Govinder Flora

University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States

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Publications (5)2.47 Total impact

  • G. Flora · M. Mittal · S.J.S. Flora ·
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    ABSTRACT: Medical treatment of arsenic toxicity is provided by chelating drugs, namely organic compounds capable of interacting with metal ions to form structures called "chelates." Chelating agents are chemical compounds able to bind the metal with a higher affinity compared to endogenous ions, and to form a hydrophilic complex that can be easily eliminated. This chapter summarizes the current status of chelation therapy with particular focus on the recent findings related to advantages/disadvantages of current chelators, the recent trend in finding a safe and specific antidote to treat cases of acute and chronic arsenic poisoning, and the future directions. The primary aim behind arsenic chelation is to reduce body arsenic burden by decreasing morbidity and preventing complications, which could be achieved to a greater extent by employing combination therapy, nanoparticle-based delivery to target sites, adjuvants, antioxidants, and herbal extracts.
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    S Agrawal · G Flora · P Bhatnagar · S J S Flora ·
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    ABSTRACT: Globally, arsenic, mercury and lead constitutes as the three most hazardous environmental toxicants perturbing imbalance in pro—oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis. Individual toxicity of these environmental toxicants is well known but there is lack of comparative data on variables indicative of oxidative stress. We thus investigated the effects of chronic exposure to sodium arsenite, mercuric chloride and lead acetate on blood and tissue oxidative stress, metal concentration and metallothionein (MT) contents. Male rats were exposed to sodium arsenite, mercuric chloride and lead acetate (0.05 mg/kg each, orally, once daily) for 6 months. Arsenic, mercury and lead exposure led to a significant inhibition of blood δ—aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and glutathione level supported by increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). The level of inhibition was more pronounced in case of lead followed by mercury and arsenic. These metals/ metalloid significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity accompanied by a decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG) levels in blood and tissues. Mercury alone produced a significant induction of hepatic and renal MT concentrations. Serum transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities increased significantly on exposure to arsenic and mercury exposure suggesting liver injury which was less pronounced in case of lead exposure. These biochemical alterations were supported by increased arsenic, mercury and lead concentrations in blood and soft tissues. The present study suggests that exposure to sodium arsenite and mercuric chloride lead to more pronounced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity while lead acetate caused significant alterations in haem synthesis pathway compared to two other thiol binding metal/metalloid.
    Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France) 06/2014; 60(2):13-21. · 1.23 Impact Factor
  • Nidhi Dwivedi · Govinder Flora · Pramod Kushwaha · Swaran J.S. Flora ·
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated protective efficacy of α-lipoic acid (LA), an antioxidant against arsenic and DDVP co-exposed rats. Biochemical variables suggestive of oxidative stress, neurological dysfunction, and tissue histopathological alterations were determined. Male rats were exposed either to 50ppm sodium arsenite in drinking water or in combination with DDVP (4mg/kg, subcutaneously) for 10 weeks. α-Lipoic acid (50mg/kg, pos) was also co-administered in above groups. Arsenic exposure led to significant oxidative stress along, hepatotoxicity, hematotoxicity and altered brain biogenic amines levels accompanied by increased arsenic accumulation in blood and tissues. These altered biochemical variables were supported by histopathological examinations leading to oxidative stress and cell death. These biochemical alterations were significantly restored by co-administration of α-lipoic acid with arsenic and DDVP alone and concomitantly. The results indicate that arsenic and DDVP induced oxidative stress and cholinergic dysfunction can be significantly protected by the supplementation of α-lipoic acid.
    10/2013; 37(1):7-23. DOI:10.1016/j.etap.2013.10.010
  • Kiran Dip Gill · Govinder Flora · Vidhu Pachauri · Swaran J. S. Flora ·

    Anticholinesterase Pesticides: Metabolism, Neurotoxicity, and Epidemiology, 03/2011: pages 237 - 265; , ISBN: 9780470640500
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    S J S Flora · G Flora · G Saxena · M Mishra ·
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    ABSTRACT: Health hazards caused by heavy metals have become a great concern to the population. Lead and arsenic are one of the most important current global environmental toxicants. Their toxic manifestations are being considered caused primarily due to the imbalance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis and also due to a high affinity of these metals for thiol groups on functional proteins. They also interfere with a number of other body functions and are known to affect central nervous system (CNS), hematopoietic system, liver and kidneys and produce serious disorders. They produce both acute and chronic poisoning, of which chronic poisoning is more dangerous as its very difficult to revert back to normal condition after chronic exposure to these insidious metals present in our life. Despite many years of research, we are still far from an effective treatment of chronic plumbism and arsenicosis. Current approved treatment lies in the administration of chelating agents that forms an insoluble complex with the metal and removes it. They have been used clinically as antidotes for treating acute and chronic poisoning. The most widely used chelating agents are calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (CaNa2EDTA), D-penicillamine and British anti-lewisite (BAL). Meso 2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), an analogue of BAL, has been tried successfully in animals as well as in humans. But it is unable to remove the metal from intracellular sites. Effective chelation therapy for intoxication by heavy metals depends on whether the chelating agents are able to reach the intracellular site where the heavy metal is firmly bound. One of the important approaches has been the use of combination therapy. This includes use of structurally different chelators or a combination of an adjuvant/ antioxidant/ herbal extracts and a chelator to provide better clinical/ biochemical recovery. A number of other strategies have been suggested to minimize the numerous problems. This article presents the recent development made in this area with possible directions for future research.
    Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France) 02/2007; 53(1):26-47. DOI:10.1170/T773 · 1.23 Impact Factor