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ABSTRACT: Globally, arsenic, mercury and lead constitutes as the three most hazardous environmental toxicants perturbing imbalance in pro—oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis. Individual toxicity of these environmental toxicants is well known but there is lack of comparative data on variables indicative of oxidative stress. We thus investigated the effects of chronic exposure to sodium arsenite, mercuric chloride and lead acetate on blood and tissue oxidative stress, metal concentration and metallothionein (MT) contents. Male rats were exposed to sodium arsenite, mercuric chloride and lead acetate (0.05 mg/kg each, orally, once daily) for 6 months. Arsenic, mercury and lead exposure led to a significant inhibition of blood δ—aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and glutathione level supported by increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). The level of inhibition was more pronounced in case of lead followed by mercury and arsenic. These metals/ metalloid significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity accompanied by a decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG) levels in blood and tissues. Mercury alone produced a significant induction of hepatic and renal MT concentrations. Serum transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities increased significantly on exposure to arsenic and mercury exposure suggesting liver injury which was less pronounced in case of lead exposure. These biochemical alterations were supported by increased arsenic, mercury and lead concentrations in blood and soft tissues. The present study suggests that exposure to sodium arsenite and mercuric chloride lead to more pronounced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity while lead acetate caused significant alterations in haem synthesis pathway compared to two other thiol binding metal/metalloid.
Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France) 06/2014; 60(2):13-21. · 1.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated protective efficacy of α-lipoic acid (LA), an antioxidant against arsenic and DDVP co-exposed rats. Biochemical variables suggestive of oxidative stress, neurological dysfunction, and tissue histopathological alterations were determined. Male rats were exposed either to 50ppm sodium arsenite in drinking water or in combination with DDVP (4mg/kg, subcutaneously) for 10 weeks. α-Lipoic acid (50mg/kg, pos) was also co-administered in above groups. Arsenic exposure led to significant oxidative stress along, hepatotoxicity, hematotoxicity and altered brain biogenic amines levels accompanied by increased arsenic accumulation in blood and tissues. These altered biochemical variables were supported by histopathological examinations leading to oxidative stress and cell death. These biochemical alterations were significantly restored by co-administration of α-lipoic acid with arsenic and DDVP alone and concomitantly. The results indicate that arsenic and DDVP induced oxidative stress and cholinergic dysfunction can be significantly protected by the supplementation of α-lipoic acid.
10/2013; 37(1):7-23. DOI:10.1016/j.etap.2013.10.010
Anticholinesterase Pesticides: Metabolism, Neurotoxicity, and Epidemiology, 03/2011: pages 237 - 265; , ISBN: 9780470640500