[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Backgroundand Objectives: Production of a model of hepatic failure is used to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of alternative methods of liver transplantation. This study aimed to determine the appropriate dosage of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to induce acute hepatic failure in NMRI mice.
Methods: In this study, at first, a mixture of CCl4 dissolved in olive oil was administered intraperitoneally to 5 groups of 6 mice. After 24 hours, serum level of liver enzymes and the status of liver tissue were evaluated. To investigate the survival of mice, CCl4 (at doses of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5ml/kg.bw) was administered to 6 new groups of mice, and these animals were monitored for 4 days. To assess the effect of the toxin in the next days, the determined dose was administered to 24 new mice, and serum and histological evaluations were repeated.
Results: The serum level of liver enzymes and the degree of hepatic lesions were significantly increased with increased dose of CCl4. Values more than 1ml/kg of CCl4 induced acute liver damage. Also, the value of 1ml/kg decreased mortality rate and values more than 2ml/kg increased mortality rate. Maximum increase in serum levels of liver enzymes was observed 24 hours after injection of CCl4 (at the dose of 1.5ml/kg), which decreased gradually. The degree of liver damage in days after the injection was the same until the fourth day, but the liver regeneration phasewas initiated after 72 hours.
Conclusion: According to the results of this study, a single intraperitoneal administration of CCl4 at the dose of 1.5mL/kg CCl4 could be an appropriate dosage for the production of a model of acute hepatic failure in NMRI mouse.
[Full Text in Persian]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Upper respiratory tract diseases (URTD) are common clinical problem in cats worldwide. Feline calicivirus (FCV) and feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) are the main primary pathogens. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are also among the most common infectious diseases of cats which suppress the immunity. Oropharyngeal and conjunctival swabs and blood samples were taken from 16 cats with clinical signs of URTD and 26 clinically healthy cats. PCR and RT-PCR were used to detect FHV/FIV or FCV/FeLV infections, respectively. Feline calicivirus was detected in all cats with URTD and 87.00% and 93.00% of them were positive for FIV and FeLV, respectively. Feline herpesvirus rate of infection was 43.00% in sick cats. In clinically normal cats, prevalence rates of FCV and FHV were about 50.00%, but FIV and FeLV rates (42.00% and 65.00% respectively) were higher compared to other studies. Stomatitis was observed in 50.00% of cats with URTD. The main causative agent of corneal ulcers is FHV-1, but in 50.00% of cats with corneal ulcers, FCV was detected alone. It seems new variants of Caliciviruses are the main causative agents to attack uncommon tissues like cornea, although retroviral infections may be in the background of these various signs. The high retroviral prevalence may be due to existence of large population of stray cats. This is the first molecular study of FeLV and FCV in Iran and seems that FCV and FHV prevalence rates in FIV or FeLV infected cats is more than other non-infected ones.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In dogs, the gastric Helicobacter spp. have been well studied, but there is little information regarding the other parts of the alimentary system. The incidence of Helicobacter spp. infection in dogs is largely unknown and to our knowledge there are no data about their potential pathogenic role. In light of these considerations, the aims of this study were (i) to assess the prevalence of Helicobacter spp. in colonic biopsies of healthy and symptomatic stray dogs also (ii) we isolate and characterize helicobacters in canine colonic biopsies to compare the commonly used tests for the identification of Helicobacter spp. and to determine the occurrence of these species in dogs.
Tissues from fifteen stray dogs (8 males and 7 females, age 6 months -10 years) were used in this study. From each stray dog, multiple colonic biopsies were taken for PCR. Biopsies for PCR of cecum and colon were immediately frozen and stored at -20[degree sign]C until DNA extraction. Samples for histological examination were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin wax.
In the cecum and colon, Helicobacter spp. DNA was detected in all dogs. H.canis, H.bizzozeronii, H. bilis, H.felis, H.salomonis and H.pylori Identified by specific polymerase chain reaction. Histopathology demonstrated that Helicobacter organisms were localized within the surface mucus and the intestinal crypts. Dogs with heavy Helicobacter spp. colonization were significantly in younger as well as had a higher level of mucosal fibrosis/atrophy than dogs with uncolonized or poorly colonized biopsies (p < 0.05).
We have indicated that the crypts of the cecum and colon of healthy and symptomatic dogs are heavily colonized by Helicobacter spp.. Combined molecular and histological approaches demonstrated that enterohepatic Helicobacter spp. infection is rather common in colonic biopsies of healthy and symptomatic stray dogs, with Helicobacter spp. specialy H. canis, H.bizzozeroni, H.billis, H.felis and H. salomonis identified as the most common species.Virtual Slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1957989294118782.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Helicobacter spp. have been detected in different parts of gastrointestinal tract of dogs including the oral cavity, stomach, intestines and recently, hepatobilliary system. However, the transmission pathways of Helicobacter spp. have not been yet fully elucidated. Research in the last decade has proposed that oral–oral and fecal–oral transmissions, among others, may be a plausible route of this gastric infection. This study was carried out primarily to determine the existence of pylori and non-pylori Helicobacter spp. in the oral secretions and dental plaque of stray dogs of Iran as one of the possible routes of humans and animal infection and, secondly, to evaluate the accordance between oral and gastric colonization of Helicobacter spp. in these dogs. Forty-eight adult stray dogs were studied by PCR using 16S rRNA, Helicobacter felis, Helicobacter heilmannii, and Helicobacter pylori specific primers. Positive samples for 16S rRNA specific primers that did not meet the specified species of Helicobacter genus were randomly subjected to sequencing. Helicobacter spp. DNA was found in the oral and gastric specimens of 100 % of the stray dogs. There was not, however, any agreement between Helicobacter colonization at these two locations, at neither genus nor species level. Our study confirmed that the oral cavity of stray dogs routinely exposed to transient forms of bacteria and may temporarily harbor Helicobacter spp and Wolinella spp. Therefore, oral cavity as a source of Helicobacter spp. may act as a reservoir for transmission. However, it may not necessarily reflect the colonization status of the gastric mucosa.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism (NSH) is a common disease in kittens in Iran. It occurs due to malnutrition with clinical signs of anorexia, lameness and irregularity in the vertebral column and long bones. In humans, hypomagnesaemia has been found to be associated with hyperparathyroidism. An association of copper deficiency with hypocalcaemia and the radiographic features of rickets and hyperparathyroidism have also been described in human infants. In humans, urinary excretion of copper and zinc is greater than normal in patients with untreated primary hyperparathyroidism. This survey was performed based on clinical, radiographic and laboratory findings to measure serum copper and magnesium in kittens suffering from NSH. A total of 27 kittens were diagnosed with NSH based on history, clinical examinations and radiographic findings. In addition, 10 healthy kittens were studied as controls. According to the radiographic findings, affected kittens were classified as having mild, moderate and severe NSH. They were also classified, based on age, into four groups (2–3, 3–4, 4–5 and 5–6 months). Total serum calcium, phosphorus, copper and magnesium were measured as biochemical parameters. Serum copper and magnesium were significantly lower in severe, moderate and mild cases with dietary osteoporosis in comparison to controls (p < 0.05). NSH was most prevalent in cats between 2 and 3 months. No significant difference was found between males and females. Our data suggest that hypomagnesaemia and copper deficiency are associated with NSH in cats. Much still remains to be learnt about the exact role of magnesium and copper in cats suffering of NSH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This survey was conducted to identify and estimate the frequencies of ectoparasites of dogs in Tehran, Iran. A total of 143 dogs attended at the Small Animal Hospital of the Veterinary School, the University of Tehran, were examined for the presence of ectoparasites and dermatological lesions. Ectoparasite specimens and blood samples were sent to parasitology and hematology laboratories, respectively. Ticks were the most frequent ectoparasite (36.4%, 52/143), followed by fleas (29.4%, 42/143), mites (25.9%, 37/143), and lice (8.4%, 12/143). Mixed infestations with two or more ectoparasites were detected in eight dogs. Rhipicephalus bursa was the most frequent ectoparasite in spring and summer. Ectoparasitic infestations were recorded mainly in large breeds and juvenile animals. Eosinophilia was more observed in dogs infested with Sarcoptes scabiei. The most common clinical sign, skin pruritus, was associated with mite and lice infestations. These results indicate that the tick R. bursa was the most prominent species of ectoparasite found in the evaluated group, followed by Ctenocephalides canis and S. scabiei var canis.
Revista brasileira de parasitologia veterinaria = Brazilian journal of veterinary parasitology: Orgao Oficial do Colegio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinaria 09/2012; 21(3):326-9. DOI:10.1590/S1984-29612012000300030 · 0.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Recently, a hydrosoluble chlorine composed of sodium salts chlorine e6, chlorine p6, and purpurine-5 has been shown to be a promising photosensitizer in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of adjunctive application of hydrosoluble chlorine-mediated aPDT compared with scaling and root planing (SRP) alone on clinical parameters and cytokine levels in gingival crevicular fluid of dogs with experimental periodontitis.
Periodontal disease was induced by placing silk ligatures around both maxillary and mandibular teeth. After establishment of attachment loss, full-mouth SRP was performed in all dogs. One day after SRP, each quadrant randomly received one of the following treatment modalities: hydrosoluble chlorine plus diode laser (wavelength 662 nm, power 100 mW, continuous mode, time of irradiation 20 seconds), hydrosoluble chlorine alone, laser alone, or no adjunctive treatment. The same adjunctive procedure was repeated 1 week later. Clinical parameters including periodontal probing depth, clinical attachment level, and bleeding on probing, as well as crevicular levels of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, were evaluated at baseline, at 3 weeks, and at 3 months after treatment.
After both 3 weeks and 3 months, all treatment groups showed significant improvement in all clinical and immunologic parameters (P <0.001). No significant differences were found between the four groups with regard to the measured parameters (P >0.05).
Based on the results of this study, adjunctive use of hydrosoluble chlorine-mediated aPDT with the current setting has no additional effect on the clinical parameters or proinflammatory cytokine levels in ligature-induced periodontitis.
Journal of Periodontology 07/2012; 84(6). DOI:10.1902/jop.2012.120330 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Piroplasmosis is a zoonotic protozoan disease transmitted by ticks. The full geographical range of canine piroplasms has been found in dogs in the Middle East, parts of Africa, North America, and Europe. Following our studies on molecular detection of piroplasmosis in the south of Iran, we found Theileria annulata in two herd dogs, as well as information on their 18S rRNA gene sequences. Piroplasmosis agents were detected by PCR of 280 blood samples collected from dogs in seven regions of the Shiraz suburbia in southern Iran, between November 2009 and June 2011. Two positive samples from Shiraz were infected with T. annulata, and one sample was infected with Babesia canis. PCR positive samples were further analyzed by sequence analysis. The results of this study reconfirmed that T. annulata are not always as host specific as accepted. This is the first report of T. annulata in herd dogs in southern Iran and the second report of T. annulata in dogs worldwide.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 5-month old puppy with muco-cutaneous lesions in the chin, around lips and eyes was examined physically and microscopically for leishmaniasis. Muco-cutaneous lesions containing a large number of amastigotes of Leishmania spp. were observed. Amastigotes were also detected in liver and spleen of the puppy. The animal was positive with Dipstick rK39 kit and high level of anti-Leishmania antibodies was detected by direct agglutination test (DAT). DNA, Using PCR-RFLP technique extracted from cultured Leishmania promastigotes and L. tropica was identified. This is the first report of concurrent mucosal and visceral involvement of L. tropica in a puppy from Iran.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An 8-month female shitzu was presented with depression, anorexia, fever, weakness, lethargy, consecutive coughing, sneezing and severe itching of ears. There was otitis externa with corneal ulcer and keratoconjunctivitis. Microscopic examination of impression smears of all samples revealed numerous yeasts typical of Malassezia sp. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and additional tests confirmed the identification of Malassezia pachydermatis. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed oval spores in the superficial layer of the affected skin. There were also follicles containing Demodex spp.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Owing to rising drug-resistant Helicobacter species infections in people and animals, currently therapies are losing their efficacy; therefore, regimens efficacious in the presence of drug resistance are needed. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of a 14-day quadruple Helicobacter species therapy in cats with naturally acquired infection. Thirteen asymptomatic adult stray cats with Helicobacter species infection (identified by analysis of gastric biopsies using polymerase chain reaction and Helicobacter-specific primers) received omeprazole 0.7mg/kg q 8h plus amoxicillin 20mg/kg q 12h, metronidazole 20mg/kg q 12h and clarithromycin 7.5mg/kg q 12h, for 14 days. Second molecular analysis of gastric biopsies revealed persistence of Helicobacter species DNA in four cats that were negative on quantitative urease testing, cytology and histopathology. Our results suggest that antibiotic regimens that are effective against Helicobacter pylori in people cannot eradicate Helicobacter species in cats with naturally acquired infection, although transient suppression may occur.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malassezia yeasts are commensal organisms on the skin of warm-blooded vertebrates. Th e lipid-dependent Malassezia species have recently been cultured from veterinary specimens. Th e present study investigated and compared diff erent Malassezia species in the skin and external ear canal of healthy and diseased dogs. Th e sampling in the study was carried out on 152 animals, comprising 90 samples from the diseased group and 62 samples from the healthy group. All of the samples were determined by cytological examination and fungal culture. Th e isolated yeasts were identifi ed by their morphological features as well as their physiological characteristics. Th e culture results were positive in only 32.2% samples, including 75.5% samples from the diseased group, and 24.5% samples from the healthy group. A total of 75 strains from 6 Malassezia species isolated from both groups were detected with a frequency rate as follows: M. pachydermatis (56%), M. sympodialis (28%), M. furfur (8%), M. obtusa (5.4%), M. globosa (1.3%), and M. restricta (1.3%). Th e present work confi rms both the presence of M. pachydermatis as the most prevalent species in both groups, and the presence of some lipid-dependent species of Malassezia.
Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 01/2011; 35(5):345-350. DOI:10.3906/vet-1007-412 · 0.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lipophilic yeasts of the genus Malassezia are opportunistic microorganisms of the skin microflora, but they can be agents of various dermatomycoses. In this study, random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR technique was applied to the genetic typing of Malassezia species isolated from dog with otitis and seborrhoeic dermatitis and healthy dog. The analysis of electrophoretic profiles on 1/5% agarose gel showed a total 890 clearly amplified PCR band in 176 different positions. The phenogram constructed from the pairwise similarity among all Malassezia isolates demonstrated that the tested isolates of Malassezia are grouped into 22 distinct groups. This study was able to assess some DNA polymorphism of different Malassezia isolates in dogs. The detection of these differences between the RAPD band patterns from dogs observed could facilitate the monitoring of spread and pathogenicity of Malassezia infections in these animals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial agents are considered important pathogens causing external otitis in dogs. It is essential to carry out bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test in the case of otitis externa, particularly for chronic or recurring cases. Sterile swab samples were obtained from terminal part of vertical ear canals of 74 dogs with otitis externa for cytology, bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test. Cytologic smears were stained using Gram and Giemsa staining methods. Aerobic bacterial culture performed on blood agar and MacConkey agar. Among total number of 92 isolated bacteria, 68 were Staphylococcus intermedius. Other isolated bacteria included: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella canis, and six other species of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Antimicrobial susceptibility test were performed for all isolated bacteria using 14 antibiotics. Based on the results of this study, all isolated Staphylococcus spp. were sensitive to amikacin, enrofloxacin, and rifampin, and had low resistance to gentamicin, cephalothin and ceftriaxone. More than half of gram-positive isolates were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin. Generally, all isolated gram-negative bacteria, were sensitive to amikacin and enrofloxacin, and had low resistance to ceftriaxone and gentamicin. They were highly resistant to penicillin, eythromycin, and cephalothin. Regarding the results of this study, in cases of uncomplicated otitis externa, it is possible to select antimicrobial drugs merely based on cytology, but it is recommended to perform bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test. However, in complicated or refractory cases, antimicrobials should be selected based on bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test.
Veterinary Research Communications 06/2010; 34(5):435-44. DOI:10.1007/s11259-010-9417-y · 1.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The yeasts of the Malassezia genus are opportunistic microorganisms in the skin and auricular canal of human and animals, mainly cats, and can cause otitis externa and dermatitis disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of different species of Malassezia in the external ear canal of cats with and without otitis externa. Thirty-one normal cats and 82 animals with otitis externa were clinically examined. Sterile cotton swabs were used to collect specimens from the external ear canal and streaked onto the surface of Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and modified Dixon agar. Malassezia yeasts were isolated from 95.1% and 48.4% of the cats with and without otitis externa, respectively. The rate of isolation in affected animals versus normals was highly significant (P<0.05). Out of the 137 isolates obtained from cats with otitis, 57.7% were identified as M. pachydermatis (with significant frequency; P<0.05), 15.4% as M. obtusa, 11.4% as M. globosa, 7.3% as M. slooffiae, 4.1% as M. sympodialis, 2.4% as M. furfur and 1.6% as M. restricta. Malassezia species were frequently isolated from subjects with age range from 1 to 4 years old (42.7%). Our finding of Malassezia isolates indicated that feline otitis externa can be associated with lipid-dependent Malassezia species in addition to the non lipid- dependent species M. pachydermatis.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 12/2009; 72(3):293-6. DOI:10.1292/jvms.09-0421 · 0.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinically infected dogs have been identified as the main reservoir hosts of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean region. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of asymptomatic infected dogs compared with symptomatic ones as a source of L. infantum infection to golden hamster. For this purpose, anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected with direct agglutination test (DAT) in 13 symptomatic (7 seropositive =>or=1:320) and 53 asymptomatic (9 seropositive =>or=1:320 and 44 seronegative =<1:320) ownership dogs. DNA of Leishmania sp. was extracted from skin and peripheral blood tissues of each dog and tested by PCR. Sixty-six Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were used for the determination of infectivity and pathogenicity of L. infantum, isolated from the dogs. We used the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS 2) rDNA sequence analysis. The results showed that 22 and 11 out of 66 inoculated golden hamsters were positive by PCR and parasitological examinations, respectively. From 22 PCR positive hamsters, 17 were related to asymptomatic dogs and 5 were from symptomatic ones. There was no significant difference between symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs in producing Leishmania infection in the susceptible animal model (P=0.66). Smears and cultures of 5 dogs from 13 symptomatic dogs (38.5%) and 6 dogs from 53 asymptomatic ones (11.3%) were found to be positive at parasitological examination. All the L. infantum isolates from symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs were similar in sequencing. In conclusion, asymptomatic infected dogs as well as symptomatic ones can harbor L. infantum in their blood and skins which are virulent and infectious for inoculated golden hamster.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Helicobacter-like organisms are frequently found in canine stomachs, but the relationship between such organisms and gastric pathology has not been established. However, some such organisms have zoonotic importance. The aims of this study were to evaluate the morphological and biochemical characteristics of cultivable canine gastric Helicobacter-like organisms (GHLOs) in pets and stray dogs and their prevalence in these two groups of dogs. Specimens were taken by gastroscopy from 30 clinically healthy stray dogs and 30 pet dogs. Cultures were positive from biopsies of 11/30 of stray and 6/30 of pet dogs. The isolated Helicobacters were observed by light microscopy and studied by biochemical, physiological and PCR analysis. Some of the isolated GHLO's displayed atypical shapes that were similar to Helicobacter pylori or Helicobacter acinonychis in stray dogs' cytological examinations. They had 2-3 helices and were smaller than other canine GHLOs. One of these atypical Helicobacter strains was cultured. It was not possible to distinguish such strains by routine PCR and biochemical evaluations. Electron microscopy showed a smaller Helicobacter (2 microm in length) with 2 or 3 helixes. This study demonstrates that not all canine gastric Helicobacters are 5-15 microm in length, as has been previously proposed, and portrays the need for further investigation of canine GHLOs.
Zoonoses and Public Health 05/2009; 57(4):244-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1863-2378.2008.01219.x · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Impacts • This study demonstrates that not all canine gastric Helicobacters are 5 to 15 lm in length, as has been previously proposed. • It portrays the need for further investigation of canine GHLOs. • It reveal the need for further investigation of stomach cultures for detection of all cultivable canine GHLO's.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives: Leptospirosis is considered to be the most widespread zoonotic disease in the world and can infect a wide range of animals. Although the prevalence of clinical leptospirosis in cats is low, they are probably exposed to leptospires excreted by wild life, rodents etc. This study was performed to determine the serologic reaction of cats to leptospires and their importance in transmission of this zoonotic disease in Tehran. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 111 stray and household cats and were tested for the presence of antibodies against leptospirosis by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Results: Thirty (27 percent-19 stray and 11 household) of the 111 cats reacted with the various leptospiral serotypes. The dilutions of sera with positive results ranged from 1/100 to 1/600. Serologic reaction was more prevalent in domestic cats (p=0.0067). In stray cats, 18 cases were positive against L. interrogans serovar Canicola (94.7 percent) and one (5.3 percent) against L. interrogans serovar Pomona. In the household group, 6 cats (54.5 percent) reacted with L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, 3 cats (27.3 percent) with L. interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae, one (9 percent) with L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa and one with L. interrogans serovar Canicola. Conclusion: Cats can be exposed to leptospires and in optimal conditions they can infect the environment or transmit the