[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction. HER-2 has been associated with castrate resistant prostate cancer and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in the dissemination and invasion of tumor cells as well as activating angiogenesis. We present an immunocytochemical study of the effect of androgen blockade on the expression of HER-2 and MMP-2 in bone marrow micrometastasis and the surrounding stromal cells in men with prostate cancer. Methods and Patients. A cross-sectional study of men with prostate cancer. Touch preps were obtained from bone marrow biopsies of men with prostate cancer, before and after radical prostatectomy and during androgen blockade. Micrometastasis detected with anti-PSA immunocytochemistry underwent processing with anti-HER-2 and anti-MMP-2 immunocytochemistry. Patients were defined as HER-2 positive or negative, MMP-2 negative or an MMP-2 pattern described as border or central and stromal MMP-2 defined as positive or negative. The expression of the biomarkers was compared before and after primary treatment and during androgen blockade in relation to the serum PSA at the time of sampling and duration of androgen blockade. Results. 191 men participated, 35 men before surgery and 43 after surgery; there were no significant differences in HER-2 expression between groups, there was no MMP-2 expression centrally or stromal expression of MMP-2. In men with androgen blockade, HER-2 expression was significantly higher; there was a trend for increasing HER-2 expression up to 5 years; central MMP-2 expression significantly increased after 3 years, while stromal MMP-2 significantly increased after 6 years. MMP-2 expression both in micrometastasis and stroma was significantly associated with HER-2 expression. Expression of MMP-2 at the border of the micrometastasis was not associated with HER-2 expression and occurred in the absence of androgen blockade.
Conclusions. Androgen blockade decreases serum PSA by eliminating HER-2 negative prostate cancer cells. However, there is early selection of HER-2 positive cancer cells which leads to androgen independence and to increased expression of MMP-2 activity in the micrometastasis. The increased MMP-2 activity in the micrometastasis increases the expression of MMP-2 in the surrounding stromal cells and thus could promote angiogenesis and tumor growth resulting in macrometastatic androgen independent disease.
The Scientific World Journal 05/2013; 2013:281291. DOI:10.1155/2013/281291
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction. Developments in immunological and quantitative real-time PCR-based analysis have enabled the detection, enumeration, and characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). It is assumed that the detection of CTCs is associated with cancer, based on the finding that CTCs can be detected in all major cancer and not in healthy subjects or those with benign disease. Methods and Patients. Consecutive men, with suspicion of prostate cancer, had blood samples taken before prostate biopsy; mononuclear cells were obtained using differential gel centrifugation and CPCs detecting using anti-PSA immunocytochemistry. Positive samples underwent further classification with anti-P504S. Results. 329 men underwent prostate biopsy; of these men 83 underwent a second biopsy and 44 a third one. Of those with a biopsy negative for cancer, 19/226 (8.4%) had CPCs PSA (+) P504S (-) detected at first biopsy, 6/74 (8.1%) at second biopsy, and 5/33 (15.2%) at third biopsy. Men with cancer-positive biopsies did not have PSA (+) P504S (-) CPCs detected. These benign cells were associated with chronic prostatitis. Conclusions. Patients with chronic prostatitis may have circulating prostate cells detected in blood, which do not express the enzyme P504S and should be thought of as benign in nature.
Journal of Oncology 04/2013; 2013:165014. DOI:10.1155/2013/165014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction. Although 90% of prostate cancer is considered to be localized, 20%-30% of patients will experience biochemical failure (BF), defined as serum PSA >0.2 ng/mL, after radical prostatectomy (RP). The presence of circulating prostate cells (CPCs) in men without evidence of BF may be useful to predict patients at risk for BF. We describe the frequency of CPCs detected after RP, relation with clinicopathological parameters, and association with biochemical failure. Methods and Patients. Serial blood samples were taken during followup after RP, mononuclear cells were obtained by differential gel centrifugation, and CPCs identified using standard immunocytochemistry using anti-PSA monoclonal antibodies. Age, pathological stage (organ confined, nonorgan confined), pathological grade, margin status (positive, negative), extracapsular extension, perineural, vascular, and lymphatic infiltration (positive, negative) were compared with the presence/absence of CPCs and with and without biochemical failure. Kaplan Meier methods were used to compare the unadjusted biochemical failure free survival of patients with and without CPCs. Results. 114 men participated, and secondary CPCs were detected more frequently in patients with positive margins, extracapsular extension, and vascular and lymphatic infiltration and were associated with biochemical failure independent of these clinicopathological variables, and with a shorter time to BF. Conclusions. Secondary CPCs are an independent risk factor associated with increased BF in men with a PSA <0.2 ng/mL after radical prostatectomy, but do not determine if the recurrence is due to local or systemic disease. These results warrant larger studies to confirm the findings.
The Scientific World Journal 03/2013; 2013:762064. DOI:10.1155/2013/762064
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Longitudinal melanonychia has been associated with a range of drugs, especially chemotherapeutic agents. We report 7 cases of melanonychia associated with the use of hydroxycarbamide for essential thrombocythemia. Of a patient population of 27, 7 (26%) developed melanonychia over a period of 2-7 years, and was not dose dependent. The high incidence of melanonychia in Chilean patients may be in part due to their Hispanic descent or to the high levels of UV radiation found in Santiago.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of cells positive for cytokeratins or prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in bone marrow aspirates (BMAs) has been used to indicate the presence of micrometastasis. The aim of this prospective study of prostate cancer patients was to determine the presence of prostate cells in blood and BMAs and to compare them with bone marrow biopsy touch prep samples. The results indicated that there was a satisfactory concordance between circulating prostate cells (CPCs) in blood and disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in BMAs for all Gleason scores (κ>0.50). However, neither were concordant with the presence of prostate cells in bone marrow biopsies except for high-grade tumors, Gleason 8 and 9. Phenotypic characteristics of CPCs and DTCs were identical (κ>0.9) but were different than cells detected in bone marrow biopsies (κ<0.2). The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in bone marrow biopsies was positively associated with the Gleason score (trend Chi-squared <0.05) and may explain the differences between the presence of DTCs and the presence of prostate cells in bone marrow biopsies. If the presence of DTCs was used to indicate micrometastatic disease, 20% of patients would be misclassified compared to micrometastasis defined as patients with a positive biopsy. This may have clinical implications for patients with low-grade tumors.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine 07/2012; 30(4). DOI:10.3892/ijmm.2012.1071