[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale: Acute lung injury (ALI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, with no currently effective pharmacological therapies. Neutrophils have been specifically implicated in the pathogenesis of ALI, and there has been significant research into the mechanisms of early neutrophil recruitment, but those controlling the later phases of neutrophil emigration that characterize disease are poorly understood. Objectives: To determine the influence of peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs) in established ALI. Methods: In a murine model of LPS-induced ALI, three separate models of conditional monocyte ablation were used: systemic liposomal clodronate (sLC), inducible depletion using CD11b diphtheria toxin receptor (CD11b DTR) transgenic mice, and antibody-dependent ablation of CCR2(hi) monocytes. Measurements and Main Results: PBMs play a critical role in regulating neutrophil emigration in established murine LPS-induced lung injury. Gr1(hi) and Gr1(lo) PBM subpopulations contribute to this process. PBM depletion is associated with a significant reduction in measures of lung injury. The specificity of PBM depletion was demonstrated by replenishment studies in which the effects were reversed by systemic PBM infusion but not by systemic or local pulmonary infusion of mature macrophages or lymphocytes. Conclusions: These results suggest that PBMs, or the mechanisms by which they influence pulmonary neutrophil emigration, could represent therapeutic targets in established ALI.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 07/2012; 186(6):514-24. · 11.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic dysregulated response to alveolar epithelial injury with differentiation of epithelial cells and fibroblasts into matrix-secreting myofibroblasts resulting in lung scaring. The prognosis is poor and there are no effective therapies or reliable biomarkers. Galectin-3 is a β-galactoside binding lectin that is highly expressed in fibrotic tissue of diverse etiologies.
To examine the role of galectin-3 in pulmonary fibrosis.
We used genetic deletion and pharmacologic inhibition in well-characterized murine models of lung fibrosis. Further mechanistic studies were performed in vitro and on samples from patients with IPF.
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis was dramatically reduced in mice deficient in galectin-3, manifest by reduced TGF-β1-induced EMT and myofibroblast activation and collagen production. Galectin-3 reduced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of β-catenin but had no effect on Smad2/3 phosphorylation. A novel inhibitor of galectin-3, TD139, blocked TGF-β-induced β-catenin activation in vitro and in vivo and attenuated the late-stage progression of lung fibrosis after bleomycin. There was increased expression of galectin-3 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum from patients with stable IPF compared with nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis and controls, which rose sharply during an acute exacerbation suggesting that galectin-3 may be a marker of active fibrosis in IPF and that strategies that block galectin-3 may be effective in treating acute fibrotic exacerbations of IPF.
This study identifies galectin-3 as an important regulator of lung fibrosis and provides a proof of principle for galectin-3 inhibition as a potential novel therapeutic strategy for IPF.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 11/2011; 185(5):537-46. · 11.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease. Antiinflammatory therapies, including corticosteroids, are of no benefit. The role of monocytes and macrophages is therefore controversial.
To define the role of monocytes and macrophages during lung fibrogenesis and resolution, and explore the phenotype of the cells involved.
We used multiple in vivo depletional strategies, backed up by adoptive transfer techniques. Further studies were performed on samples from patients with IPF.
Depletion of lung macrophages during fibrogenesis reduced pulmonary fibrosis as measured by lung collagen (P = 0.0079); fibrosis score (P = 0.0051); and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for surrogate markers of fibrosis Col1 (P = 0.0083) and a-smooth muscle actin (P = 0.0349). There was an associated reduction in markers of the profibrotic alternative macrophage activation phenotype, Ym1 (P = 0.0179), and Arginase 1. The alternative macrophage marker CD163 was expressed on lung macrophages from patients with IPF. Depletion of Ly6Chi circulating monocytes reduced pulmonary fibrosis (P = 0.0052) and the number of Ym1- positive alternatively activated lung macrophages (P = 0.0310). Their adoptive transfer during fibrogenesis exacerbated fibrosis (P = 0.0304); however, adoptively transferred CD45.1 Ly6Chi cells were not found in the lungs of recipient CD45.2 mice.
We demonstrate the importance of circulating monocytes and lung macrophages during pulmonary fibrosis, and emphasize the importance of the alternatively activated macrophage phenotype. We show that Ly6Chi monocytes facilitate the progression of pulmonary fibrosis, but are not obviously engrafted into lungs thereafter. Finally, we provide empirical data to suggest that macrophages may have a resolution-promoting role during the reversible phase of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 06/2011; 184(5):569-81. · 11.04 Impact Factor