ABSTRACT: Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are persistent endocrine disruptors. OCPs cross the placenta; this prenatal exposure has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We investigated associations between prenatal exposure to OCPs and gestational age and birth weight in 600 infants born between 1960 and 1963. The primary OCP was 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT), its primary metabolite, 1,1'-dichloro-2,2'-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) and the contaminant, 1,1,1-trichloro-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-ethane (o,p'-DDT). Regression analysis indicated that for each natural log unit increase in p,p'-DDT, birth weight increased by 274 grams (95% CI 122, 425) when controlling for p,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDT. At a given level of p,p'-DDT exposure, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE were associated with decreased birth weight. p,p'-DDE was negatively associated with length of gestation, controlling for p,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT. These findings suggest opposing associations between exposure to p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE and birth weight. We did not find evidence to support mediation by maternal thyroid hormone status nor that the association differed by sex.
Reproductive Toxicology 11/2012; · 3.23 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), known endocrine disruptors, were banned in 1979 but persist in the environment. Previous studies are inconsistent regarding prenatal exposure to PCBs and pregnancy outcomes. We investigated associations between prenatal exposure to PCBs and gestational length and birth weight.
In a sample of 600 infants (born between 1960 and 1963) randomly selected from Child Health and Development Studies participants followed through adolescence we measured 11 PCB congeners in maternal post partum sera (within three days of delivery). Length of gestation was computed from the reported first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) and delivery date. Linear regression was used to estimate associations between PCB exposure and gestational age and birth weight, adjusting for potential confounders. PCBs were grouped according to hypothesized biological action (1b (sum of weak phenobarbital inducers), 2b (sum of limited dioxin activity), and 3 (sum of CYP1A and CYP2b inducers)) or degree of ortho- substitution (mono, di, tri). Secondary analyses examined associations between total PCB exposure and exposure to individual congeners.
Each unit increase in mono-ortho substituted PCBs was associated with a 0.30 week decrease (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.59, -0.016), corresponding to a 2.1 (95% CI -4.13, -0.11) day decrease in length of gestation. Similar associations were estimated for di-ortho substituted PCBs, (1.4 day decrease; (95% CI -2.9, 0.1)) and group 3 PCBs (0.84 day decrease; (95% CI -1.8, 0.11). We found similar associations in congener specific analyses and for the sum of congeners.
Our study provides new evidence that PCB exposure shortens length of gestation in humans. This may have public health implications for population exposures.
Environmental Health 07/2012; 11:49. · 2.65 Impact Factor
PPTOX III (Prenatal programming and toxicity), Paris; 05/2012