F. Sabbadin

European Southern Observatory, Arching, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (29)124.32 Total impact

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    C. R. O'Dell, W. J. Henney, F. Sabbadin
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    ABSTRACT: We have combined recent Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 images in the [O III] 5007 and [N II] 6583 lines with similar images made 9.557 years earlier to determine the motion of the Ring Nebula within the plane of the sky. Scaled ratio images argue for homologous expansion, that is, larger velocities scale with increasing distance from the central star. The rather noisy pattern of motion of individual features argues for the same conclusion and that the silhouetted knots move at the same rate as the surrounding gas. These tangential velocities are combined with information from a recent high resolution radial velocity study to determine a dynamic distance, which is in basic agreement with the distance determined from the parallax of the central star. We have also obtained very high signal to noise ratio moderate resolution spectra (9.4 Angstrom) along the major and minor axes of the nebula and from this determined the electron temperatures and density in the multiple ionization zones present. These results confirm the status of the Ring Nebula as one of the older planetary nebulae, with a central star transitioning to the white dwarf cooling curve. (Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA Contract No. NAS 5-26555 and the San Pedro Martir Observatory operated by the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico.) Comment: Astronomical Journal, in press
    The Astronomical Journal 01/2009; · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CBET 1441 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.
    Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams. 07/2008;
  • A. Harutyunyan, S. Benetti, F. Sabbadin
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    ABSTRACT: CBET 1444 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.
    Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams. 07/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: This methodological paper is part of a short series dedicated to the long-standing astronomical problem of de-projecting the bi-dimensional, apparent morphology of a three-dimensional distribution of gas. We focus on the quantification and spatial recovery of turbulent motions in planetary nebulae (and other classes of expanding nebulae) by means of long-slit echellograms over a wide spectral range. We introduce some basic theoretical notions, discuss the observational methodology, and develop an accurate procedure disentangling all broadening components of the velocity profile in all spatial positions of each spectral image. This allows us to extract random, non-thermal motions at unprecedented accuracy, and to map them in 1-, 2- and 3-dimensions. We present the solution to practical problems in the multi-dimensional turbulence-analysis of a testing-planetary nebula (NGC 7009), using the three-step procedure (spatio-kinematics, tomography, and 3-D rendering) developed at the Astronomical Observatory of Padua. In addition, we introduce an observational paradigm valid for all spectroscopic parameters in all classes of expanding nebulae. Unsteady, chaotic motions at a local scale constitute a fundamental (although elusive) kinematical parameter of each planetary nebula, providing deep insights on its different shaping agents and mechanisms, and on their mutual interaction. The detailed study of turbulence, its stratification within a target and (possible) systematic variation among different sub-classes of planetary nebulae deserve long-slit, multi-position angle, wide-spectral range echellograms containing emissions at low-, medium-, and high-ionization, to be analyzed pixel-to-pixel with a straightforward and versatile methodology, extracting all the physical information stored in each frame at best. Comment: 11 page, 10 figures, A&A in press
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 06/2008; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nature of the progenitor system[s] of Type Ia Supernovae is still unclear. In this contribution I review the projects that have been undertaken to answer this question and the results they have led to. The conclusion is that, as of today, we have reasonable guesses but none of them has yet been proven by direct observations.
    The Messenger, v.131, 30-34 (2008). 03/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: We have determined the gas kinematics, diagnostic and ionic radial profiles, spatial structure, and evolutionary phase of NGC 6720 (the Ring Nebula) by means of tomography and a three-dimensional recovery technique applied to long-slit high-resolution spectra. The main shell of the Ring Nebula is a triaxial ellipsoid (radii of 0.10, 0.13, and 0.20 pc) seen nearly pole-on and expanding in an approximately ballistic fashion (Vexp = 0.65 km s-1 arcsec-1). The central star characteristics [log(L*/L) 2.3, T* 120,000 K], combined with the nebular age of 7000 yr, indicate that the M* 0.61-0.62 M post-AGB star is approaching the white dwarf cooling sequence. The equator of the Ring Nebula is optically thick and much denser than the optically thin poles. The inner halo surrounding NGC 6720 represents the pole-on projection of the AGB wind at high latitudes (circumpolar) directly ionized by the central star, whereas the outer, fainter, and circular halo is the projection of the recombining AGB wind at mean to low latitudes, shadowed by the main nebula. The spatio-kinematical properties of the Ring Nebula and the origin of the dense knots commonly observed in late-stage planetary nebulae are critically compared with the predictions of radiation-hydrodynamic and wind interaction models.
    The Astronomical Journal 12/2007; 134(4):1679. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type Ia supernovae are important cosmological distance indicators. Each of these bright supernovae supposedly results from the thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf star that, after accreting material from a companion star, exceeds some mass limit, but the true nature of the progenitor star system remains controversial. Here we report the spectroscopic detection of circumstellar material in a normal type Ia supernova explosion. The expansion velocities, densities, and dimensions of the circumstellar envelope indicate that this material was ejected from the progenitor system. In particular, the relatively low expansion velocities suggest that the white dwarf was accreting material from a companion star that was in the red-giant phase at the time of the explosion.
    Science 09/2007; 317(5840):924-6. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CBET 987 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.
    Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams. 06/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper - the first of a short series dedicated to the long-stan ding astronomical problem of de-projecting the bi-dimensional apparent morpholog y of a three-dimensional mass of gas - focuses on the density distribution in real Planetary Nebulae (and all types of expanding nebulae). We introduce some basic theoretical notions, discuss the observational methodology and develope the accurate procedure for the determination of the matter radial profile within the sharp portion of nebula in the plane of the sky identified by the zero-velocity-pixel-column (zvpc) of high-resolution spectral images. Moreover, a series of evolutive snapshots is presented, combining illustrative examples of model- and true-Planetary Nebulae. Last, the general and specific applications of the method (and some caveats) are discussed. Comment: 18 pages, 7 figures, A&A accepted
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2006; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We infer the gas kinematics, diagnostics and ionic radial profiles, distance and central star parameters, nebular photo- ionization model, spatial structure and evolutionary phase of the PN NGC 6741 by means of long-slit high-resolution spectra at nine position angles. NGC 6741 (distance ~2.0 kpc, age ~1400 yr, ionized mass Mion ~0.06 Mo) is a dense (electron density up to 12,000 cm^(-3)), high-excitation, almost- prolate ellipsoid, surrounded by a sharp low-excitation skin (the ionization front), and embedded into a spherical (radius ~ 0.080 pc), almost-neutral, high-density (n(HI) ~7 x 10^3 atoms cm^(-3)) halo containing a large fraction of the nebular mass (Mhalo>0.20 Mo). The kinematics, physical conditions and ionic structure indicate that NGC 6741 is in a deep recombination phase, started about 200 years ago, and caused by the quick luminosity drop of the massive (M*=0.66-0.68 Mo), hot (logT* ~ 5.23) and faint (log L*/Lo ~ 2.75) post--AGB star, which has exhausted the hydrogen-shell nuclear burning and is moving along the white dwarf cooling sequence. The general expansion law of the ionized gas in NGC 6741, Vexp (km s^(-1)=13 x R", fails in the innermost, highest-excitation layers, which move slower than expected. The observed deceleration is ascribable to the luminosity drop of the central star, and appears in striking contrast to recent reports inferring that acceleration is a common property of the Planetary Nebulae innermost layers. Some general implications on the shaping mechanisms of Planetary Nebulae are discussed. Comment: 27 pages, 18 figures, accepted for publication in A&A, movies of the reconstructed nebula are available at http://web.pd.astro.it/sabbadin/
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2005; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tomographic and 3-D analyses for extended, emission-line objects are applied to long-slit ESO NTT + EMMI high-resolution spectra of the intriguing planetary nebula NGC 7009, covered at twelve position angles. We derive the gas expansion law, the diagnostics and ionic radial profiles, the distance and the central star parameters, the nebular photo-ionization model and the spatial recovery of the plasma structure and evolution. The Saturn Nebula (distance~1.4 kpc, age~6000 yr, ionized mass~0.18 Mo) consists of several interconnected components, characterized by different morphology, physical conditions, excitation and kinematics. The internal shell, the main shell, the streams and the ansae expand at V(exp)~4.0xR" km/s, the outer shell, the caps and the equatorial pseudo-ring at V(exp)~3.15xR" km/s, and the halo at V(exp)~10 km/s. We compare the radial distribution of the physical conditions and the line fluxes observed in the eight sub-systems with the theoretical profiles coming from the photo-ionization code CLOUDY, inferring that all the spectral characteristics of NGC 7009 are explainable in terms of photo-ionization by the central star, a hot (logT*~4.95) and luminous (log L*/Lo~3.70) 0.60--0.61 Mo post--AGB star in the hydrogen-shell nuclear burning phase. The 3--D shaping of the Saturn Nebula is discussed within an evolutionary scenario dominated by photo-ionization and supported by the fast stellar wind: it begins with the superwind ejection, passes through the neutral, transition phase (lasting ~ 3000 yr), the ionization start (occurred ~2000 yr ago), and the full ionization of the main shell (~1000 yr ago), at last reaching the present days: the whole nebula is optically thin to the UV stellar flux, except the caps and the ansae. Comment: accepted for pub. in A&A, 28 pages, 14 figures, full text with figures available at http://web.pd.astro.it/supern/ps/h4665.ps, movies on the 3D structure available at http://web.pd.astro.it/sabbadin/
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 12/2003; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Long-slit NTT+EMMI echellograms of NGC 6818 (the Little Gem) at nine equally spaced position angles, reduced according to the 3-D methodology introduced by Sabbadin et al. (\cite{Sabbadin00}a,b), allowed us to derive: the expansion law, the diagnostics and ionic radial profiles, the distance and the central star parameters, the nebular photo-ionization model, the 3-D reconstruction in He II, [O III] and [N II], the multicolor projection and a series of movies. The Little Gem results to be a young (3500 years), optically thin (quasi-thin in some directions) double shell (Mion =~ 0.13 Msun) at a distance of 1.7 kpc, seen almost equatorial on: a tenuous and patchy spherical envelope (r =~ 0.090 pc) encircles a dense and inhomogeneous tri-axial ellipsoid (a/2 =~ 0.077 pc, a/b =~ 1.25, b/c =~ 1.15) characterized by a hole along the major axis and a pair of equatorial, thick moustaches. NGC 6818 is at the start of the recombination phase following the luminosity decline of the 0.625 Msun central star, which has recently exhausted the hydrogen shell nuclear burning and is rapidly moving toward the white dwarf domain (log T* =~ 5.22 K; log L*/Lsun =~ 3.1). The nebula is destined to become thicker and thicker, with an increasing fraction of neutral, dusty gas in the outermost layers. Only over some hundreds of years the plasma rarefaction due to the expansion will prevail against the slower and slower stellar decline, leading to a gradual re-growing of the ionization front. The exciting star of NGC 6818 (mV =~ 17.06) is a visual binary: a faint, red companion (mV =~ 17.73) appears at 0.09 arcsec in PA =190degr , corresponding to a separation ge 150 AU and to an orbital period ge 1500 years.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2002; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A detailed study of the planetary nebula NGC 6565 has been carried out on long-slit echellograms (lambda /Delta lambda =60 000, spectral range = lambda lambda 3900-7750 Å) at six, equally spaced position angles. The expansion velocity field, the c(Hbeta ) distribution and the radial profile of the physical conditions (electron temperature and density) are obtained. The distance, radius, mass and filling factor of the nebula and the temperature and luminosity of the central star are derived. The radial ionization structure is analyzed using both the classical method and the photo-ionization code CLOUDY. Moreover, we present the spatial structure in a series of images from different directions, allowing the reader to ``see'' the nebula in 3-D. NGC 6565 results to be a young (2000-2500 years), patchy, optically thick triaxial ellipsoid (a=10.1 arcsec, a/b=1.4, a/c=1.7) projected almost pole-on. The matter close to major axis was swept-up by some accelerating agent (fast wind? ionization? magnetic fields?), forming two faint and asymmetric polar cups. A large cocoon of almost neutral gas completely embeds the ionized nebula. NGC 6565 is in a recombination phase, because of the luminosity drop of the massive powering star, which is reaching the white dwarf domain (log T* =~ 5.08 K; log L*/Lsun =~ 2.0). The stellar decline started about 1000 years ago, but the main nebula remained optically thin for other 600 years before the recombination phase occurred. In the near future the ionization front will re-grow, since the dilution factor due to the expansion will prevail on the slower and slower stellar decline. NGC 6565 is at a distance of 2.0 (+/-0.5) kpc and can be divided into three radial zones: the ``fully ionized'' one, extending up to 0.029-0.035 pc at the equator (0.050 pc at the poles), the ``transition'' one, up to 0.048-0.054 pc (0.080 pc), the ``halo'', detectable up to 0.110 pc. The ionized mass ( =~ 0.03 Msun) is only a fraction of the total mass (>= 0.15 Msun), which has been ejected by an equatorial enhanced superwind of 4 (+/-2) x 10-5 Msun yr-1 lasted for 4 (+/-2) x 103 years. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Observatories, under programme ID 65.I-0524, and on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Institute (observing program GO 7501; P.I. Arsen Hajian). STScI is operated by the association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under the NASA contract NAS 5-26555. We have applied the photoionization code CLOUDY, developed at the Institute of Astronomy of the Cambridge University.
    Astronomy & Astrophysics - ASTRON ASTROPHYS. 01/2002; 384(3):1062-1085.
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    ABSTRACT: Long-slit echellograms of the high excitation planetary nebula NGC1501, reduced according to the methodology developed by Sabbadin et al. (2000a, b), allowed us to obtain the ``true'' distribution of the ionized gas in the eight nebular slices covered by the spectroscopic slit. A 3-D rendering procedure is described and applied, which assembles the tomographic maps and rebuilds the spatial structure. The images of NGC 1501, as seen in 12 directions separated by 15 deg, form a series of stereoscopic pairs giving surprising 3-D views in as many directions. The main nebula consists of an almost oblate ellipsoid of moderate ellipticity (a=44 arcsec, a/b=1.02, a/c=1.11), brighter in the equatorial belt, deformed by several bumps, and embedded in a quite homogeneous, inwards extended cocoon. Some reliability tests are applied to the rebuilt nebula; the radial matter profile, the small scale density fluctuations and the 2-D (morphology) - 3-D (structure) correlation are presented and analysed. The wide applications of the 3-D reconstruction to the morphology, physical conditions, ionization parameters and evolutionary status of expanding nebulae in general (planetary nebulae, nova and supernova remnants, shells around Population I Wolf-Rayet stars, nebulae ejected by symbiotic stars, bubbles surrounding early spectral type main sequence stars etc.) are introduced. Comment: 12 pages + 11 (gif) figures. Accepted for publication in A&A. A postscript file with figs. can be retrieved at http://panoramix.pd.astro.it/~sabbadin
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2001; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sixteen planetary nebulae and a shocked peculiar nebula were discovered in the direction of the Galactic Center by means of direct inspection of the Palomar Observatory and ESO/SERC sky surveys. For all objects we obtained narrow band Halpha imaging and medium resolution spectroscopy, allowing us to derive the basic parameters of the emission nebulae. For half of the nebulae of the sample, the central star candidate was identified and an estimate of the star temperature and luminosity is given. Figures 1a to 1e are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2001; 377(3):1035-1041. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Direct imagery and long-slit, spatially resolved echellograms of the high excitation planetary nebula NGC 1501 allowed us to study in detail the expansion velocity field, the physical conditions (electron temperature, electron density, ionization) and the spatial distribution of the nebular gas. An electron temperature of 11500 K and a turbulence of 18 km/s are derived by comparing the Halpha and [OIII] emission line profiles, but large, small scale fluctuations of both these quantities are present in the ionized gas. The radial density distribution shows external peaks up to 1400 cm-3; they have steep outwards profiles and extended inwards tails probably originated by Rayleigh-Taylor instability and winds interaction. The complexity of the expanding motions indicates that the main part of NGC 1501 is a thin ellipsoid of moderate ellipticity, but the presence of a pair of large lobes along both the major and the intermediate axes and of a multitude of smaller bumps spread on the whole nebular surface, makes the general 3-D structure of NGC 1501 like a boiling, tetra-lobed shell. This peculiar morphology can be qualitatively explained in terms of interaction of the slow nebular material with the intense and fast wind from the WC4/OVI central star.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2000; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spatially resolved, long-slit echellograms at different position angles of the bright, low excitation planetary nebula NGC 40 indicate that, the higher is the gas excitation, the faster is the radial motion, thus confirming the overturn of the Wilson law already suggested by Sabbadin and Hamzaoglu (1982). New reduction procedures, giving the radial trends of the electron density and of the ionic and chemical abundances, were applied to NGC 40; they show that: - the radial matter distribution has a sharp ``bell'' profile with peaks up to 4000 cm-3; - the ionization structure is peculiar, indicating the presence of chemical composition gradients within the nebula: the innermost regions, hydrogen depleted, are essentially constituted of photospheric material ejected at high velocity by the WC8 nucleus. Moreover, detailed H+, O++ and N+ tomographic maps, giving the spatial ionic distributions at four position angles, are presented and discussed within the interacting winds evolutionary model.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2000; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 01/1997; 180:26-30.
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    ABSTRACT: By comparing red and infrared POSS prints of the field 18h48m+0° we have identified four hitherto unknown emission nebulae. Three of these turn out to be compact planetary nebulae, two of which are probably type I PNe. None of these three nebulae has an IRAS counterpart, which indicates that they have small, if any, infrared excesses. The emission-line ratios in the spectrum of the remaining nebula, HHG 33.3+0.2, indicate that the gas is excited by shock. This, combined with its structure, indicates that HHG 33.3+0.2 is a Herbig-Haro object. This nebula is located near the well-studied reflection nebula GGD 30 and is probably related to a molecular cloud at 1.7 kpc.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 03/1994; 267:871. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Imaging and the spectroscopy are presented for two nebulae at low galactic latitude, Anon 1132-58 and Anon 1244-53, obtained in the course of a long term program of observations of candidate PN, that turned out to be galaxies. Both galaxies are rich in H II regions, especially in their most external parts, and have been classified Sm and SBm, respectively. The spectra of both galaxies are characterized by narrow emission lines, typical of the H II region-like galaxies. The heliocentric recession velocities of 1400 and 1820 km/s were measured, but in the hypothesis that the local velocity field is perturbed by the flow toward the Great Attractor, they result considerably closer to the Galaxy. Discordant estimates of the extinction toward the two galaxies are discussed.
    The Astronomical Journal 12/1992; 105:142-145. · 4.97 Impact Factor