[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)-induced oxidative damages have been published in rats while the effects have not yet been reported in fishes. Juvenile common carps (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to waterborne HCB from 2 to 200 microg l-1 for 5, 10 or 20 days. Liver and brain were analyzed for various parameters of oxidative stress. There were no significant changes of glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver after 5 or 10 days exposure, whereas obvious drops were observed at higher concentrations after 20 days exposure. Significant decreases of GSH content and SOD activity in brain were found during all the exposure days. In brain, HCB also significantly elevated the contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric acid- reactive substances (TBARS, as an indicator of lipid peroxidation products), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), and activities of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR), and inhibited activities of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). The results clearly demonstrated that environmentally possible level of HCB could result in oxidative stress in fish and brain was a sensitive target organ of HCB toxicity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytological and biochemical alterations of crucial carp (Carassius auratus) hepatocytes were characterized after exposure to sediments from a lake contaminated with dioxins and other industrial chemicals. Carp were exposed in 20 L water containing 25, 50, or 100 g of contaminated sediment for 2 and 4 weeks. Ultrastructural changes in the liver were characterized by severe enlargement of hepatocytes. Alterations in the cell included formation of condensed and irregular cell nucleus, polynuclei, dispersed heterochromatin, enlargement of the nucleolus, and degeneration of the nucleus. Mitochondrial numbers were reduced and cristae were deformed. Myelin figures and lysosomes were increased, and sometimes cell organelles and cell matrix were totally lost after 4 weeks of exposure. The ultrastructural alterations were correlated with exposure time and sediment concentrations. Hepatosometic index was significantly increased in experimental groups at 2 and 4 weeks as compared with the control group. EROD enzyme activities were strongly induced in liver. A trend from rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) to SER was observed. Our results suggest that the dioxin-like compounds bound by sediment were bioavailable to C. auratus and cause sublethal effects.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 11/1999; 37(3):358-63. · 1.96 Impact Factor