Sanjeev Chunilal

Waikato District Health Board, Hamilton City, Waikato, New Zealand

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Publications (18)101.75 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There are few studies that directly compare the variation in incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) according to ethnicity. The aim of this study was to compare the rates of VTE, deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) among different ethnic groups. The cases diagnosed with VTE, DVT and PE for a period between Mar. 2004 and Jun. 2009 were identified through the hospital based database system. The 2006 New Zealand Census data was used to calculate the rate of diagnosis. The observed annual incidence of VTE during this period was 81.6 per 100,000 population. The relative risk of VTE comparing Europeans with Maori, Pacific Islanders and Asians after age standardization were 1.98 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63 to 2.41), 3.22(95% CI: 2.60 to 3.99) and 4.02(95% CI: 3.34 to 4.84) respectively. Relative risk of DVT after age standardization comparing Europeans with Maori, Pacific Islanders and Asians, were 2.14(95%CI: 1.72 to 2.66), 3.20(95%CI: 2.46 to 4.17) and 4.75(95% CI: 3.80 to 5.94) respectively. Indirect age standardization was used for comparison of the diagnosis of PE. The ratio between the calculated expected number of cases and the actual number of cases was 1.32(95%CI: 0.89 to 1.75) for Maori, 2.96 (95% CI: 1.89 to 4.03) for Pacific Islanders and 3.89 (95% CI: 3.00 to 4.78) for Asians. Europeans have a significantly higher incidence of VTE compared with Maori, Pacific Islander and Asian populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 11/2013; · 6.08 Impact Factor
  • Huyen Tran, Sanjeev Chunilal
    Evidence-based medicine 10/2013;
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    G Hapgood, J Butler, E Malan, S Chunilal, H Tran
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    ABSTRACT: Dabigatran is an oral direct thrombin inhibitor that does not require routine laboratory monitoring. However, an assessment of its anticoagulant effect in certain clinical settings is desirable. We examined the relationship between dabigatran levels, as determined by the Hemoclot thrombin inhibitor assay (HTI), the thrombin time (TT) and the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) using different reagents. We describe these parameters with the clinical outcomes of patients receiving dabigatran. Seventy-five plasma samples from 47 patients were analysed. The HTI assay was established to measure dabigatran level. aPTTs were performed using TriniCLOT aPTT S reagent (TC) and three additional aPTT reagents. From linear regression lines, we established the aPTT ranges corresponding to the therapeutic drug levels for dabigatran (90-180 ng/ml). The aPTT demonstrated a modest correlation with the dabigatran level (r= 0.80) but the correlation became less reliable at higher dabigatran levels. The therapeutic aPTT ranges for reagents were clinically and statistically different compared with our reference reagent (46-54 s (TC) vs 51-60 s (SP), 54-64 s (SS) and 61-71 s (Actin FS) (p<0.05)). The TT was sensitive to the presence of dabigatran with a level of 60 ng/ml resulting in a TT > 300 s. In conclusion, the aPTT demonstrated a modest correlation with the dabigatran level and was less responsive with supra-therapeutic levels. aPTT reagents differed in their responsiveness, suggesting individual laboratories must determine their own therapeutic range for their aPTT reagent. The TT is too sensitive to quantify dabigatran levels, but a normal TT suggests minimal or no plasma dabigatran.
    Thrombosis and Haemostasis 06/2013; 110(2). · 6.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: *Despite the associated bleeding risk, warfarin is the most commonly prescribed anticoagulant in Australia and New Zealand. Warfarin use will likely continue for anticoagulation indications for which novel agents have not been evaluated and among patients who are already stabilised on it or have severe renal impairment. *Strategies to manage over-warfarinisation and warfarin during invasive procedures can reduce the risk of haemorrhage. *For most warfarin indications, the target international normalised ratio (INR) is 2.0-3.0 (venous thromboembolism and single mechanical heart valve excluding mitral). For mechanical mitral valve or combined mitral and aortic valves, the target INR is 2.5-3.5. *Risk factors for bleeding with warfarin use include increasing age, history of bleeding and specific comorbidities. *For patients with elevated INR (4.5-10.0), no bleeding and no high risk of bleeding, withholding warfarin with careful subsequent monitoring seems safe. *Vitamin K1 can be given to reverse the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. When oral vitamin K1 is used for this purpose, the injectable formulation, which can be given orally or intravenously, is preferred. *For immediate reversal, prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC) are preferred over fresh frozen plasma (FFP). Prothrombinex-VF is the only PCC routinely used for warfarin reversal in Australia and New Zealand. It contains factors II, IX, X and low levels of factor VII. FFP is not routinely needed in combination with Prothrombinex-VF. FFP can be used when Prothrombinex-VF is unavailable. Vitamin K1 is essential for sustaining the reversal achieved by PCC or FFP. *Surgery can be conducted with minimal increased risk of bleeding if INR ≤ 1.5. For minor procedures where bleeding risk is low, warfarin may not need to be interrupted. If necessary, warfarin can be withheld for 5 04s before surgery, or intravenous vitamin K1 can be given the night before surgery. Prothrombinex-VF use for warfarin reversal should be restricted to emergency settings. Perioperative management of anticoagulant therapy requires an evaluation of the risk of thrombosis if warfarin is temporarily stopped, relative to the risk of bleeding if it is continued or modified.
    The Medical journal of Australia 03/2013; 198(4):198-9. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Compression ultrasonography performed serially over a 7-day period is recommended for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis in symptomatic pregnant women, but whether this approach is safe is unknown. We evaluated the safety of withholding anticoagulation from pregnant women with suspected deep vein thrombosis following negative serial compression ultrasonography and iliac vein imaging. METHODS:Consecutive pregnant women who presented with suspected deep vein thrombosis underwent compression ultrasonography and Doppler imaging of the iliac vein of the symptomatic leg(s). Women whose initial test results were negative underwent serial testing on 2 occasions over the next 7 days. Women not diagnosed with deep vein thrombosis were followed for a minimum of 3 months for the development of symptomatic deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. RESULTS:In total, 221 pregnant women presented with suspected deep vein thrombosis. Deep vein thrombosis was diagnosed in 16 (7.2%) women by initial compression ultrasonography and Doppler studies; none were identified as having deep vein thrombosis on serial testing. One patient with normal serial testing had a pulmonary embolism diagnosed 7 weeks later. The overall prevalence of deep vein thrombosis was 7.7% (17/221); of these, 65% (11/17) of cases were isolated to the iliofemoral veins and 12% (2/17) were isolated iliac deep vein thromboses. The incidence of venous thromboembolism during follow-up was 0.49% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09%-2.71%). The sensitivity of serial compression ultrasonography with Doppler imaging was 94.1% (95% CI 69.2%-99.7%), the negative predictive value was 99.5% (95% CI 96.9%-100%), and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.068 (95% CI 0.01-0.39). INTERPRETATION:Serial compression ultrasonography with Doppler imaging of the iliac vein performed over a 7-day period excludes deep-vein thrombosis in symptomatic pregnant women.
    Canadian Medical Association Journal 01/2013; · 6.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: North American and European literature suggest that the incidence rate for pregnancy-related thromboembolism (VTE) ranges from 0.5 to 2 per 1000 pregnancies. However, there is a paucity of data regarding pregnancy-related VTE in Australia and New Zealand. To define the epidemiology, management and adverse effects of pregnancy-related VTE in Australia and New Zealand. Retrospective chart review of pregnant patients with objectively diagnosed pregnancy-related VTE at Monash Medical Centre and the North Shore Hospital from January 2007 to March 2011. Sixty women with VTE were identified, 31 and 29 in the antepartum and post-partum period respectively. VTE occurred as early as 8 weeks of gestation. There was a trend towards higher proportion of PE in the postpartum period. Most antenatal patients were started on enoxaparin and dosed according to weight at diagnosis. A wide variability in maintenance dosing strategies was observed. Three (5%, 95% CI: 1% to 14%) patients suffered major bleeds, all occurring post-partum. Recurrences occurred in two post-partum patients who received a truncated course of enoxaparin for distal deep-vein thrombosis. Although more women had an induction of labour, this did not translate into an increased Caesarean section rate. The epidemiology of pregnancy-related VTE is similar to that of other developed countries. All three bleeding events occurred in the immediate post-partum setting, highlighting the need for caution at this critical time. VTE recurrences occurred in those women with post-partum distal deep-vein thrombosis treated with an abbreviated course of enoxaparin.
    Internal Medicine Journal 07/2012; 42(10):1104-12. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pregnancy and the postpartum is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality; yet, there are few robust data from clinical trials to inform an approach to diagnosis and management. Failure to investigate symptoms suggestive of pulmonary embolism (PE) is a consistent finding in maternal death enquiries, and clinical symptoms should not be relied on to exclude or diagnose VTE. In this consensus statement, we present our recommendations for the diagnosis and management of acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and PE. All women with suspected DVT in pregnancy should be investigated with whole leg compression ultrasonography. If the scan is negative and significant clinical suspicion remains, then further imaging for iliofemoral DVT maybe required. Imaging should be undertaken in all women with suspected PE, as the fetal radiation exposure with both ventilation/perfusion scans and CT pulmonary angiography is within safe limits. Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is the preferred therapy for acute VTE that occur during pregnancy. In observational cohort studies, using once-daily regimens appears adequate, in particular with the LMWH tinzaparin; however, pharmacokinetic data support twice-daily therapy with other LMWH and is recommended, at least initially, for PE or iliofemoral DVT in pregnancy. Treatment should continue for a minimum duration of six months, and until at least six weeks postpartum. Induction of labour or planned caesarean section maybe required to allow an appropriate transition to unfractionated heparin to avoid delivery in women in therapeutic doses of anticoagulation.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 02/2012; 52(1):14-22. · 1.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pregnancy is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE), an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Although there is a 4-5-fold increased risk compared to that of nonpregnant women of the same age, the absolute risk is low at no more than two episodes of VTE per 1000 pregnancies. There is uncertainty about which women require thromboprophylaxis during pregnancy or postpartum because of a lack of data from appropriate clinical trials. For this reason, recommendations for prophylaxis should be made only after explaining the available evidence to the patient and taking into account her perception of the balance of risk and benefit in thromboprophylaxis. The aim of these recommendations is to provide clinicians with practical advice to assist in decisions regarding thromboprophylaxis in women considered to be at risk of VTE during pregnancy and the postpartum. The authors are clinicians from across New Zealand and Australia representing the fields of haematology, obstetric medicine, anaesthesiology, maternal-fetal medicine and obstetrics. Authors were invited to review the relevant literature and then worked collaboratively to devise recommendations and resolve areas of controversy. The recommendations contained herein were reached by consensus and represent the opinion of the panel. The absence of randomised clinical trials in this area limits the strength of evidence that can be used, and it is acknowledged that they represent level C evidence. The panel advocates for appropriate clinical studies to be carried out in this patient population to address the inadequacy of present evidence.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 09/2011; 52(1):3-13. · 1.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of D-dimer in excluding deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in pregnancy is currently uncertain. We hypothesized that the specificity of sensitive D-dimer assays could be improved without compromising sensitivity by using higher D-dimer cut-off values. To determine the test characteristics of two rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and three latex agglutination assays in pregnancy. We recruited consecutive pregnant women who presented to participating centers with suspected DVT for the study. Symptomatic women were investigated with compression ultrasonography, and received 3 months of clinical follow-up to assess for the presence of venous thrombosis. Plasma samples for D-dimer were collected and frozen at the time of presentation. The median and mean D-dimer values for respective trimesters of pregnancy in patients with and without DVT were calculated. Receiver operating curves (ROCs) were plotted for respective assays to establish the best cut-points. The test characteristics corresponding to standard cut-points and these 'pregnancy' cut-points are presented. The prevalence of DVT in our cohort was 6.6% (95% confidence interval 4.0-10.6%). The mean and median D-dimer values were significantly increased throughout pregnancy. Overall, women with confirmed DVT had higher D-dimer levels than women without DVT (P < 0.0001). Improved specificities (62-79%) were observed with the use of higher cut-points obtained from ROCs for all five assays, and high sensitivities were maintained (80-100%) for DVT diagnosis. Using higher cut-points than those used in non-pregnant patients, the specificity of D-dimer assays for the diagnosis of DVT in pregnancy can be improved without compromising sensitivity. Validation in prospective management studies is needed.
    Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 05/2010; 8(5):1004-11. · 6.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: D-Dimer testing is often used with compression ultrasonography for the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in nonpregnant patients. The D-dimer test is highly sensitive, and a negative result can obviate the need for further testing for DVT. This test has not been studied for DVT diagnosis in pregnancy because its specificity was deemed too poor. To determine the sensitivity and specificity and assess the utility of the SimpliRED assay (Agen Biomedical, Brisbane, Australia) for the diagnosis of DVT in pregnant women. Prospective cohort study. 5 tertiary university-affiliated Canadian hospitals providing care to obstetric patients. 149 consecutive pregnant women with suspected DVT who presented to 1 of the participating centers over 5 years. Participating women were tested with compression leg ultrasonography (single or serially on days 0, 3, and 7) and received 3 months' clinical follow-up for the presence or absence of DVT. Whole blood was tested with the SimpliRED assay at initial presentation, and results were correlated with ultrasonography and clinical findings for the presence or absence of DVT. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of the SimpliRED assay were calculated, along with the prevalence of false-positive SimpliRED assay results (with 95% CIs). The prevalence of DVT in the cohort was 8.7% (95% CI, 5.2% to 14.4%). The sensitivity of the SimpliRED assay was 100% (CI, 77% to 100% [13 of 13 patients]), the specificity was 60% (CI, 52% to 68% [81 of 135]), and the negative predictive value was 100% (CI, 95% to 100% [81 of 81]). The SimpliRED assay was positive in 0% (CI, 0% to 60%), 24% (CI, 14% to 37%), and 51% (CI, 40% to 61%) of women in the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively, among pregnant patients in whom DVT was not diagnosed. Limitations: The prevalence of DVT in the cohort was low, resulting in wide CIs. The clinician's previous impression was used to determine pretest probability in the absence of a validated clinical prediction rule for pregnant women. The SimpliRED assay may be useful in pregnancy because a normal result excludes DVT and occurs frequently enough to be clinically helpful.
    Annals of internal medicine 09/2007; 147(3):165-70. · 13.98 Impact Factor
  • Thrombosis Research - THROMB RES. 01/2007; 119.
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    ABSTRACT: Experienced clinicians' gestalt is useful in estimating the pretest probability for pulmonary embolism and is complementary to diagnostic testing, such as lung scanning. However, it is unclear whether recently developed clinical prediction rules, using explicit features of clinical examination, are comparable with clinicians' gestalt. If so, clinical prediction rules would be powerful tools because they could be used by less-experienced health care professionals to simplify the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Recent studies have shown that the combination of a low pretest probability (using a clinical prediction rule) and a normal result of a D-dimer test reliably excludes pulmonary embolism without the need for further testing. To evaluate and demonstrate the accuracy of pretest probability assessment for pulmonary embolism using clinical gestalt vs clinical prediction rules. The MEDLINE database was searched for relevant articles published between 1966 and March 2003. Bibliographies of pertinent articles also were scanned for suitable articles. To be included in the analysis, studies were required to have consecutive, unselected patients enrolled; participating physicians in the studies, blinded to the results of diagnostic testing, had to estimate pretest probability of pulmonary embolism; and validated diagnostic methods had to be used to confirm or exclude pulmonary embolism. Three reviewers independently scanned titles and abstracts for inclusion of studies. An initial MEDLINE search identified 1709 studies, of which 16 involving 8306 patients were included in the final analysis. A clinical gestalt strategy was used in 7 studies, and in the low, moderate, and high pretest categories, the rates of pulmonary embolism ranged from 8% to 19%, 26% to 47%, and 46% to 91%, respectively. Clinical prediction rules were used in 10 studies, and 3% to 28%, 16% to 46%, and 38% to 98% in the low, moderate, and high pretest probability groups, respectively, had pulmonary embolism. The clinical gestalt of experienced clinicians and the clinical prediction rules used by physicians of varying experience have shown similar accuracy in discriminating among patients who have a low, moderate, or high pretest probability of pulmonary embolism. We advocate the use of a clinical prediction rule because it has shown to be accurate and can be used by less-experienced clinicians.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/2004; 290(21):2849-58. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pregnancy is associated with a physiological increase in coagulation factors and heparin binding proteins; both can affect the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in response to unfractionated heparin (UFH) invalidating the use of a non-pregnant APTT therapeutic range. We compared the anticoagulant response of UFH added in vitro to the plasma of 13 pregnant (third trimester) and 15 nonpregnant women to determine whether the measured APTT and antifactor Xa activities are lower in pregnancy. Increasing concentrations of UFH were added to platelet-poor plasma from each subject and the APTT and anti-factor Xa activity were measured. The amount of UFH which was reversibly bound and neutralised by plasma heparin binding proteins was assessed by comparing the anti-factor Xa activity before and after addition of low affinity heparin (LAH). Fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF Ag) and factor VIII levels, were also measured. The APTT response, assessed by the slope of the regression line of log APTT versus added heparin concentration, was attenuated in pregnant plasma (0.76 s/U/mL versus 1.2 s/U/mL, p = 0.005) and was highly correlated to increased non-specific plasma protein binding (47% versus 35% p <0.01) and increased fibrinogen (5.1 g/L versus 2.8 g/L, p < 0.01) and factor VIII activity (2.7 U/mL versus 1.2 U/mL, p <0.01). Thus, to achieve the same heparin level, pregnant women require higher daily doses of UFH than non-pregnant women. However, if UFH dose adjustments during the third trimester are based upon a non-pregnant APTT therapeutic range, systematic overdosing of pregnant women will result, possibly increasing the risk of bleeding and osteoporosis.
    Thrombosis and Haemostasis 02/2002; 87(1):92-7. · 6.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies evaluating the accuracy of the SimpliRED D-dimer assay for venous thromboembolism (VTE) have used a capillary fingerstick blood sample, which requires the test to be performed immediately at the bedside. Initial studies showed a sensitivity for VTE of 90% to 95% when the assay was performed by a finite number of experienced health care workers. However, because of the test's subjectivity, misinterpretation of the result is possible when performed by inexperienced staff. Recent reports by other investigators indicated a low sensitivity of this assay for VTE and noted a reduction in sensitivity (84%) for pulmonary embolism. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the D-dimer test performed in the laboratory by experienced technologists on venous whole-blood samples in routine collection tubes. If D-dimer testing results accurately detect VTE when performed in this manner, concerns about the sensitivity of this assay would be solved. One hundred forty-eight consecutive patients with suspected VTE underwent D-dimer testing at the bedside using a fingerstick sample and venous blood collected into a plain tube. Venous blood was also collected into tubes containing tri-potassium EDTA, sodium citrate, or a combination of lithium and heparin for D-dimer testing in the laboratory. In addition, the EDTA tube was refrigerated overnight at 4 degrees C for retesting at approximately 24 hours. The presence or absence of VTE was determined by means of objective results of testing and a 3-month follow-up. Thirty-four subjects (23%) had confirmed VTE (25 with deep vein thrombosis; 9 with pulmonary embolism). All laboratory venous blood D-dimer results showed sensitivities of 97%, specificities of 61% to 64%, and negative predictive values of 99%, compared with 88%, 71%, and 95%, respectively, when the results were obtained by means of fingerstick at the bedside. The SimpliRED D-dimer assay performed in the laboratory on venous blood, collected into any of 3 routine laboratory tubes, is sensitive and moderately specific for VTE. Based on this study, immediate bedside testing (particularly by inexperienced personnel) under suboptimal conditions is unnecessary. Furthermore, the high sensitivity of refrigerated EDTA samples allows specimens to be stored or transported (on ice at 4 degrees C) for testing for 24 hours after collection.
    Archives of Internal Medicine 02/2002; 162(2):217-20. · 11.46 Impact Factor
  • S D Chunilal, J S Ginsberg
    Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 10/2001; 12(1):53-7. · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • S D Chunilal, J S Ginsberg
    Thrombosis Research 02/2000; 97(1):V33-48. · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • S.D. Chunilal, J.S. Ginsberg
    Thrombosis Research 01/2000; 97(1). · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • Sanjeev D. Chunilal

Publication Stats

193 Citations
101.75 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Waikato District Health Board
      Hamilton City, Waikato, New Zealand
  • 2010
    • Women's College Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2000–2004
    • McMaster University
      • Department of Medicine
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 2001
    • John Hunter Hospital
      New Lambton, New South Wales, Australia