Djeneba Bocar Fofana

Bordeaux School of Public Health, Burdeos, Aquitaine, France

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Publications (10)39.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The genetic barrier (defined as the number of genetic transitions/transversions needed to produce a resistance mutation) can differ between HIV-1 subtypes. The genetic barrier for the new attachment inhibitor BMS-626529 was evaluated in five HIV-1 subtypes. Methods: Nine substitutions associated with BMS-626529 resistance at seven amino acid positions (116, 204, 375, 426, 434, 475 and 506) were analysed in 300 nucleotide sequences of the env gene encoding the gp120 protein from antiretroviral-naive patients (60 for each subtype and recombinant: B, C, D, CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG). Results: Differently from the B subtype, some resistance mutations were found as natural polymorphisms in the C and D subtypes and the CRF02_AG and CRF01_AE recombinants for four positions of the env gene encoding the gp120 protein (375, 426, 434 and 475). The majority (five out of seven) of amino acid positions studied (116, 426, 434, 475 and 506) were relatively conserved (>63%) between the five HIV-1 subtypes, leading to a similar genetic barrier to mutations associated with resistance to BMS-626529. However, at positions 116 and 506 a minority of C and CRF02_AG subtypes had codons leading to a higher genetic barrier. Different predominant codons were observed at two out of seven positions (204 and 375) between the subtypes, with no effect on the calculated genetic barrier. However, for position 375, a minority of CRF02_AG sequences showed a lower genetic barrier to S375M/T resistance mutations. Conclusions: In non-B HIV-1 subtypes, four out of seven studied positions presented mutations implicated in BMS-626529 resistance. Despite great variability of the HIV-1 envelope, there was no major impact of polymorphisms on the genetic barrier to acquisition of BMS-626529 resistance.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 09/2014; 70(1). DOI:10.1093/jac/dku360 · 5.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: In resource-limited settings, few data are available on virological failure after long-term first-line antiretroviral therapy. This study characterized the genotypic resistance patterns at the time of failure after at least 36 months of a first-line regimen in Mali, West Africa. Methods: Plasma samples from 84 patients who were receiving first-line antiretroviral treatment and with an HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) >1000 copies/mL were analysed. Genotypic resistance testing was performed and HIV-1 drug resistance was interpreted according to the latest version of the National Agency for HIV and Hepatitis Research algorithm. Results: At the time of resistance testing, patients had been treated for a median of 60 months (IQR 36-132 months) and had a median CD4 cell count of 292 cells/mm(3) (IQR 6-1319 cells/mm(3)), a median HIV-1 RNA level of 28266 copies/mL (IQR 1000-2 93 495 copies/mL) and a median genotypic susceptibility score of 1 (IQR 1-4). The prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance mutations was 78% and 82%, respectively. Viruses were resistant to at least one drug in 92% of cases. Although etravirine and rilpivirine were not used in the first-line regimens, viruses were resistant to etravirine in 34% of cases and to rilpivirine in 49% of cases. The treatment duration, median number of NRTI and NNRTI mutations and some reverse transcriptase mutations (T215Y/F/N, L210W, L74I, M41L and H221Y) were associated with the VL at virological failure. Conclusions: This study demonstrated a high level of resistance to NRTIs and NNRTIs, compromising second-generation NNRTIs, for patients who stayed on long-term first-line regimens. It is crucial to expand the accessibility of virological testing in resource-limited settings to limit the expansion of resistance and preserve second-line treatment efficacy.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 05/2014; 69(9). DOI:10.1093/jac/dku153 · 5.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been demonstrated for some drugs that the genetic barrier, defined as the number of genetic transitions and/or transversions needed to produce a resistance mutation, can differ between HIV-1 subtypes. We aimed to assess differences in the genetic barrier for the evolution of resistance to the second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors etravirine and rilpivirine in subtypes B and CRF02_AG in antiretroviral-naive patients. An analysis was undertaken of 25 substitutions associated with etravirine and rilpivirine resistance at 12 amino acid positions in 267 nucleotide sequences (136 HIV-1 B and 131 HIV-1 CRF02_AG subtypes) of the reverse transcriptase gene. The majority (7/12) of amino acid positions studied were conserved between the two HIV-1 subtypes, leading to a similar genetic barrier. Different predominant codons between the subtypes were observed in 5/12 positions (90, 98, 179, 181 and 227), with an effect on the calculated genetic barrier only at the V179D and V179F codons (2.5 versus 3.5 for V179D, and 2.5 versus 5 for V179F, respectively, for subtype B versus subtype CRF02_AG). The majority of amino acids involved in etravirine and rilpivirine resistance showed a high degree of conservation of the predominant codon between the B and CRF02_AG subtypes. For rilpivirine, the genetic barrier was the same between the two subtypes. Nevertheless, subtype CRF02_AG showed a higher genetic barrier to acquiring mutations V179D and V179F (mutations associated with resistance to etravirine) compared with subtype B, suggesting that it would be more difficult to produce resistance to etravirine in the CRF02_AG subtype than the B subtype.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 07/2013; 68(11). DOI:10.1093/jac/dkt251 · 5.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The prevalence of rilpivirine, emtricitabine and tenofovir resistance-associated mutations (RAMs), described in vitro and in vivo, was determined in antiretroviral-naive patients. Patients and methods: From 2008 to 2011, 1729 treatment-naive patients were tested for resistance by bulk sequencing. We studied the primary rilpivirine RAMs (K101E/P, E138A/G/K/Q/R, V179L, Y181C/I/V, H221Y, F227C and M230I/L) and other potential rilpivirine-associated mutations (V90I, L100I, K101T, E138S, V179D/I, Y188L, V189I, G190A/E/S and M230V). We also studied the M184V/I and K65R mutations for emtricitabine and tenofovir, respectively. Results: Among 1729 sequences, half of patients had B-subtype viruses and the other half non-B (with 26.7% CRF02, n=461). Primary rilpivirine RAMs were infrequent (4.6%, n=79) and the most prevalent were E138A (3%, n=52), E138K, (0.3%, n=5), H221Y (0.3%, n=5), E138G (0.2%, n=4) and Y181C (0.2%, n=4). The frequency of the primary rilpivirine RAMs was similar between B and non-B subtypes. The other potential rilpivirine-associated mutations that were most prevalent were V179I (8.4%, n=145), V90I (3.8%, n=65) and V189I (2.3%, n=40). The common V179I, V189I and V90I polymorphisms have not been associated with virological failure in Phase 3 clinical studies. By the ANRS algorithm, 4.9% (n=84) of samples were resistant to rilpivirine, 3.7% (n=32) of B-subtype viruses versus 6% (n=52) of non-B-subtype viruses (P=0.02, χ(2) test). The prevalence of K65R and M184I/V was 0.06% (1/1729) and 1% (18/1729), respectively. The prevalence of K103N was 2% (35/1729). Conclusions: The prevalence of rilpivirine, emtricitabine and tenofovir resistance mutations was very low in antiretroviral-naive patients. The prevalence of resistance to rilpivirine (4.9%, n=84) was not statistically different from the prevalence of efavirenz and nevirapine resistance in our population.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 01/2013; 68(6). DOI:10.1093/jac/dkt003 · 5.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: We describe the outcomes of second-line drug resistance profiles and predict the efficacy of drugs for third-line therapy in patients monitored without the benefit of plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) or resistance testing. Methods: We recruited 106 HIV-1-infected patients after second-line treatment failure in Mali. VL was determined by the Abbott RealTime system and the resistance by the ViroSeq HIV-1 genotyping system. The resistance testing was interpreted using the latest version of the Stanford algorithm. Results: Among the 106 patients, 93 had isolates successfully sequenced. The median age, VL and CD4 cells were respectively 35 years, 72 000 copies/mL and 146 cells/mm(3). Patients were exposed to a median of 4 years of treatment and to six antiretrovirals. We found 20% of wild-type viruses. Resistance to etravirine was noted in 38%, to lopinavir in 25% and to darunavir in 12%. The duration of prior nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor exposure was associated with resistance to abacavir (P < 0.0001) and tenofovir (P = 0.0001), and duration of prior protease inhibitor treatment with resistance to lopinavir (P < 0.0001) and darunavir (P = 0.06). Conclusion: Long duration of therapy prior to failure was associated with high levels of resistance and is directly related to limited access to VL monitoring and delayed switches to second-line treatment, precluding efficacy of drugs for third-line therapy. This study underlines the need for governments and public health organizations to recommend the use of VL monitoring and also the availability of darunavir and raltegravir for third-line therapies in the context of limited-resource settings.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 08/2012; 67(12). DOI:10.1093/jac/dks310 · 5.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The WHO recommends regular surveillance for transmitted antiretroviral drug-resistant viruses in HIV antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naive patients in resource-limited settings. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of mutations associated with resistance in ART-naive patients newly diagnosed with HIV in Bamako and Ségou in Mali. HIV-positive patients who never received ART were recruited in Bamako and Ségou, Mali. The reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) genes of these patients were sequenced by the "ViroSeq" method. Analysis and interpretation of the resistance were made according to the WHO 2009 list of drug resistance mutations. In all, 51/54 (94.4%) sample patients were sequenced. The median age (IQR) of our patients was 24 (22-27) years and the median CD4 count was 380 (340-456) cells/mm(3). The predominant subtype was recombinant HIV-1 CRF02_AG (66.7%) followed by CRF06_cpx (12%) and CRF09_cpx (4%). Four patients had mutations associated with resistance, giving an overall prevalence of resistance estimated at 7.9%. There were two (4%) patients with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutations (one M184V and one T215Y), two (4%) with non-NRTI mutations (two K103N), and one (2%) with a protease inhibitor mutation (one I54V). The prevalence of primary resistance in newly infected patients in Mali is moderate (7.9%). This indicates that the standard NNRTI-based first-line regimen used in Mali is suboptimal for some patients. This study should be done regularly to inform clinical practice.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses 07/2012; 29(1). DOI:10.1089/AID.2012.0118 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the connection domain (CD) of reverse transcriptase have been implicated in reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI) resistance, but this is controversial and little is known in non-B subtype HIV-1. We determined CD mutations prevalence in a population infected predominantly with CRF02_AG and investigated associations with phenotypic RTI resistance. Detected CD mutations were G335D (82.3%), A371V (69.8%), E399D (9.4%), N348I (5.2%), V365I (4.2), Y318F (2.1%), G333E (2.1%), and A360V (2.1%). Mutations were largely polymorphic and did not confer RTI resistance. The observed trend toward reduced likelihood of etravirine or nevirapine resistance in the presence of G335D should be investigated further.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 07/2012; 61(3):293-296. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0b013e31826a4b34 · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent clinical trials with rilpivirine combined with emtricitabine and tenofovir revealed that patients failing treatment, frequently, harbored viruses encoding resistance-associated mutations in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase at position E138K and M184I. We show here that APOBEC3 proteins play a role in the emergence of these drug resistance mutations. We used a Vif mutant that has suboptimal activity against APOBEC3 to assess the in-vitro frequency of APOBEC3-induced resistance mutations in reverse transcriptase. To assess the degree of in-vivo G-to-A viral hypermutation, a large amount of data of HIV-1 RT proviral sequences from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) recovered from infected patients under HAART was analyzed. In-vitro replication experiments in cell lines with and without APOBEC3 expression suggest that APOBEC3-driven mutagenesis contributes to the generation of both M184I and E138K within HIV proviral repository in the absence of drug exposure. Additionally, analysis of 601 patients PBMCs sequences revealed that the copresence of mutations E138K and M184I were never detected in nonhypermutated sequences, whereas these mutations were found at a high frequency (24%) in the context of APOBEC3 editing and in the absence of exposure to etravirine-rilpivirine. We demonstrate using in-vitro experiments and analyzing patients PBMCs sequences that M184I and E138K resistance-associated mutations may pre-exist in proviral reservoir at a high frequency prior to drug exposure, as a result of APOBEC3 editing. Thus, incomplete neutralization of one or more APOBEC3 proteins may favor viral escape to rilpivirine-emtricitabine.
    AIDS (London, England) 06/2012; 26(13):1619-24. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283560703 · 5.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We undertook a study to determine the level of knowledge and practice of medical staff personnel on transfusion medicine in Mali at Bamako and Kati. The study was conducted from January to April 2010 in the three main teaching hospitals of Bamako and Kati and in the six referral health centers of the district of Bamako. Medical staff knowledge and practice were assessed using a questionnaire. The study population consisted of specialized practitioners (15%), general practitioners (21.4%), nurses (41.6%), and midwives (22%). Overall, 70.9% of the staff did not receive any training in blood transfusion since their graduation. The general knowledge about blood transfusion was insufficient in 53.9% of staff and excellent in 46.1%. Only 42.9% of medical staff has a good basic knowledge of blood products, their indications, and related accidents. Our study showed weaknesses in the transfusion system in Bamako, with insufficient knowledge of the medical staff in blood transfusion and little experience.
    Transfusion Clinique et Biologique 04/2012; 19(2):74-7. DOI:10.1016/j.tracli.2012.01.004 · 0.71 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

56 Citations
39.71 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Bordeaux School of Public Health
      Burdeos, Aquitaine, France
  • 2012–2014
    • Hôpital La Pitié Salpêtrière (Groupe Hospitalier "La Pitié Salpêtrière - Charles Foix")
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
    • University of Bamako
      • Malaria Research and Training Centre (MRTC)
      Bammaco, Bamako, Mali