Edward Seung

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (20)202.39 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Induction of endogenous regulatory T (Treg) cells represents an exciting new potential modality for treating allergic diseases, such as asthma. Treg cells have been implicated in the regulation of asthma, but the anatomic location in which they exert their regulatory function and the mechanisms controlling the migration necessary for their suppressive function in asthma are not known. Understanding these aspects of Treg cell biology will be important for harnessing their power in the clinic. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the anatomic location at which Treg cells exert their regulatory function in the sensitization and effector phases of allergic asthma and to determine the chemokine receptors that control the migration of Treg cells to these sites in vivo in both mice and human subjects. METHODS: The clinical efficacy and anatomic location of adoptively transferred chemokine receptor-deficient CD4(+)CD25(+) forkhead box protein 3-positive Treg cells was determined in the sensitization and effector phases of allergic airway inflammation in mice. The chemokine receptor expression profile was determined on Treg cells recruited into the human airway after bronchoscopic segmental allergen challenge of asthmatic patients. RESULTS: We show that CCR7, but not CCR4, is required on Treg cells to suppress allergic airway inflammation during the sensitization phase. In contrast, CCR4, but not CCR7, is required on Treg cells to suppress allergic airway inflammation during the effector phase. Consistent with our murine studies, human subjects with allergic asthma had an increase in CCR4-expressing functional Treg cells in the lungs after segmental allergen challenge. CONCLUSION: The location of Treg cell function differs during allergic sensitization and allergen-induced recall responses in the lung, and this differential localization is critically dependent on differential chemokine function.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 04/2013; · 12.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an often fatal disease caused by the reactivation of the JC virus (JCV). Better understanding of viral-host interactions has been hampered by the lack of an animal model. Engrafting NOD/SCID/IL-2-Rg (null) mice with human lymphocytes and thymus, we generated a novel animal model for JCV infection. Mice were inoculated with either a PML isolate, JCV Mad-4, or with JCV CY, found in the kidney and urine of healthy individuals. While mice remained asymptomatic following inoculation, JCV DNA was occasionally detected in both the blood and the urine compartments. Mice generated both humoral and cellular immune responses against JCV. Expressions of immune exhaustion marker, PD-1, on lymphocytes were consistent with response to infection. Using this model we present the first in vivo demonstration of virological and immunological differences between JCV Mad-4 and CY. This model may prove valuable for studying JCV host immune responses.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e64313. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An estimated 34 million people are living with HIV worldwide (UNAIDS, 2012), with the number of infected persons rising every year. Increases in HIV prevalence have resulted not only from new infections, but also from increases in the survival of HIV-infected persons produced by effective anti-retroviral therapies. Augmentation of anti-viral immune responses may be able to further increase the survival of HIV-infected persons. One strategy to augment these responses is to reinvigorate exhausted anti-HIV immune cells present in chronically infected persons. The PD-1-PD-L1 pathway has been implicated in the exhaustion of virus-specific T cells during chronic HIV infection. Inhibition of PD-1 signaling using blocking anti-PD-1 antibodies has been shown to reduce simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) loads in monkeys. We now show that PD-1 blockade can improve control of HIV replication in vivo in an animal model. BLT (Bone marrow-Liver-Thymus) humanized mice chronically infected with HIV-1 were treated with an anti-PD-1 antibody over a 10-day period. The PD-1 blockade resulted in a very significant 45-fold reduction in HIV viral loads in humanized mice with high CD8(+) T cell expression of PD-1, compared to controls at 4 weeks post-treatment. The anti-PD-1 antibody treatment also resulted in a significant increase in CD8(+) T cells. PD-1 blockade did not affect T cell expression of other inhibitory receptors co-expressed with PD-1, including CD244, CD160 and LAG-3, and did not appear to affect virus-specific humoral immune responses. These data demonstrate that inhibiting PD-1 signaling can reduce HIV viral loads in vivo in the humanized BLT mouse model, suggesting that blockade of the PD-1-PD-L1 pathway may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of patients already infected with the AIDS virus.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e77780. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    Retrovirology 09/2012; 9(2). · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    Retrovirology 09/2012; 9(2). · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: After host entry through mucosal surfaces, human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) disseminates to lymphoid tissues to establish a generalized infection of the immune system. The mechanisms by which this virus spreads among permissive target cells locally during the early stages of transmission and systemically during subsequent dissemination are not known. In vitro studies suggest that the formation of virological synapses during stable contacts between infected and uninfected T cells greatly increases the efficiency of viral transfer. It is unclear, however, whether T-cell contacts are sufficiently stable in vivo to allow for functional synapse formation under the conditions of perpetual cell motility in epithelial and lymphoid tissues. Here, using multiphoton intravital microscopy, we examine the dynamic behaviour of HIV-infected T cells in the lymph nodes of humanized mice. We find that most productively infected T cells migrate robustly, resulting in their even distribution throughout the lymph node cortex. A subset of infected cells formed multinucleated syncytia through HIV envelope-dependent cell fusion. Both uncoordinated motility of syncytia and adhesion to CD4(+) lymph node cells led to the formation of long membrane tethers, increasing cell lengths to up to ten times that of migrating uninfected T cells. Blocking the egress of migratory T cells from the lymph nodes into efferent lymph vessels, and thus interrupting T-cell recirculation, limited HIV dissemination and strongly reduced plasma viraemia. Thus, we have found that HIV-infected T cells are motile, form syncytia and establish tethering interactions that may facilitate cell-to-cell transmission through virological synapses. Migration of T cells in lymph nodes therefore spreads infection locally, whereas their recirculation through tissues is important for efficient systemic viral spread, suggesting new molecular targets to antagonize HIV infection.
    Nature 08/2012; 490(7419):283-7. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of mouse/human chimeras through the engraftment of human immune cells and tissues into immunodeficient mice, including the recently described humanized BLT (bone marrow, liver, thymus) mouse model, holds great promise to facilitate the in vivo study of human immune responses. However, little data exist regarding the extent to which cellular immune responses in humanized mice accurately reflect those seen in humans. We infected humanized BLT mice with HIV-1 as a model pathogen and characterized HIV-1-specific immune responses and viral evolution during the acute phase of infection. HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cell responses in these mice were found to closely resemble those in humans in terms of their specificity, kinetics, and immunodominance. Viral sequence evolution also revealed rapid and highly reproducible escape from these responses, mirroring the adaptations to host immune pressures observed during natural HIV-1 infection. Moreover, mice expressing the protective HLA-B*57 allele exhibited enhanced control of viral replication and restricted the same CD8(+) T cell responses to conserved regions of HIV-1 Gag that are critical to its control of HIV-1 in humans. These data reveal that the humanized BLT mouse model appears to accurately recapitulate human pathogen-specific cellular immunity and the fundamental immunological mechanisms required to control a model human pathogen, aspects critical to the use of a small-animal model for human pathogens.
    Science translational medicine 07/2012; 4(143):143ra98. · 10.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lung transplantation remains the only effective therapy for patients with end-stage pulmonary diseases. Unfortunately, acute rejection of the lung remains a frequent complication and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The induction of transplant tolerance is thought to be dependent, in part, on the balance between allograft effector mechanisms mediated by effector T lymphocytes (Teff), and regulatory mechanisms mediated by FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg). In this study, we explored an approach to tip the balance in favor of regulatory mechanisms by modulating chemokine activity. We demonstrate in an adoptive transfer model of lung rejection that CXCR3-deficient CD8(+) Teff have impaired migration into the lungs compared with wild-type Teff, which results in a dramatic reduction in fatal pulmonary inflammation. The lungs of surviving mice contained tolerized CXCR3-deficient Teff, as well as a large increase in Treg. We confirmed that Treg were needed for tolerance and that their ability to induce tolerance was dependent on their numbers in the lung relative to the numbers of Teff. These data suggest that transplantation tolerance can be achieved by reducing the recruitment of some, but not necessarily all, CD8(+) Teff into the target organ and suggest a novel approach to achieve transplant tolerance.
    The Journal of Immunology 06/2011; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The continued spread of the HIV epidemic underscores the need to interrupt transmission. One attractive strategy is a topical vaginal microbicide. Sexual transmission of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in mice can be inhibited by intravaginal siRNA application. To overcome the challenges of knocking down gene expression in immune cells susceptible to HIV infection, we used chimeric RNAs composed of an aptamer fused to an siRNA for targeted gene knockdown in cells bearing an aptamer-binding receptor. Here, we showed that CD4 aptamer-siRNA chimeras (CD4-AsiCs) specifically suppress gene expression in CD4⁺ T cells and macrophages in vitro, in polarized cervicovaginal tissue explants, and in the female genital tract of humanized mice. CD4-AsiCs do not activate lymphocytes or stimulate innate immunity. CD4-AsiCs that knock down HIV genes and/or CCR5 inhibited HIV infection in vitro and in tissue explants. When applied intravaginally to humanized mice, CD4-AsiCs protected against HIV vaginal transmission. Thus, CD4-AsiCs could be used as the active ingredient of a microbicide to prevent HIV sexual transmission.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 06/2011; 121(6):2401-12. · 15.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A large and diverse array of chemoattractants control leukocyte trafficking, but how these apparently redundant signals collaborate in vivo is still largely unknown. We previously demonstrated an absolute requirement for the lipid chemoattractant leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) and its receptor BLT1 for neutrophil recruitment into the joint in autoantibody-induced arthritis. We now demonstrate that BLT1 is required for neutrophils to deliver IL-1 into the joint to initiate arthritis. IL-1-expressing neutrophils amplify arthritis through the production of neutrophil-active chemokines from synovial tissue cells. CCR1 and CXCR2, two neutrophil chemokine receptors, operate nonredundantly to sequentially control the later phase of neutrophil recruitment into the joint and mediate all neutrophil chemokine activity in the model. Thus, we have uncovered a complex sequential relationship involving unique contributions from the lipid mediator LTB(4), the cytokine IL-1, and CCR1 and CXCR2 chemokine ligands that are all absolutely required for effective neutrophil recruitment into the joint.
    Immunity 08/2010; 33(2):266-78. · 19.80 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Immunology - CLIN IMMUNOL. 01/2010; 135.
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    ABSTRACT: The generation of humanized BLT mice by the cotransplantation of human fetal thymus and liver tissues and CD34(+) fetal liver cells into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice allows for the long-term reconstitution of a functional human immune system, with human T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes/macrophages repopulating mouse tissues. Here, we show that humanized BLT mice sustained high-level disseminated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, resulting in CD4(+) T-cell depletion and generalized immune activation. Following infection, HIV-specific humoral responses were present in all mice by 3 months, and HIV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses were detected in the majority of mice tested after 9 weeks of infection. Despite robust HIV-specific responses, however, viral loads remained elevated in infected BLT mice, raising the possibility that these responses are dysfunctional. The increased T-cell expression of the negative costimulator PD-1 recently has been postulated to contribute to T-cell dysfunction in chronic HIV infection. As seen in human infection, both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells demonstrated increased PD-1 expression in HIV-infected BLT mice, and PD-1 levels in these cells correlated positively with viral load and inversely with CD4(+) cell levels. The ability of humanized BLT mice to generate both cellular and humoral immune responses to HIV will allow the further investigation of human HIV-specific immune responses in vivo and suggests that these mice are able to provide a platform to assess candidate HIV vaccines and other immunotherapeutic strategies.
    Journal of Virology 06/2009; 83(14):7305-21. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Receptors involved in innate immunity to fungal pathogens have not been fully elucidated. We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans receptors CED-1 and C03F11.3, and their mammalian orthologues, the scavenger receptors SCARF1 and CD36, mediate host defense against two prototypic fungal pathogens, Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans. CED-1 and C03F11.1 mediated antimicrobial peptide production and were necessary for nematode survival after C. neoformans infection. SCARF1 and CD36 mediated cytokine production and were required for macrophage binding to C. neoformans, and control of the infection in mice. Binding of these pathogens to SCARF1 and CD36 was β-glucan dependent. Thus, CED-1/SCARF1 and C03F11.3/CD36 are β-glucan binding receptors and define an evolutionarily conserved pathway for the innate sensing of fungal pathogens.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 03/2009; 206(3):637-653. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: STAT6-mediated chemokine production in the lung is required for Th2 lymphocyte and eosinophil homing into the airways in allergic pulmonary inflammation, and thus is a potential therapeutic target in asthma. However, the critical cellular source of STAT6-mediated chemokine production has not been defined. In this study, we demonstrate that STAT6 in bone marrow-derived myeloid cells was sufficient for the production of CCL17, CCL22, CCL11, and CCL24 and for Th2 lymphocyte and eosinophil recruitment into the allergic airway. In contrast, STAT6 in airway-lining cells did not mediate chemokine production or support cellular recruitment. Selective depletion of CD11b(+) myeloid cells in the lung identified these cells as the critical cellular source for the chemokines CCL17 and CCL22. These data reveal that CD11b(+) myeloid cells in the lung help orchestrate the adaptive immune response in asthma, in part, through the production of STAT6-inducible chemokines and the recruitment of Th2 lymphocytes into the airway.
    The Journal of Immunology 02/2009; 182(1):623-35. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lung transplantation remains the only effective therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease, but survival is limited by the development of obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). The chemokine receptor CXCR3 and two of its ligands, CXCL9 and CXCL10, have been identified as important mediators of OB. However, the relative contribution of CXCL9 and CXCL10 to the development of OB and the mechanism of regulation of these chemokines has not been well defined. In this study, we demonstrate that CXCL9 and CXCL10 are up-regulated in unique patterns following tracheal transplantation in mice. In these experiments, CXCL9 expression peaked 7 days posttransplant, while CXCL10 expression peaked at 1 day and then again 7 days posttransplant. Expression of CXCL10 was also up-regulated in a novel murine model of lung ischemia, and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid taken from human lungs 24 h after lung transplantation. In further analysis, we found that 3 h after transplantation CXCL10 is donor tissue derived and not dependent on IFN-gamma or STAT1, while 24 h after transplantation CXCL10 is from recipient tissue and regulated by IFN-gamma and STAT1. Expression of both CXCL9 and CXCL10 7 days posttransplant is regulated by IFN-gamma and STAT1. Finally, we demonstrate that deletion of CXCR3 in recipients reduces airway obliteration. However, deletion of either CXCL9 or CXCL10 did not affect airway obliteration. These data show that in this murine model of obliterative bronchiolitis, these chemokines are differentially regulated following transplantation, and that deletion of either chemokine alone does not affect the development of airway obliteration.
    The Journal of Immunology 07/2006; 176(11):7087-95. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neutrophil recruitment into tissue plays an important role in host defense and disease pathogenesis, including the inflammatory arthritides. A multitude of diverse chemoattractants have been implicated in neutrophil recruitment, suggesting that they have overlapping functions in mediating this critical biological response. However, here we demonstrate a unique, non-redundant role for the leukotriene B4 receptor BLT1 in mediating neutrophil recruitment into the joint in the K/BxN mouse model of inflammatory arthritis. We demonstrate that neutrophil expression of BLT1 was absolutely required for arthritis generation and chemokine production in this model, and that specific BLT1 inhibition reversed established disease. Adoptive transfer of wild-type (WT) neutrophils restored arthritis and chemokine production in BLT1(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, the primary effect of the transferred WT neutrophils into BLT1(-/-) mice was to promote the entry of endogenous BLT1(-/-) neutrophils into the joints of these mice. However, continued joint inflammation was dependent on the presence of WT neutrophils, indicating an ongoing specific requirement for BLT1-activated neutrophils in mediating BLT1(-/-) neutrophil recruitment by other chemoattractants. These experiments demonstrate that neutrophil BLT1 functions in a novel and essential non-cell-autonomous manner to enable the recruitment of additional neutrophils not expressing this receptor, thereby amplifying the inflammatory response in autoantibody-induced arthritis.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 05/2006; 203(4):829-35. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leukotriene B4 is a lipid mediator that recently has been shown to have potent chemotactic activity for effector T lymphocytes mediated through its receptor, BLT1. Here, we developed a novel murine model of acute lung rejection to demonstrate that BLT1 controls effector CD8+ T cell trafficking into the lung and that disruption of BLT1 signaling in CD8+ T cells reduces lung inflammation and mortality in the model. In addition, we used BLT1-deficient mice and a BLT1 antagonist in two tracheal transplant models of lung transplantation to demonstrate the importance of BLT1 for the recruitment of T cells into tracheal allografts. We also show that BLT1-mediated CD8+ T cell recruitment plays an important role in the development of airway fibroproliferation and obliteration. Finally, in human studies of lung transplant recipients, we found that BLT1 is up-regulated on T lymphocytes isolated from the airways of patients with obliterative bronchiolitis. These data demonstrate that BLT1 contributes to the development of lung rejection and obliterative bronchiolitis by mediating effector T lymphocyte trafficking into the lung. This is the first report that describes a pathologic role for BLT1-mediated T lymphocyte recruitment in disease and identifies BLT1 as a potential therapeutic target after lung transplantation.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 08/2005; 202(1):97-110. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Allogeneic hematopoietic chimerism leading to central tolerance has significant therapeutic potential. Realization of that potential has been impeded by the need for myeloablative conditioning of the host and development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). To surmount these impediments, we have adapted a costimulation blockade-based protocol developed for solid organ transplantation for use in stem cell transplantation. The protocol combines donor-specific transfusion (DST) with anti-CD154 mAb. When applied to stem cell transplantation, administration of DST, anti-CD154 mAb, and allogeneic bone marrow leads to hematopoietic chimerism and central tolerance with no myeloablation and no GVHD. Tolerance in this system results from deletion of both peripheral host alloreactive CD8+ T cells and nascent intrathymic alloreactive CD8+ T cells. In the absence of large numbers of host alloreactive CD8+ T cells, the transfusion that precedes transplantation need not be of donor origin, suggesting that both allospecific and non-allospecific mechanisms regulate engraftment. Agents that interfere with peripheral transplantation tolerance impair establishment of chimerism. We conclude that robust allogeneic hematopoietic chimerism and central tolerance can be established in the absence of host myeloablative conditioning using a peripheral transplantation tolerance protocol.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 10/2003; 112(5):795-808. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder characterized by selective destruction of pancreatic b cells and absolute insulin deficiency. Even when treated well, control is imperfect and complications inevitable. Advances in immunosuppressive drugs and preparation of donor islets have recently made curative islet transplantation a reality for type 1 diabetes. Unfortunately, short-term side effects and long-term health risks of lifelong systemic immunosuppression compromise the otherwise extraordinary benefits that accrue from a successful graft. Our current goal is to obviate the need for immunosuppression and achieve islet graft tolerance. New protocols based on costimulation blockade have brought us close to that goal, inducing states of both peripheral and central transplantation tolerance. These have overcome both allograft rejection and recurrent autoimmunity, but potentially detrimental effects of environmental agents on tolerance are not yet fully understood. Studies of the underlying mechanisms have provided new insights into the nature of both tolerance and autoimmunity.
    Current Diabetes Reports 09/2003; 3(4):329-35. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a tolerance-based stem cell transplantation protocol that combines sublethal radiation with transient blockade of the CD40-CD154 costimulatory pathway using an anti-CD154 antibody. With this protocol, we established hematopoietic chimerism in BALB/c mice transplanted with fully allogeneic C57BL/6 bone marrow. The percentage of donor-origin mononuclear cells in recipients was more than 99%. In addition, all chimeric mice treated with anti-CD154 antibody remained free of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and accepted donor-origin but not third-party skin allografts. It was similarly possible to create allogeneic hematopoietic chimerism in NOD/Lt mice with spontaneous autoimmune diabetes. Pancreatic islet allografts transplanted into chimeric NOD/Lt mice were resistant not only to allorejection but also to recurrence of autoimmunity. We conclude that it is possible to establish robust allogeneic hematopoietic chimerism in sublethally irradiated mice without subsequent GVHD by blocking the CD40-CD154 costimulatory pathway using as few as 2 injections of anti-CD154 antibody. We also conclude that chimerism created in this way generates donor-specific allograft tolerance and reverses the predisposition to recurrent autoimmune diabetes in NOD/Lt mice, enabling them to accept curative islet allografts. (Blood. 2000;95:2175-2182)
    Blood 04/2000; 95(6):2175-82. · 9.78 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

663 Citations
202.39 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2013
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005–2013
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • • Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases
      • • Division of Rheumatology, Allergy & Immunology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2000–2003
    • University of Massachusetts Medical School
      • • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      • • Department of Medicine
      Worcester, MA, United States