpose of resolution matching multiple holograms, where each hologram is recorded using dissimilar geometric or illumination parameters. Such preprocessing yields numerical resolution scaling at any distance. Both techniques are extensively illustrated using experimental results.
    Applied Optics 02/2015; 54(6). DOI:10.1364/AO.54.001443 · 1.78 Impact Factor
  • G. Nehmetallah · P. Banerjee · J. Khoury ·
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    ABSTRACT: The nonlinearity inherent in four-wave mixing in photorefractive (PR) materials is used for adaptive filtering. Examples include script enhancement on a periodic pattern, scratch and defect cluster enhancement, periodic pattern dislocation enhancement, etc. through intensity filtering image manipulation. Organic PR materials have large space-bandwidth product, which makes them useful in adaptive filtering techniques in quality control systems. For instance, in the case of edge enhancement, phase conjugation via four-wave mixing suppresses the low spatial frequencies of the Fourier spectrum of an aperiodic image and consequently leads to image edge enhancement. In this work, we model, numerically verify, and simulate the performance of a four wave mixing setup used for edge, defect and pattern detection in periodic amplitude and phase structures. The results show that this technique successfully detects the slightest defects clearly even with no enhancement. This technique should facilitate improvements in applications such as image display sharpness utilizing edge enhancement, production line defect inspection of fabrics, textiles, e-beam lithography masks, surface inspection, and materials characterization.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 01/2015; 9477. DOI:10.1117/12.2176427 · 0.20 Impact Factor
  • H. Li · J.W. Haus · P.P. Banerjee ·
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    ABSTRACT: Second harmonic generation generated by an obliquely incident fundamental wave in a nonlinear photonic bandgap structure is analyzed by applying the transfer matrix method, where multiple reflection and interference effects are taken into account. The radiation of fundamental and second harmonic waves from the exit plane of the nonlinear photonic bandgap structure, and the distribution of the fields within the structure are discussed. Under the non-depleted pump wave assumption, the conversion efficiency of the second harmonic wave versus the incident angle of the fundamental is studied in detail.
  • Ujitha Abeywickrema · Partha Banerjee ·
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    ABSTRACT: Holographic interferometry is an effective and rich method for measuring very small (order of a wavelength) deformations of an object and is widely used for non-destructive testing. In this work, the use of photorefractive materials for implementing real time phase shifting holographic interferometry is examined in detail. Bragg and non-Bragg orders generated during two- and multi-beam coupling in a photorefractive material can be used to retrieve the deformation of the object, or the phase information of the object. In previous work, it has been shown that object deformation can be determined from monitoring Bragg and non-Bragg orders. Preliminary experiments for determining the depth profile of an object have been reported, along with approximate analytic solutions for the Bragg and non-Bragg orders for the case of interacting plane waves. In this work, the exact solutions of Bragg and non-Bragg orders are found from numerically solving the interaction equations in a photorefractive material. It is shown that if the grating written in the material using two waves is read out by a reference and the object, the resulting Bragg and non-Bragg orders contain the information of the object phase, and is dependent on material parameters and the writing and reading beam intensities. Similarities and differences between this dynamic holographic technique and the traditional phase shifting digital holography are extensively discussed.
    SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications; 09/2014
  • S. Memarzadeh · G. T. Nehmetallah · P. P. Banerjee ·
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    ABSTRACT: Non-interferometric intensity based methods of phase retrieval such as the transport of intensity (TI) employs a simple experimental technique for amplitude and phase reconstruction of a static object by capturing several diffraction patterns at different observation planes. The purpose of this work is to numerically and experimentally extend this technique to moving phase and amplitude objects. The simulation part is done based on solving the TI equation (TIE) using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method, and the amplitude and the calculated phase in the detection plane is numerically back-propagated to the object plane using the paraxial transfer function. Furthermore, we illustrate how a static 3D phase and/or amplitude object can also be reconstructed tomographically by illuminating it at multiple angles. For illustration purposes, the object is mounted on a rotating stage and multiple diffraction patterns are captured for different angles and at different observation planes. The reconstructed optical fields are tomographically recomposed to yield the final 3D shape using a simple multiplicative technique. The tomographic technique can be generalized for the case of 3D moving objects. Finally, we have used TIE to determine the phase induced in a liquid due to heating by a focused laser beam, which causes self-phase modulation of the beam.
    SPIE Sensing Technology + Applications; 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Various matched filter based architectures have been proposed over the last two decades to optimize the target detection and recognition performance. While these techniques provide excellent performance with respect to one or more parameters, a unified and synergistic approach to evaluate the performance of these techniques under the same constraints is yet to be done. Consequently, in this paper, we used a set of generalized performance metrics for comparing the performance of the recently reported matched filter based techniques using various types of infrared and SAR datasets. Test results obtained using the aforementioned datasets and performance metrics provide excellent information with respect to the suitability of existing filter based techniques for various target detection and tracking practical applications.
    SPIE Defense + Security; 05/2014
  • G. Nehmetallah · P. P. Banerjee · M. Alam · J. Khoury ·
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    ABSTRACT: The performance of a novel joint transform correlator (JTC) based on photorefractive (PR) two-beam coupling (TBC) is analyzed by determining the dependence of relevant figures of merit such as the discrimination ratio, the peak-to-correlation plane energy ratio, and the peak-to-noise ratio on the PR gain coefficient and pump-probe beam ratio for a variety of reference and signal images. In this scheme, spatially separated reference and signal images constitute the pump, which transfers energy to a weak probe in a novel image processing setup where the PR polymer serves as the spatial filter in the Fourier plane.
    SPIE Defense + Security; 05/2014
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    ABSTRACT: The photorefractive joint transform correlator (JTC) combines two features. The first is embedded semi-adaptive optimality which weighs the correlation against clutter and noise in the input and the second is the intrinsic dynamic range compression nonlinearity which improves several metrics simultaneously without metric tradeoff. The performance of this two-beam coupling joint transform correlator scheme is evaluated against several other well-known correlation filters that have been developed during the last three decades. The result shows that the two-beam coupling joint transform scheme is a very robust correlator with respect to standard evaluation metrics for different sets of data.
    SPIE Defense + Security; 05/2014
  • L Williams · P P Banerjee · G Nehmetallah · S Praharaj ·
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    ABSTRACT: In this work multiwavelength digital holography is applied to calculate the volume displacement of various topographic surface features. To accurately measure the volume displacement of macroscopic features, long synthetic wavelengths up to several millimeters are generated using tunable IR laser sources. Practical methods of implementation are considered, including geometric effects of both Michelson and Mach-Zehnder recording configurations and error due to wavelength selection. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America
    Applied Optics 03/2014; 53(8):1597-603. DOI:10.1364/AO.53.001597 · 1.78 Impact Factor
  • L. Williams · P. P. Banerjee · G. Nehmetallah · S. Praharaj ·
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    ABSTRACT: In this work multiwavelength digital holography, originally applied to calculate the volume displacement of various macroscopic topographic surface features, is now extended to the case of microscopic objects. Accurate measurements of volume displacement for macroscopic surface features has been achieved using long synthetic wavelengths up to several millimeters, generated via tunable IR laser sources. Microscopic volume measurements are performed via digital holographic microscopy using HeNe and Ar+ ion lasers to generate very short synthetic wavelengths. Practical methods of implementation are considered, including wavelength selection error and the geometric effects of both Michelson and Mach-Zehnder recording configurations on phase measurement. Results include comparisons to standard metrology tools, including 1D profilometry and white light interferometry.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 01/2014; 9006. DOI:10.1117/12.2040494 · 0.20 Impact Factor
  • P. Banerjee · H. Liu · L. Williams ·
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    ABSTRACT: Compressive sensing is a new alternative to the conventional Fresnel approach for digital holographic reconstruction for sparse objects, and can show improved performance with respect to image quality and the depth of focus. In this work, we experimentally investigate the performance of the compressive sensing reconstruction approach and compare it with the Fresnel transform and the non-paraxial and paraxial transfer function back-propagation approach. The compressive sensing technique used is the so-called Two-Step Iterative Shrinkage/Thresholding algorithm. A He-Ne laser of 543.5 nm is used as the light source and a Gabor holographic recording system is used as the experimental setup. The test object comprises a dandelion seed parachute with few wings. We capture the holograms at several recording distances and then reconstruct the image using each method. Over the range of recording distances used, the non-paraxial and paraxial transfer function back-propagation approach yields identical results. We evaluate the depth resolution of the compressive sensing algorithm and compare it with that of the Fresnel approach and the non-paraxial back-propagation approach.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 01/2014; 9006. DOI:10.1117/12.2041816 · 0.20 Impact Factor
  • Logan Williams · Georges Nehmetallah · Rola Aylo · Partha P. Banerjee ·
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    ABSTRACT: Fresnel transform implementation methods are explored which dramatically reduce the minimum reconstruction distance requirements and allow maximal signal recovery with numerically improved resolution scaling at any distance. Methods are illustrated using experimental results.
    Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging; 01/2014
  • Source
    Rola Aylo · Georges Nehmetallah · Han Li · Partha P. Banerjee ·
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, multilayer photonic bandgap structures comprising stacks of alternating layers of positive and negative index have been proposed for a variety of applications, such as perfect imaging, filters, sensors, coatings for tailored emittance, absorptance, etc. Following a brief review of the history of negative index materials, the performance of such stacks is reviewed, with emphasis on analysis of plane wave and beam propagation, and possible applications in sensing. First, the use of the transfer matrix method to analyze plane wave propagation in such structures to determine the transmittance and reflectance is developed. Examples of cases where the Bragg bandgap and the so-called zero < (n ) > gap can be used for possible applications in sensing are illustrated. Next, the transfer matrix approach is extended to simulate the spatial evolution of a collection of propagating and nonpropagating TE and TM plane waves (or plane wave spectra) incident on such multilayer structures. The use of the complex Poynting theorem in checking the computations, as well as monitoring powers and the stored electric or magnetic energy in any section of the multilayer stack, is illustrated, along with its use in designing alternating positive and negative index structures with optimal gain to compensate for losses in the negative index material. Finally, the robustness of PIM-NIM stacks with respect to randomness in the dimensions of the PIM-NIM structure is examined. This should be useful in determining the performance of such structures when they are physically fabricated.
    01/2014; 2:437-450. DOI:10.1109/ACCESS.2014.2321661
  • Source
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    ABSTRACT: Photorefractive polymers have been extensively studied for over two decades and have found applications in holographic displays and optical image processing. The complexity of these materials arises from multiple charge contributions, for example, leading to the formation of competing photorefractive gratings. It has been recently shown that in a photorefractive polymer at relatively moderate applied electric fields the primary charge carriers (holes) establish an initial grating, followed by a subsequent competing grating (electrons) resulting in a decreased two-beam coupling and diffraction efficiencies. In this paper, it is shown that with relatively large sustainable bias fields, the two-beam coupling efficiency is enhanced owing to a decreased electron contribution. These results also explain the cause of dielectric breakdown experienced under large bias fields. Our conclusions are supported by self-pumped transient two-beam coupling and photocurrent measurements as a function of applied bias fields at different wavelengths.
    Optics Express 12/2013; 21(25):30392-400. DOI:10.1364/OE.21.030392 · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    P. P. Banerjee · M. R. Chatterjee · M. Maghraoui ·
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    ABSTRACT: Propagation of optical signals across a linear-nonlinear interface is investigated by using a spectral decomposition technique involving discrete sideband frequencies. The complexity of the analysis is shown to be appreciably reduced by assuming incommensurate discrete sidebands around the carrier. The efficacy of this formalism is tested for various cases, including discrete stationary modes, evolution of discrete sidebands assuming an undepleted carrier, and, finally, AM pulse propagation across the interface. Among several interesting results, the formation of a narrow-band FM pulse, spatially separated from the ubiquitous AM pulse, is demonstrated. The latter result may be interpreted as a test of the stability of the uniform plane-wave solution.
    Journal of the Optical Society of America B 11/2013; 7(1):21-29. DOI:10.1364/JOSAB.7.000021 · 1.97 Impact Factor
  • R. Aylo · P. P. Banerjee · S. A. Basun · D. R. Evans ·
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    ABSTRACT: The transfer matrix method is used to analyze induced reflection gratings in photorefractive iron doped lithium niobate in a self-pumped configuration. The optical field distribution and the induced refractive index distributions inside the material are computed, and the overall transmission and reflection are determined for different orientations of the c-axis. Numerical simulations are compared with experimental results.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 09/2013; 8847. DOI:10.1117/12.2022138 · 0.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The complexity of photorefractive polymers arises from multiple contributions to the photo-induced index grating. Analysis of the time dynamics of the two-beam coupling signal is used to extract information about the charge species responsible for the grating formation. It has been shown in a commonly used photorefractive polymer at moderate applied electric fields, the primary charge carriers (holes) establish an initial grating which, however, are followed by a subsequent competing grating (electrons) that decreases the two-beam coupling efficiency. We show by upon using higher applied bias fields, gain enhancement can be achieved by eliminating the electron grating contribution and returning to hole gratings only.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 09/2013; 8847. DOI:10.1117/12.2023404 · 0.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
229.45 Total Impact Points


  • 2002-2015
    • University of Dayton
      • • Electro-Optics
      • • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Dayton, Ohio, United States
  • 1986-2013
    • Syracuse University
      • Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
      Syracuse, New York, United States
  • 1977-2000
    • University of Alabama in Huntsville
      • • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      • • Department of Physics
      Huntsville, Alabama, United States
  • 1997
    • Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Blacksburg, Virginia, United States
  • 1992
    • University of Alabama
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United States
  • 1988
    • University of Wisconsin–Madison
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 1981-1986
    • University of Iowa
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Iowa City, IA, United States