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ABSTRACT: Vicriviroc (VCV), a small-molecule antagonist of the C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), blocks HIV's entry into CD4+ cells. Small studies have suggested that resistance to CCR5 antagonists is slow to develop.
To examine resistance to VCV in isolates from treatment experienced patients who experienced virologic failure in two phase 3 trials.
Genotypic and phenotypic susceptibility to VCV, and other antiretroviral drugs were evaluated at baseline and at defined intervals during the study. In a post hoc analysis, viral tropism at baseline was evaluated using the Trofile-ES assay. Only subjects with R5-tropic virus were included in the analysis. Viral envelope sequencing was performed on samples from subjects with emergent VCV resistance defined using a relative MPI cutoff.
71/486 subjects treated with VCV for 48 weeks met the protocol-defined virologic failure criteria. 7/71 (10%) had DM/X4 virus at the time of virologic failure; VCV resistance was identified in 4/486 treated subjects (1%). No control subject had detectable DM/X4 virus or VCV resistance at virologic failure. Clonal analysis of envelope sequences from VCV-resistant virus identified 2-5 amino acid substitutions at or near the crown of the V3 loop; however, no signature V3 mutations were identified. Changes outside the V3 loop were also observed in resistant clones; no consistent variant pattern was observed.
In these trials, use of a sensitive tropism assay and potent antiretroviral drug combinations contributed to the infrequent detection of X4-tropic virus and VCV resistance. Substitutions in the V3 loop were associated with VCV resistance, however, no specific pattern of amino acid changes were sufficient to reliably predict VCV susceptibility.
Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 07/2012; 55(2):134-9. · 3.12 Impact Factor