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ABSTRACT: Treatment with Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) bladder instillations is an established treatment modality for superficial urinary bladder cancer and carcinoma in situ (CIS), but the anti-tumor mechanisms following BCG instillations remain largely unknown. Previous data show increased nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in the urinary bladder from patients treated with BCG suggesting that NO-formation may be involved in the BCG mediated effect. In the present study we evaluated 11 patients with urinary bladder cancer who had received BCG treatment and 11 tumor free control subjects. We performed immunohistochemistry, Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on bladder biopsies to establish inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein levels and localization as well as iNOS mRNA expression. Endogenous NO formation in the bladder was also measured. In patients with bladder cancer who had received BCG treatment iNOS-like immunoreactivity was found in the urothelial cells but also in macrophages in the submucosa. Furthermore, endogenously formed NO was significantly increased (p<0.001) in the BCG treated patients and they had a ten-fold increase in mRNA expression for iNOS compared to healthy controls (p=0.003). In conclusion iNOS was found to be localized to the urothelium and macrophages underlying it. Our study also confirms elevated levels of endogenously formed NO and increased mRNA expression and protein levels for iNOS in patients with BCG treated bladder cancer. These data further support the notion that NO may be involved in the anti-tumor mechanism that BCG exerts on bladder cancer cells.
Nitric Oxide 07/2012; 27(3):185-91. · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Urothelium emerged as a crucial integrator of sensory inputs and outputs in the bladder wall, and urothelial G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) may represent plausible targets for treatment of various bladder pathologies. Urothelial cell lines provide a useful tool to study urothelial receptor function, but their validity as models for native human urothelium remains unclear. We characterize the mRNA expression of genes coding for GPCRs in human freshly isolated urothelium and compare the expression pattern with those in human urothelial cell lines.
To characterize the mRNA expression pattern of genes coding for G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in human freshly isolated urothelium. To compare GPCR expression in human urothelium-derived cell lines to explore the suitability of these cell lines as model systems to study urothelial function.
Native human urothelium (commercially sourced) and human urothelium-derived non-cancer (UROtsa and TERT-NHUC) and cancer (J82) cell lines were used. For mRNA expression profiling we used custom-designed real-time polymerase chain reaction array for 40 receptors and several related genes.
Native urothelium expressed a wide variety of GPCRs, including α(1A), α(1D) and all subtypes of α(2) and β adrenoceptors. In addition, M(2) and M(3) cholinergic muscarinic receptors, angiotensin II AT(1) receptor, serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor and all subtypes of bradykinin, endothelin, cannabinoid, tachykinin and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors were detected. Nerve growth factor and both its low- and high-affinity receptors were also expressed in urothelium. In all cell lines expression of most GPCRs was markedly downregulated, with few exceptions. In UROtsa cells, but much less in other cell lines, the expression of β(2) adrenoceptors, M(3) muscarinic receptors, B(1) and B(2) bradykinin receptors, ET(B) endothelin receptors and several subtypes of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors was largely retained.
Human urothelium expresses a wide range of receptors which enables sensing and integration of various extracellular signals. Human urothelium-derived cell lines, especially UROtsa cells, show comparable mRNA expression to native tissue for several physiologically relevant GPCRs, but lose expression of many other receptors. The use of cell lines as model systems of human urothelium requires careful validation of suitability for the genes of interest.
BJU International 05/2012; 110(6 Pt B):E293-300. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To study muscarinic/purinergic receptor activation and Rho-kinase/protein kinase C (PKC) signalling during smooth muscle contraction in normal and hypertrophic mouse urinary bladders.
Partial urinary outflow obstruction was induced in adult female (10-12 weeks) C57Bl/6 mice and comparisons were made with sham-operated controls. Bladder preparations were examined in vitro. Expression of signalling proteins was examined using Western blot analysis.
Obstructed bladders increased more than threefold in weight and were found to have enhanced muscarinic and attenuated purinergic components during nerve-induced contractions. The contractile response to carbachol was shifted towards lower concentrations of carbachol for the peak response and had a markedly enhanced sustained component. The amplitude of the α,β-methylene ATP-induced responses was lowered. Rho-kinase inhibitor Y27632 (10 µM) inhibited peak and sustained contractile responses to carbachol in control bladders (peak by 38%; plateau 57%) and obstructed bladders (peak 37% plateau 47%). PKC inhibitor GF109203X (1 µM) inhibited carbachol contractions in controls (peak by 29%; plateau 29%) and obstructed bladders (peak 17%; plateau 12%). Inhibition by a similar extent was observed after nerve stimulation. Sensitivity to Ca(2+) in high-K(+) depolarized intact tissues increased in obstructed bladders. This increased receptor-independent Ca(2+)-sensitivity was abolished by Y27632. Tissue contents of the myosin-binding phosphatase subunit MYPT-1 and catalytic phosphatase subunit PP1β, were decreased and the contents of RhoGDI, RhoA and CPI-17 increased. A decrease in the Rho-kinase isoform ROCK-1 was observed.
Based on these results, one can speculate that Rho-kinase inhibition would preferentially target the pathological phasic activity in the urinary bladder rather than inhibit the physiological receptor-mediated bladder emptying.
BJU International 08/2011; 109(1):132-40. · 3.05 Impact Factor