S A Ogston

University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom

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Publications (85)379.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This paper summarises the study protocol for the randomised controlled trial of iodine supplementation in preterm infants. Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroxine, and thyroxine is essential for normal brain development in utero and for the first 2-3 years of life. The recommended iodine intake in parenteral nutrition regimens is 1 μg/kg/day and commercially available parenteral solutions for infants reflect these recommendations. In the absence of other iodine sources, infants are vulnerable to negative iodine balance and insufficiency. As many preterm infants are fed parenterally for prolonged periods with solutions which have been shown to be iodine-deficient, the I2S2 Trial was designed to establish whether iodine supplementation of preterm infants benefits neurodevelopment. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Neonatology 02/2014; 105(4):282-289. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine all-cause mortality in patients with a first myocardial infarct who were treated with simvastatin compared with high-potency statin and simvastatin/ezetimibe combination. Despite statin use, residual cardiovascular risk remains. Therapeutic options include more potent statins or addition of ezetimibe. There is no clinical outcome data on the use of ezetimibe in such patients. Retrospective longitudinal study using the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database. Patients who had survived 30 days after their first acute myocardial infarct (AMI), had not received prior statin or ezetimibe therapy and were started on a statin within 30 days of AMI were included. Three groups were identified according to their follow-up: (i) simvastatin monotherapy; (ii) high-potency statin group (patients who started on simvastatin and switched to atorvastatin or rosuvastatin); and (iii) ezetimibe/statin combination group (patients who received ezetimibe in addition to statin). 9597 patients (57% male, mean age of 65±13 years) matched study criteria: simvastatin (n=6990 (72.8%)); high-potency statin (n=1883, (19.6%)); and ezetimibe/statin combination (n=724 (7.5%)). During a mean follow-up of 3.2 years, there were 1134 (12%) deaths. In the multivariate proportional hazards model, the adjusted HR for high-potency statin and ezetimibe group were 0.72 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.88, p<0.001) and 0.96 (95% CI 0.64 to 1.43, p=0.85), respectively. A similar result was also obtained in the propensity score analysis that took into account covariates that predicted drug treatment groups. Patients switched to a high-potency statin had a significantly reduced mortality compared with simvastatin monotherapy. There was no observed mortality benefit in the ezetimibe group.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 02/2014; · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myocardial fibrosis is dysrhythmogenic and may contribute to the high incidence of cardiac death in stroke survivors, especially if they have long QTc. We tested the hypothesis that procollagen-1-carboxy terminal peptide (P1CP), a biomarker of myocardial fibrosis, might be improved following treatment with spironolactone or amiloride in stroke survivors. We also tested the hypothesis that both drugs would shorten QTc. Study design: randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial (spironolactone vs. amiloride vs. placebo). Duration of Study: 3months (1month per drug). Primary endpoints: P1CP, QTc RESULTS: 11 stroke survivors (5 female), aged 71+4, BP 139/81mmHg+20/11mmHg, completed the study. Both spironolactone and amiloride significantly reduced P1CP [Spironolactone-Placebo=-24 ug/L, 95% CI=-40 to -6.9; Amiloride-Placebo=-28 ug/L, 95% CI=-44 to -11]. Spironolactone and amiloride both shortened QTc [Spironolactone vs. Placebo=-18ms(1/2), 95% CI=-36 to -0.55; Amiloride vs Placebo=-25ms(1/2), 95% CI=-42 to -7.5]. Procollagen-1-carboxy terminal peptide was reduced following treatment with spironolactone within a month. Further, this is the first study demonstrating amiloride could also improve myocardial fibrosis. The beneficial effects of both drugs on myocardial fibrosis, coupled with their effects on raising potassium translated to a shortening of QTc. Future studies should test the hypothesis that these drugs might reduce the risk of sudden cardiac death in stroke survivors.
    International journal of cardiology 08/2013; · 7.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context:Relatively little is known in euthyroid populations about the changes in maternal thyroid hormones during pregnancy, the nature of the relationship to cord thyroid hormone levels, and subsequent infant neurodevelopment.Objectives:The aim of the study was to describe the relationship between maternal and cord thyroid hormone parameters and to describe their associations with neurodevelopment at 5.5 years.Design:We conducted a follow-up of women and their children born at or over 37 weeks' gestation.Main Outcomes:We measured maternal levels of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), T(4), and free T(4) (FT(4)) at 10 and 34 weeks and at delivery, and cord levels of T(4), FT(4), TPOAb, and TgAb. The association of cord thyroid hormone parameters with McCarthy scale scores adjusted for the major confounders of neurodevelopment.Results:Fifteen percent of the women were TPOAb-positive, and 12% were TgAb-positive; the proportion of women with mildly elevated TSH levels increased during pregnancy with the maximum (14%) at delivery. Lower perceptual performance and motor scores were found with TgAb-positive women and lower perceptual performance scores with TgAb-positive cord levels; otherwise, unadjusted maternal levels of TPOAb, TgAb, and TSH and unadjusted cord levels of FT(4), TPOAb, and TgAb were not associated with neurodevelopment at 5.5 years. Low cord T(4) levels were associated with significant increments in four McCarthy scales: General Cognitive Index, Verbal, Quantitative, and Memory scales-increments that persisted after adjustment at 11.4, 7.8, 7.6, and 7.8 points, respectively.Conclusions:Lower levels of cord T(4) were associated with increments in the McCarthy scales in the domains that tested cognitive and verbal abilities at 5.5 years.
    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 01/2013; · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The arginine-16 beta-2 receptor genotype confers increased susceptibility to exacerbations in asthmatic children taking regular long acting beta-2 agonists. We therefore evaluated using montelukast as an alternative to salmeterol as tailored second line asthma controller therapy in children expressing this susceptible genotype. 62 persistent asthmatic children with the homozygous arginine-16 genotype were randomized to receive salmeterol 50ug bid or montelukast 5/10mg od as add on to inhaled fluticasone for 1 year. School absences (the primary outcome) were reduced with montelukast arm compared to salmeterol: difference in score = 0.40 (95%CI 0.07-0.87) p=0.005. Albuterol use was also reduced with montelukast compared with salmeterol: difference in score = 0.47 (95%CI 0.16-0.79) p<0.0001. Greater improvements occurred in both symptom and quality of life scores with montelukast vs salmeterol, while there was no difference in FEV1. Montelukast may be suitable as tailored second line controller therapy instead of salmeterol in asthmatic children expressing the susceptible arginine-16 genotype - moving towards a personalised medicine approach to management.
    Clinical Science 11/2012; · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to systematically analyse all published randomized clinical trials comparing the Prolene Hernia System (PHS) mesh and Lichtenstein mesh for open inguinal hernia repair. A literature search was performed using the Cochrane Colorectal Cancer Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase and Science Citation Index Expanded. Randomized trials comparing the Lichtenstein Mesh repair (LMR) with the Prolene Hernia System were included. Statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager Version 5.1 software. The primary outcome measures were hernia recurrence and chronic pain after operation. Secondary outcome measures included surgical time, peri-operative complications, time to return to work, early and long-term postoperative complications. Six randomized clinical trials were identified as suitable, containing 1313 patients. There was no statistical difference between the two types of repair in operation time, time to return to work, incidence of chronic groin pain, hernia recurrence or long-term complications. The PHS group had a higher rate of peri-operative complications, compared to Lichtenstein mesh repair (risk ratio (RR) 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.55-0.93, P=0.01). The use of PHS mesh was associated with an increased risk of peri-operative complications compared to LMR. Both mesh repair techniques have comparable short- and long-term outcomes.
    The surgeon: journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland 07/2012; 10(5):283-9. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is an insulin-resistant state. The degree of insulin resistance (IR) correlates with disease severity and is associated with reduced exercise capacity. In this proof of concept study, we have examined the effect of metformin on IR and exercise capacity in non-diabetic CHF patients identified to have IR. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 62 non-diabetic IR CHF patients (mean age, 65.2 ± 8.0 years; male, 90%; left ventricular ejection fraction, 32.6 ± 8.3%; New York Heart Association class I/II/III/IV, 11/45/6/0) were randomized to receive either 4 months of metformin (n = 39, 2 g/day) or matching placebo (n = 23). IR was defined by a fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) ≥2.7. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing and FIRI were assessed at baseline and after 4 months of intervention. Compared with placebo, metformin decreased FIRI (from 5.8 ± 3.8 to 4.0 ± 2.5, P < 0.001) and resulted in a weight loss of 1.9 kg (P < 0.001). The primary endpoint of the study, peak oxygen uptake (VO(2)), did not differ between treatment groups. However, metformin improved the secondary endpoint of the slope of the ratio of minute ventilation to carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO(2) slope), from 32.9 ± 15.9 to 28.1 ± 8.8 (P = 0.034). In the metformin-treated group, FIRI was significantly related to the reduction of the VE/VCO(2) slope (R = 0.41, P = 0.036). Metformin treatment significantly improved IR but had no effect on peak VO(2), the primary endpoint of our study. However, metformin treatment did result in a significant improvement in VE/VCO(2) slope. Trial registration: NCT00473876.
    European Journal of Heart Failure 06/2012; 14(11):1303-10. · 5.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mild maternal thyroid dysfunction during early pregnancy is associated with poor neurodevelopment in affected offspring. Most studies are population based or are smaller populations of term/late preterm infants. No studies were found that focused on more preterm infants. Our objective was to describe the relationship between mild maternal thyroid dysfunction at delivery of infants born ≤34 wk and neurodevelopment at 5.5 yr. The study design was follow-up of women and children recruited in Scotland between 1998 and 2001. We evaluated delivery levels of maternal TSH, free T(4) (FT(4)), and T(4) and the association with McCarthy Scale scores adjusted for 26 confounders of neurodevelopment. Maternal serum levels and McCarthy scores were available for 143 women and 166 children. After adjustment for confounders, there were significant 3.2, 2.1, and 1.8 point decrements, respectively, in general cognitive index, verbal subscale, and the perceptual performance subscale for each milliunit per liter increment in maternal TSH. Maternal FT(4) levels were variably associated with neurodevelopment. After adjustment, significant associations were found for the general cognitive index, motor scale, and quantitative subscale; each picomole per liter decrease in FT(4) was associated with an increase of 1.5, 1.7, and 0.9 points, respectively. Maternal T(4) levels showed little relationship with neurodevelopment. None of the women in this analysis had overt hypothyroidism, but mild hypothyroidism was evident in 27%; thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) was ≥ 40 U/ml in 28% of the women. Higher maternal levels of TSH at delivery of infants born preterm were associated with significantly lower scores on the general cognitive index at 5.5 yr.
    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 04/2012; 97(6):1977-85. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is paucity of data on the prognostic value of pre-operative inflammatory response and post-operative lymph node ratio on patient survival after pancreatic-head resection for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. To evaluate the role of the preoperative inflammatory response and postoperative pathology criteria to identify predictive and/or prognostic variables for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. All patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma between 2002 and 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. The following impacts on patient survival were assessed: i) preoperative serum CRP levels, white cell count, neutrophil count, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte count, platelet/lymphocyte ratio; and ii) post-operative pathology criteria including lymph node status and lymph node ratio. Fifty-one patients underwent potentially curative resection for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma during the study period. An elevated preoperative CRP level (greater than 3 mg/L) was found to be a significant adverse prognostic factor (P=0.015) predicting a poor survival, whereas white cell count (P=0.278), neutrophil count (P=0.850), neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (P=0.272), platelet/lymphocyte ratio (P=0.532) and lymphocyte count (P=0.721) were not significant prognosticators at univariate analysis. Presence of metastatic lymph nodes did not adversely affect survival (P=0.050), however a raised lymph node ratio predicted poor survival at univariate analysis (P<0.001). The preoperative serum CRP level retained significance at multivariate analysis (P=0.011), together with lymph node ratio (P<0.001) and tumour size (greater than 2 cm; P=0.008). A pre-operative elevated serum CRP level and raised post-operative lymph node ratio represent significant independent prognostic factors that predict poor prognosis in patients undergoing curative resection for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. There is potential for future neo-adjuvant and adjuvant treatment strategies in pancreatic cancer to be tailored based on preoperative and postoperative factors that predict a poor survival.
    JOP: Journal of the pancreas 01/2012; 13(2):199-204.
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aims: Although clinical response is often variable, salmeterol is at least as effective as montelukast as add-on controller in children with asthma. However, children taking salmeterol, homozygous for the arginine-16 (Arg16) allele of ADRB2, have more frequent asthma exacerbations. We therefore investigated long term asthma control in genetically susceptible children with Arg/Arg-16 who were randomized to receive montelukast or salmeterol as add-on to inhaled steroid.
    Pediatric Research 11/2011; · 2.67 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - J ALLERG CLIN IMMUNOL. 01/2011; 127(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Transient hypothyroxinemia is the commonest thyroid dysfunction of premature infants, and recent studies have found adverse associations with neurodevelopment. The validity of these associations is unclear because the studies adjusted for a differing range of factors likely to influence neurodevelopment. The aim was to describe the association of transient hypothyroxinemia with neurodevelopment at 5.5 yr corrected age. We conducted a follow-up study of a cohort of infants born in Scotland from 1999 to 2001 ≤34 wk gestation. We measured scores on the McCarthy scale adjusted for 26 influences of neurodevelopment including parental intellect, home environment, breast or formula fed, growth retardation, and use of postnatal drugs. A total of 442 infants ≤34 wk gestation who had serum T(4) measurements on postnatal d 7, 14, or 28 and 100 term infants who had serum T(4) measured in cord blood were followed up at 5.5 yr. Infants with hypothyroxinemia (T(4) level ≤ 10th percentile on d 7, 14, or 28 corrected for gestational age) scored significantly lower than euthyroid infants (T(4) level greater than the 10th percentile and less than the 90th percentile on all days) on all McCarthy scales, except the quantitative. After adjustment for confounders of neurodevelopment, hypothyroxinemic infants scored significantly lower than euthyroid infants on the general cognitive and verbal scales. Our findings do not support the view that the hypothyroxinemic state, in the context of this analysis, is harmless in preterm infants. Many factors contribute both to the etiology of hypothyroxinemia and neurodevelopment; strategies for correction of hypothyroxinemia should acknowledge its complex etiology and not rely solely on one approach.
    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 11/2010; 95(11):4898-908. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) plus chronic heart failure (CHF) is a common but lethal combination and therapeutic options are limited. Metformin is perceived as being relatively contraindicated in this context, although mounting evidence indicates that it may be beneficial. This study was carried out to investigate the use of metformin therapy for treating patients with DM and CHF in a large population-based cohort study. The Health Informatics Centre-dispensed prescribing database for the population of Tayside, Scotland (population ∼400,000) was linked to the Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside Scotland (DARTS) information system. Patients with DM and incident CHF from 1994 to 2003 receiving oral hypoglycemic agents but not insulin were identified. Cox regression was used to assess differences in all-cause mortality rates between patients prescribed metformin and patients prescribed sulfonylureas with adjustment for co-morbidities and other therapies. Four hundred twenty-two study subjects (mean ± SD 75.4 ± 0.5 years of age, 46.2% women) were identified: metformin monotherapy (n = 68, mean age 75.5 ± 1.1 years, 48.5% women), sulfonylurea monotherapy (n = 217, mean age 76.7 ± 0.7 years, 45.2% women), and combination (n = 137, mean age, 73.4 ± 0.7 years, 46.7% women). Fewer deaths occurred in metformin users, alone or in combination with sulfonylureas, compared to the sulfonylurea monotherapy cohort at 1 year (0.59, 95% confidence interval 0.36 to 0.96) and over long-term follow up (0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.51 to 0.88). In conclusion, this large observational data suggest that metformin may be beneficial in patients with CHF and DM. These findings need to be verified by a prospective clinical trial.
    The American journal of cardiology 10/2010; 106(7):1006-10. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine absolute and relative risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among patients newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. In an observational cohort study using record-linkage databases, based in Tayside, Scotland, UK, we identified newly diagnosed patients with Type 2 diabetes in 1993-2004. We also identified a set of non-diabetic comparators from lists of patients registered with a general practice, individually matched to the diabetic patients by sex, age and deprivation. We followed up patients for mortality and cardiovascular mortality over a 12-year period and calculated hazard ratios using Cox regression. There were 10,532 patients with Type 2 diabetes and 21,056 non-diabetic comparators. Diabetic patients in every age/sex group had higher absolute mortality rates. Even taking deprivation into account, the hazard ratio for mortality was 1.32 (95% CI 1.25-1.40), decreasing to 1.15 (1.09-1.22) after adjusting for pre-existing cardiovascular disease. The hazard ratios for cardiovascular mortality were higher, decreasing from 1.51 (1.37-1.67) to 1.23 (1.11-1.36) after adjusting for pre-existing cardiovascular disease. The hazard ratios decreased with increasing age at diagnosis, although the difference in absolute rate of mortality increased slightly with age. Increased mortality risks were only evident 2 years after diagnosis and increased thereafter. Patients with Type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality compared with non-diabetic comparators, although this is not observable immediately after diagnosis. Age at diagnosis and duration of the disease independently affect absolute and relative mortality risk.
    Diabetic Medicine 10/2010; 27(10):1124-9. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental evidence suggests that xanthine oxidase inhibitors can reduce myocardial oxygen consumption for a particular stroke volume. If such an effect also occurs in man, this class of inhibitors could become a new treatment for ischaemia in patients with angina pectoris. We ascertained whether high-dose allopurinol prolongs exercise capability in patients with chronic stable angina. 65 patients (aged 18-85 years) with angiographically documented coronary artery disease, a positive exercise tolerance test, and stable chronic angina pectoris (for at least 2 months) were recruited into a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study in a hospital and two infirmaries in the UK. We used computer-generated randomisation to assign patients to allopurinol (600 mg per day) or placebo for 6 weeks before crossover. Our primary endpoint was the time to ST depression, and the secondary endpoints were total exercise time and time to chest pain. We did a completed case analysis. This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN 82040078. In the first treatment period, 31 patients were allocated to allopurinol and 28 were analysed, and 34 were allocated to placebo and 32 were analysed. In the second period, all 60 patients were analysed. Allopurinol increased the median time to ST depression to 298 s (IQR 211-408) from a baseline of 232 s (182-380), and placebo increased it to 249 s (200-375; p=0.0002). The point estimate (absolute difference between allopurinol and placebo) was 43 s (95% CI 31-58). Allopurinol increased median total exercise time to 393 s (IQR 280-519) from a baseline of 301 s (251-447), and placebo increased it to 307 s (232-430; p=0.0003); the point estimate was 58 s (95% CI 45-77). Allopurinol increased the time to chest pain from a baseline of 234 s (IQR 189-382) to 304 s (222-421), and placebo increased it to 272 s (200-380; p=0.001); the point estimate was 38 s (95% CI 17-55). No adverse effects of treatment were reported. Allopurinol seems to be a useful, inexpensive, well tolerated, and safe anti-ischaemic drug for patients with angina. British Heart Foundation.
    The Lancet 06/2010; 375(9732):2161-7. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is minimal data on the outcome of early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for acute gallbladder disease when performed by trainees. This study assesses the outcomes of a policy of same admission LC incorporated into a surgical training programme in a major teaching hospital. 447 index LCs performed over a 3-year period were reviewed retrospectively. The indications, operating surgeon, operating time, use of IOC, conversion rates, reasons for conversion and post-operative stay were analysed. Multivariate analysis of reasons for conversion was performed. 150 LCs were performed by consultants and 297 by registrars; 67 were performed by year 1-3 specialist registrars (SpR) and 230 by year 4-6 SpRs. The indications were biliary colic (n=7), acute cholecystitis (n=180), chronic cholecystitis (n=260), carcinoma (n=1). No difference was found in demographics, operating time (105 min Vs 115 min), use of IOC (34% Vs 29%; P=0.2) and post-operative stay (2 days Vs 1 day) between consultants and registrars. The conversion rates were higher for consultants compared to registrars (29 (19%) Vs 28 (9%), P=0.004). The overall conversion rate was 11%. There were no bile duct injuries. Predictors for conversion were CRP>50 at admission and acute cholecystitis. In a teaching hospital setting most acute admission LCs (66%) were performed by trainees. A step wise training programme with active consultant supervision of all index LCs results in low morbidity, low conversion rates, and a short post-operative stay for acute gallbladder disease. This model of same admission cholecystectomy provides a good training opportunity in emergency general surgery.
    The surgeon: journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland 06/2010; 8(3):127-31. · 1.97 Impact Factor
  • Lancet. 01/2010; 376(9749):1299-1300.
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    ABSTRACT: There is evidence to suggest that diabetes may increase the risk of incidence and mortality from cancer. In a cohort study using record-linkage health-care datasets for Tayside, Scotland in 1993-2004, we followed up 9577 newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes, and two matched non-diabetic comparators, in the national cancer register. The risk ratio for any cancer, adjusted for deprivation, was 0.99 (95%CI 0.90-1.09). Significantly increased risks were observed for pancreatic, liver and colon cancer.
    British Journal of Cancer 09/2009; 101(7):1199-201. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the potential of a pathology-free impacted lower third molar to cause symptoms within a year and whether these symptoms can be linked to clinical characteristics, lifestyle or socio-demographic status. One-year prospective cohort study of patients registered in general dental practice in Scotland with at least one asymptomatic impacted lower third molar. All general dental practices with panoramic radiography facilities in Tayside, Fife and Greater Glasgow (Scotland, UK) were invited to participate in the study. Orthopantomographs taken between 1995 and 2002 were reviewed and eligible patients were contacted and invited to participate. Patients were assessed in their own dental surgery by the same research dentist. In this baseline assessment, the presence of impaction was confirmed and all patients with a previous history of symptoms and/or pathology were excluded from further analysis. Clinical characteristics such as the angulation and the degree of impaction were recorded. Patients also completed a socioeconomic questionnaire. Eligible patients were re-assessed by the same research dentist one year later when they were asked about their experience of symptoms within the past year. Information was cross-referenced with patients' dental records. A total of 613 patients attended the baseline appointment. Of those, 30 (4.89%) had a history of symptoms and were excluded from the study, leaving 583 (95.10%) eligible patients. From those, 421 (69%) patients with a total of 676 lower third molars were examined one year later. 22.67% of all vertically impacted teeth examined had developed symptoms, along with 13.15% of all mesially impacted, 30.69% of all distally impacted and 6.45% of all horizontal third molars. This association was statistically significant (p < or =0.001). 23.05% of all partially erupted teeth and a surprising 10.49% of all unerupted teeth were associated with symptoms during the study period. This association was also significant (p < or =0.001). There was also a statistically significant inverse association between the development of symptoms and age (p = 0.0028). The predictability that an impacted lower third molar will develop symptoms in future remains unclear. However, some clinical characteristics such as the angulation, the degree of impaction and the patient's age could be useful in predicting the likelihood of future symptomatology.
    British dental journal official journal of the British Dental Association: BDJ online 09/2009; 207(5):E10; discussion 218-9. · 1.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many studies have evaluated serum levels of procalcitonin (PCT) as a predictor in the development of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN). This study assesses the value of PCT as a marker of development of SAP and IPN. Medline, Web of Science, the Cochrane clinical trials register, and international conference proceedings were searched systematically for prospective studies, which evaluated the usefulness of PCT as a marker of SAP and IPN. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) were calculated for each study, and the study quality and heterogeneity among the studies were evaluated. Twenty-four of 59 studies identified were included in data extraction. The sensitivity and specificity of PCT for development of SAP were 0.72 and 0.86, respectively (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.87; DOR = 14.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.6-39.8), albeit with a significant degree of heterogeneity (Q = 28.56, P < .01). The sensitivity and specificity of PCT for prediction of infected pancreatic necrosis were 0.80 and 0.91 (AUC = 0.91; DOR = 28.3; 95% CI = 13.8-58.3) with no significant heterogeneity (Q = 7.83, P = .18). No significant heterogeneity was observed among the studies when only higher quality studies (AUC = 0.91; DOR = 30.7; 95% CI = 10.7-87.8) or studies that used a cutoff PCT level >0.5 ng/mL (AUC = 0.88, 32.8; 95% CI = 10.1-106.6) were included. Serum measurements of PCT may be valuable in predicting the severity of acute pancreatitis and the risk of developing infected pancreatic necrosis.
    Surgery 07/2009; 146(1):72-81. · 3.37 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
379.85 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2011
    • University of Dundee
      • School of Medicine
      Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • University of Stirling
      • Department of Nursing and Midwifery
      Stirling, SCT, United Kingdom
  • 1987–2007
    • Ninewells Hospital
      • Department of Surgery
      Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom