[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the vast experience in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, there are still women who respond poorly to gonadotropins, which results in few oocytes at retrieval, reduced number of embryos for transfer and consequently unsatisfactory pregnancy rates. Although such patients are quite common in IVF practice, the exact prevalence of so-called "poor responders" is difficult to estimate due to the variety of applied definitions. The urgent need for an internationally accepted definition of poor ovarian response (POR) was addressed by an ESHRE Workshop held in Bologna in 2010, where the consensus was reached and criteria were finally established. The application of this uniform definition may allow a correct estimate of POR prevalence and, what is more important, designing proper trials to assess and finally compare the interventions used in POR patients. The article describes the possible physiology of POR and patient characteristics, mentions risk factors and laboratory tests of decreased ovarian reserve. Finally it reviews the possible management of POR with different stimulation protocols in the light of EBM. Basing on published meta-analyses, various additional alternatives (such as estradiol priming, the addition of rLH, growth hormone, androgens and androgen-modulating agents, aspirin) are also summarized. Despite the two decades of trying, there is still no consensus on what is best for POR. No single treatment can be recommended over another, as the evidence for all of them is insufficient. It is obvious that interventions used in POR require properly designed large randomized studies, because until now there is no evidence-based treatment for that particular group of patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study aimed at performing proteomic analysis of matched eutopic endometrium and ovarian endometrioid cysts from women with endometriosis in order to discover any abnormal protein expression related to the disease.
The study included 8 women with stage III/IV endometriosis according to revised American Fertility Society (rAFS) classification and one woman with no signs of the disease as a reference. Proteomic analysis was performed using a novel isobaric tag-based methodology for relative and absolute peptide quantiﬁcation (iTRAQ) coupled with multidimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.
The selection of 419 proteins was found in all endometriosis specimens. Using normal eutopic endometrium from woman without endometriosis as a reference, some proteins expressions were significantly increased in all endometriosis samples. They included collagen α1(XIV), calmodulin, collagen α(VI), plexin, integrin αVβ3, transgelin, desmin, and vimentin. The comparison of these proteins' expression in paired eutopic and ovarian endometriosis samples has revealed that only vimentin was significantly increased in ovarian endometrioma.
It was confirmed that endometriosis is associated with different expression of proteins in endometriotic samples. Nevertheless, further studies seem to be necessary as they may reveal possible markers that would be useful in clinical diagnosis of the disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite significant scientific progress, etiology of endometriosis remains enigmatic. New advances in molecular biology have allowed the use of proteomics in demystifying this puzzling disease. Proteomics is a technology that permits the visualization of thousands of proteins inside a cell, tissue, or organism, and simultaneous observation of any alterations in protein expression and post-translational modification that may have important, clinical implications. Owing to its capacity to reveal the structural and functional properties of proteins, proteomics might illuminate the biology of the disease much better than genomics can. This state-of-the-art technology allows us to globally compare the expression and regulation profiles of proteins found in endometriosis with normal eutopic tissues (endometrium and peritoneum), as well as to compare those found in the different forms of endometriosis (i.e., peritoneal endometriosis, endometrioma, and adenomyoma). Proteomic analysis has been employed in endometriosis research in hope of discovering endometriosis-specific proteins, pathways, and potential biomarkers for precise, early detection. In recent years, several published studies have compared serum and peritoneal fluid protein content in women with and without endometriosis, as well as protein composition in endometrial implants, eutopic endometrium, endometriomas, menstrual blood and urine. It appears that use of proteomics could revolutionize our understanding of etiopathogenesis of the disease. Some of the identified proteins could indeed be responsible for the onset and progression of endometriotic implants. Because early stages of endometriosis may be difficult to diagnose, it would be of the utmost importance to identify specific biological markers of the disease. Additionally specific implant proteins could become targets for molecular treatment of endometriosis. It is very challenging, however to draw clear conclusions from the analysis of the obtained samples. First of all, the samples are usually pathologically confirmed to be endometriotic, but from a molecular stand point, the particular portion of the sample that is analyzed may matter greatly; none of the methods allow us to gain information about the molecular and pathological pattern of the same sample. Secondly it is very difficult to define an 'unaffected peritoneum' as a control for the endometriotic lesions. Thirdly the variety of options in each individual makes it difficult to see the molecular picture of the diseased area (such as the ovary or peritoneum) clearly ideally the samples would be of greater value if obtained at an early age, that is, before puberty in each individual and then again when endometriosis occurs later in reproductive age. Such a project cannot be performed prospectively although it may be considered as retrospective analysis of obtained material in some patients after successful chemotherapy due to oncological conditions.
Ginekologia polska 10/2013; 84(10):877-81. DOI:10.17772/gp/1655 · 0.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction of robotic surgery in the first decade of the 21 century was one of the biggest breakthroughs in surgery since the introduction of anesthesia. For the first time in history the surgeon was placed remotely from the patient and was able to operate with the device that has more degrees of freedom than human hand. Initially developed for the US Military in order to allow surgeons to be removed from the battlefield, surgical robots quickly made a leap to the mainstream medicine. One of the first surgical uses for the robot was cardiac surgery but it is urology and prostate surgery that gave it a widespread popularity Gynecologic surgeons caught on very quickly and it is estimated that 31% of hysterectomies done in the United States in 2012 will be done robotically. With over half a million hysterectomies done each year in the US alone, gynecologic surgery is one of the main driving forces behind the growth of robotic surgery Other applications in gynecology include myomectomy oophorectomy and ovarian cystectomy resection of endometriosis and lymphadenectomy Advantages of the surgical robot are clearly seen in myomectomy The wrist motion allows for better more precise suturing than conventional "straight stick" laparoscopy The strength of the arms allow for better pulling of the suture and the third arm for holding the suture on tension. Other advantage of the robot is scaling of the movements when big movement on the outside translates to very fine movement on the inside. This enables much more precise surgery and may be important in the procedures like tubal anastomosis and implantation of the ureter Three-dimensional vision provides excellent depth of field perception. It is important for surgeons who are switching from open surgeries and preliminary evidence shows that it may allow for better identification of lesions like endometriosis. Another big advantage of robotics is that the surgeon sits comfortably with his/her arms and head supported. This results in much less fatigue and therefore increases precision and potentially may decrease the number of medical errors. The eyes of the surgeon are directed at where the hands should be, which is more natural, allows for a more natural body position and mimics open surgery Robot also enables better teaching, especially when two consoles are used. The surgeon and the student may be either sharing the instruments with two consoles or switching between one another. In a situation where the student operates, the surgeon can use the telestation to teach. Robotic simulator attached to one of the consoles allows students to practice after hours. In summary surgical robot is a great tool, especially in gynecology but also in urology cardiac surgery general surgery and laryngology The device will evolve and most likely with time will eliminate laparoscopy
Ginekologia polska 12/2012; 83(12):934-8. · 0.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVEs: To verify the relation between pregnancy duration and cervical length (CL) at 22-24 wks of spontaneous and IVF singleton gestations and to assess its predictive value for preterm delivery (< 37 wks).
CL at 22-24 wks was performed according to FMF recommendations in 344 women who conceived spontaneously and in 107 IVF singleton pregnancies. The results of CL in both groups were divided into subgroups: ≤ 29 mm, 30-34 mm; 35-39 mm; 40-44 mm; 45-49 mm and ≥ 50 mm. They were subsequently correlated with mean durations of gestation within subgroups and parameters of accuracy were calculated. Correlation and regression analysis was performed.
The average age of women in both groups was 28.1 y.o. (SD=4.2 years) and 33.4 y.o. (SD=4.1 years), respectively. The mean gestation age at delivery was 38.9 wks (SD=2.1 wks) vs. 37.9 wks (SD=2.3 wks) and the rate of prematurity equaled 7% vs. 15%, respectively. Regardless the method of conception there is a positive correlation between the CL and the duration of gestation. The regression analysis showed that the significant increase in pregnancy duration was correlated with CL ≥ 35 mm (correlation coefficient greater for spontaneous vs. IVF: rxy=0.418 vs rxy=0.341; p<0.001). All CL parameters of accuracy were better for spontaneous in comparison to IVF pregnancies.
IVF singleton pregnancy carries additional risk factors for preterm delivery. Therefore mid-gestational cervical length is less sensitive predictor than in spontaneous singleton gestations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endometriosis has been considered an epigenetic disease. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in genes encoding enzymes of the folate and choline metabolism may affect DNA methyltransferase activity.
We studied 16 SNPs in 12 folate and choline metabolism genes, including BHMT (rs7356530 and rs3733890), BHMT2 (rs625879), CBS (844ins68), CHDH (rs893363 and rs2289205), CHKA (rs7928739), MTHFD1 (rs2236225), MTHFR (rs1801133), MTR (rs1805087), MTRR (rs1801394), PCYT1A (rs712012 and rs7639752), PEMT (rs4244593 and rs4646406) and TCN (rs1801198) in one hundred and sixty-three infertile women with minimal endometriosis and one hundred and fifty fertile women.
There were no significant differences between genotype and allele frequencies of these gene variants in infertile women with endometriosis (n=163) and controls (n=150). The lowest, but not statistically significant, p values of the trend test were observed for the CBS 844ins68 and MTR rs1805087 (ptrend=0.0527 and ptrend=0.0771, respectively) polymorphisms. However, the exhaustive multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis revealed an epistatic interaction between rs1801133 of MTHFR and rs4244593 of PEMT in endometriosis-associated infertility (p=0.0240).
Our results showed moderate evidence for the contribution of SNPs located in genes encoding folate and choline metabolism enzymes to infertility in women with endometriosis.
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 03/2011; 157(1):67-72. DOI:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2011.02.003 · 1.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overactive bladder (OAB) is one of the major causes of urinary incontinence. Therapy is in most cases conservative, and anticholinergics blocking muscarinic receptors are core drugs in the treatment in this indication. Constipations belong to the most frequent side effects of these drugs. Since constipations, particularly in women, are independent, frequent, disorder, this feature of antimuscarinic drugs deserves special attention. In the article, we discuss constipations in women with OAB and influence of antimuscarinics available in Poland on regularity of bowel function. http://www.ptmp.com.pl/png/png4z1_2011/PNG41-10-Piotrowski.pdf
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventional meta-analysis has estimated the sensitivity and specificity of hysterosalpingography (HSG) to be 65% and 83%. The impact of patient characteristics on the accuracy of HSG is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess by individual patient data meta-analysis whether the accuracy of HSG is associated with different patient characteristics.
We approached authors of primary studies reporting on the accuracy of HSG using findings at laparoscopy as the reference. We assessed whether patient characteristics such as female age, duration of subfertility and a clinical history without risk factors for tubal pathology were associated with the accuracy of HSG, using a random intercept logistic regression model.
We acquired data of seven primary studies containing data of 4521 women. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of HSG were 53% and 87% for any tubal pathology and 46% and 95% for bilateral tubal pathology. In women without risk factors, the sensitivity of HSG was 38% for any tubal pathology, compared with 61% in women with risk factors (P = 0.005). For bilateral tubal pathology, these rates were 13% versus 47% (P = 0.01). For bilateral tubal pathology, the sensitivity of HSG decreased with age [factor 0.93 per year (P = 0.05)]. The specificity of HSG was very stable across all subgroups.
The accuracy of HSG in detecting tubal pathology was similar in all subgroups, except for women without risk factors in whom sensitivity was lower, possibly due to false-positive results at laparoscopy. HSG is a useful tubal patency screening test for all infertile couples.
Human Reproduction Update 12/2010; 17(3):293-300. DOI:10.1093/humupd/dmq056 · 10.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urinary incontinence is one of the most common and most bothersome health problems in women, and overactive bladder is one of the main reasons for it. Amongst a number of therapeutic options available, the primary choice is usually pharmacotherapy, based on anticholinergic drugs blocking muscarinic receptors. In this review we present practical aspects of treatment with these drugs, including their availability and differences in efficacy, convenience and safety. In Poland, two types of p.o. drugs have been available
– for administration at least two-times daily (oxybutynin, tolterodine) or once daily (darifenacin, solifenacin and new antimuscarinic drug – fesoterodine). It seems, that solifenacin and fesoterodine feature the best balance between efficacy and tolerability. Gastrointestinal tolerability profile is the major factor differentiating these two drugs – solifenacin causes more constipations and less mouth dryness than fesoterodine. http://www.ptmp.com.pl/png/png2z4_2009/PNG24-09-Piotrowski.pdf
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the indications, safety and feasibility of laparoscopic myomectomies performed during the last 10 years.
The studied material consisted of 187 typically performed laparoscopies, mostly due to uterine myomas. All the patients underwent an ultrasound examination at the time of admission and those with the maximum of 3 tumors, where the largest tumors were less than 10cm in diameter, were qualified for endoscopic surgery.
Out of 187 women, 39 patients had laparoscopy performed twice, with a 3-4 months interval for GnRH analogues treatment. Among 164 operative laparoscopies myomas were enucleated in 132 of the women (80.5%). In the case of 18 patients (9.6%) there was a need for laparoconversion resulting from the difficulties with enucleation, adhesions, and the size or localization of the tumor. There were also 62 cases of diagnostic laparoscopy, where myomas were either too large or too small to be enucleated. On analyzing the number and size of the tumors it occurred that a single myoma was the most frequent finding, while more than half of all the enucleated uterine tumors found during diagnostic and operative endoscopies were up to 2cm in diameter.
Laparoscopic myomectomy is a safe and reliable surgical alternative for women suffering from symptomatic myomas and is a method of choice in young patients of reproductive age. Beside skillful surgical techniques, a proper qualification for the operation is essential for the desired outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the efficacy of microlaparoscopy and laparoscopy in the assessment of pelvic region in infertile women.
47 patients (aged 24-35) had microlaparoscopy and subsequent laparoscopy performed in order to diagnose the cause of infertility. Pelvic region assessment was performed in both procedures and the results were afterwards compared in regard to duration of the operations and findings reported by independent surgeons. The data was statistically analyzed using Statistica for Windows 5.1.
There were no major differences in the assessment of the pelvic region and found abnormalities in the analyzed postoperative protocols. All the diagnosed abnormalities were described similarly by both surgeons; the differences referred only to subjectively evaluated sizes of findings. The assessment of the pelvic region during microlaparoscopy was fully satisfactory in all cases, none required earlier than scheduled conversion to laparoscopy. The duration of endoscopic procedures was calculated from the moment of trocars insertion into the peritoneal cavity. The average duration time of microlaparoscopic evaluation was 6'20"+/-45", while in laparoscopy - 3'40"+/-32" (p<0.0001).
Microlaparoscopy and laparoscopy are of similar efficacy in the assessment of small pelvis organs and in detecting pathological changes. Both procedures differ significantly only in regard to the duration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to compare tubal patency assessment during microlaparoscopy and laparoscopy and its compatibility with previously performed histerosalpingography (HSG).
Endoscopic evaluation of tubal patency was performed on 135 women, aged 30-39 (microlaparoscopy in 65 cases, laparoscopy in 70). In the group of 42 patients qualified for endoscopy, histerosalpingography was carried out in the past. The duration of tubal patency assessment was counted from the moment of the salpingograph placement, with trocars already introduced into the peritoneal cavity.
The mean duration of tubal patency evaluation during laparoscopy was 5'45"+/-39 and during microlaparoscopy - 7'30"+/-49". The results of the examination were afterwards compared with the results of previously performed HSG. Their sensitivity, specificity, compatibility and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. The sensitivity and specificity of microlaparoscopy in tubal patency assessment were 81% and 100%, respectively; its positive predictive value -100% and negative -96%. As to laparoscopy, the values were established at 90%, 100%, 100% and 98.4%, respectively.
Tubal patency assessment during microlaparoscopy and laparoscopy is characterized by similar sensitivity and specificity. Although the mean duration of microlaparoscopy is significantly longer, the difference in time is of no practical implication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to compare two different embryo culture methods in the course of in vitro fertilization program by means of fertilization rate, embryo development, total time and cost. 98 patients undergoing assisted reproduction procedures due to infertility were analyzed. The inclusion criteria for the study: first IVF-ET program, at least 10 MII oocytes, no indications for ICSI. Oocytes were divided into two study groups: group A- open culture (oocytes placed in four-well dishes together, then inseminated and cultured in successive wells) and group B - a closed culture (oocytes placed in microdroplets, each embryo cultured separately). The fertilization rate was assessed around 18 hours from insemination. The embryos were classified into four classes. The best embryos were chosen for transfer. In the group A the fertilization rate obtained was lower than in group B (68% vs. 78%, respectively). The microdroplet culture required more time on the insemination day and on the second day of culture, while the four-well dish method required more time on the first day of culture and on the day of transfer. On analyzing the total cost of the above procedures (MI medium and oil costs) it occurred that the microdroplet culture was more expensive than the four-well dish method (due to the intake of paraffin oil). However, the difference was of no practical importance. In the conclusion, microdroplet culture gives a higher fertilization rate than four-well dish culture, probably due to a homogenous sperm distribution. Despite the differences in time outside the incubator and laboratory expenses (which are after all insignificant) microdroplet culture allows a better control over the embryo development. The embryos of best developmental potential can therefore be chosen for ET.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate: 1) The prevalence of human papillomavirus (types 6 and 11 carrying a low risk of neoplasia, and type 16 implicated as cause of cervical neoplasia and cancer) in normal pregnant women and pregnant renal transplant recipients. 2) The correlation between maternal HPV infection and HPV presence in the cord blood and the oral cavity of the neonate. Evaluation of a likely, additional route of HPV transmission to the fetus, apart from the infected birth canal during vaginal delivery. The correlation between the mode of delivery in HPV-infected patients and the presence of HPV in their offspring.
Thirty-nine pregnant patients were included in the study. The study group consisted of nine pregnant renal transplant recipients. The control group consisted of 30 patients with normal pregnancy. The DNA of HPV types 6, 11 and 16 was studied in the discharge from the cervical canal, the maternal venous blood, the cord blood and the buccal smear obtained from the neonates.
A university teaching hospital delivering approximately 2000 women annually.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) was found in 10 (26%) of 39 subjects. HPV types 6 and 11 was found in 7 (18%) of 39 subjects while HPV type 16 was present in 5 (13%) of the subjects. The co-occurrence of HPV types 6, 11 and 16 was detected in 2 patients from the control group. Transmission of HPV was established in 70% of study patients and their offspring.
1) The HPV was found with 26% pregnant women. 2) The occurrence of HPV infections with pregnant renal transplant recipients in comparison with normal pregnancy was on similar level. High percentage of HPV transmission from mother to neonate was obtained. 3) The cesarean section probably doesn't protect from HPV infection. 4) There's a suggestion, the HPV infection of fetus may occur in utero.