[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 17 R esistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) was first de-scribed in 1967 (1), and the first mutations in the THRB gene were identified in 1989 (2,3), only three years after the cloning of the THR genes (4,5). The cardinal features of this syndrome of reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormone are el-evated serum levels of free thyroid hormone with non-suppressed thyrotropin (TSH), often with goiter and no clear symptoms and signs of thyrotoxicosis (6). In fact, signs of decreased and increased thyroid hormone action in different tissues may coexist. During the First International Workshop on Resistance to Thyroid Hormone in Cambridge, United Kingdom, in 1993, a consensus statement was issued to establish a unified no-menclature of THRB gene mutations in RTH (7), as defined above. In the ensuing years more than 3000 cases have been identified, 80% of which harbored mutations in the THRB gene. More recently, two syndromes with reduced cellular access of the biologically active thyroid hormone, triiodo-thyronine (T 3), were identified. These are caused by defects of thyroid hormone cell membrane transport (8,9) and a de-fect reducing the intracellular metabolism generating T 3 from thyroxine (T 4) (10). To accommodate these new findings, it was proposed to broaden the definition of hormone resis-tance. Thus, the Fifth International Workshop on Resistance to Thyroid Hormone, which took place in Lyon, France, in 2005, saw the introduction of the term ''reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormone (RSTH) to encompass all defects that can interfere with the biological activity of a chemically intact thyroid hormone secreted in normal or excessive amounts.'' Following the 10th International Workshop on Resistance to Thyroid Hormone and Action that took place in Quebec City, Canada, in 2012, a number of investigators took on the task to develop a nomenclature for inherited forms of im-paired sensitivity to thyroid hormone (Table 1). The term ''impaired'' was to substitute for ''reduced'' because nascent data indicate that syndromes of increased sensitivity may also exist. We are cognizant that no nomenclature can fit perfectly all aspects of the described syndromes because variability exists. Several aspects were taken into consideration: the already existing nomenclature, new findings, and anticipated putative discoveries. For example, in over 2000 publications ''RTH'' is used to define a phenotype of congenitally in-creased free T 4 with nonsuppressed TSH, irrespective of the presence or absence of a THRB gene mutation (see non-TR-RTH). In view of the identification of THRA gene mu-tations that present a distinct phenotype (11,12), we propose using the term ''RTH a,'' and in new publications to use ''RTH b'' when a THRB gene mutation is present in Citation of this publication should include the three journals in which it has been simultaneously published: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Thyroid, and European Thyroid Journal. Departments of
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Associations of vitamin D levels with prospectively measured functional decline and mortality in people with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) are unknown. We determined whether lower baseline vitamin D levels are associated with a faster decline in functional performance and higher mortality among people with and without PAD. A total of 658 participants (395 with PAD) underwent baseline measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (DiaSorin radioimmunoassay), a 6-minute walk test, 4-meter walking velocity and the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and were followed annually for up to 4 years. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, race, body mass index, comorbidities, the ankle-brachial index, and other confounders. Among participants with PAD, lower baseline vitamin D levels were associated with a faster decline in the 6-minute walk (vitamin D < 30 nmol/L: -70.0 feet/year; vitamin D 30 to < 50 nmol/L: -72.3 feet/year; vitamin D 50 to < 75 nmol/L: -35.5 feet/year; vitamin D 75 to < 120 nmol/L: -35.9 feet/year; p trend=0.012). PAD participants with vitamin D < 30 nmol/L had a faster decline in the SPPB and 6-minute walk compared to those with levels of 50 to < 75 (p=0.034 and p=0.04, respectively). Among participants without PAD, lower vitamin D was associated with a faster decline in the fast 4-meter walking velocity (p trend=0.003). There were no significant associations of baseline vitamin D levels with all-cause or cardiovascular disease mortality in PAD or non-PAD participants. In conclusion, among individuals with and without PAD, low vitamin D status was associated with a faster decline in some measures of functional performance but was not related to mortality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disorders of the thyroid gland are among the most common conditions diagnosed and managed by pediatric endocrinologists. Thyroid hormone synthesis depends on normal iodide transport and knowledge of its regulation is fundamental to understand the etiology and management of congenital and acquired thyroid conditions such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. The ability of the thyroid to concentrate iodine is also widely used as a tool for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases and in the management and follow up of the most common type of endocrine cancers: papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. More recently, the regulation of iodide transport has also been the center of attention to improve the management of poorly differentiated thyroid cancer. Iodine deficiency disorders (goiter, impaired mental development) due to insufficient nutritional intake remain a universal public health problem. Thyroid function can also be influenced by medications that contain iodide or interfere with iodide metabolism such as iodinated contrast agents, povidone, lithium and amiodarone. In addition, some environmental pollutants such as perchlorate, thiocyanate and nitrates may affect iodide transport. Furthermore, nuclear accidents increase the risk of developing thyroid cancer and the therapy used to prevent exposure to these isotopes relies on the ability of the thyroid to concentrate iodine. The array of disorders involving iodide transport affect individuals during the whole life span and, if undiagnosed or improperly managed, they can have a profound impact on growth, metabolism, cognitive development and quality of life.
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology 01/2014; 2014(1):8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: An in-depth understanding of the fundamental principles that regulate thyroid hormone homeostasis is critical for the development of new diagnostic and treatment ap-proaches for patients with thyroid disease. Summary: Important clinical practices in use today for the treatment of patients with hypothy-roidism, hyperthyroidism, or thyroid cancer, are the result of laboratory discoveries made by scientists investigating the most basic aspects of thyroid structure and molecular biology. In this document, a panel of experts commissioned by the American Thyroid Association makes a se-ries of recommendations related to the study of thyroid hormone economy and action. These recommendations are intended to promote standardization of study design, which should in turn increase the comparability and reproducibility of experimental findings. Conclusions: It is expected that adherence to these recommendations by investigators in the field will facilitate progress towards a better understanding of the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone dependent processes.
Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association 09/2013; · 2.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context:Postpartum, diabetes insipidus (DI) can be part of Sheehan's syndrome or lymphocytic hypophysitis in combination with anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies. In contrast, acute onset of isolated DI in the postpartum period is unusual.Case Presentation:This patient presented at 33 weeks gestation with placental abruption, prompting a cesarean delivery of twins. Immediately after delivery, she developed severe DI. The DI could be controlled with the vasopressinase-resistant 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP), but not with arginine vasopressin (AVP), and it resolved within a few weeks.Objective:The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the postpartum DI in this patient was caused by the release of placental vasopressinase into the maternal bloodstream.Methods and Results:Cells were transiently transfected with the AVP receptor 2 (AVPR2) and treated with either AVP or DDAVP in the presence of the patient's serum collected postpartum or 10 weeks after delivery. The response to the different treatments was evaluated by measuring the activity of a cAMP-responsive firefly luciferase reporter construct. The in vitro studies demonstrate that the patient's postpartum serum disrupts activation of the AVPR2 by AVP, but not by the vasopressinase-resistant DDAVP.Conclusions:Placental abruption can rarely be associated with acute postpartum DI caused by release of placental vasopressinase into the bloodstream. This clinical entity must be considered in patients with placental abruption and when evaluating patients presenting with DI after delivery.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 02/2013; · 6.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diagnosing oncogenic osteomalacia is still a challenge. The disorder is characterized by osteomalacia caused by renal phosphate wasting and low serum concentration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 occurring in the presence of a tumor that produces high levels of fibroblast growth factor 23. However, it is possible that the disease is much more misdiagnosed than rare. We present the case of a 42-year-old man with a long-term history of undiagnosed progressive muscle weakness. His laboratory results mainly showed low serum phosphate. Surgical removal of a nasal hemangiopericytoma that had been diagnosed five years earlier, brought him to a symptom-free condition. Even though knowing the underlying etiology would explain his osteomalacia, the patient sought medical help from countless physicians for five consecutive years, and only after adequate treatment a rewarding outcome was achieved. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2012;56(8):570-3.
Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia 11/2012; 56(8):570-3. · 0.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical implications of low vitamin D in peripheral artery disease (PAD) are unknown. We hypothesized that among individuals with PAD, lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D would be associated with poorer functional performance, more adverse calf muscle characteristics, and poorer peripheral nerve function. Participants were 402 men and women with PAD who underwent measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (DiaSorin radioimmunoassay) along with 6-minute walk testing, measurement of walking velocity at usual and fastest pace, computed tomography-measured calf muscle density, and peripheral nerve conduction velocity (NCV). Among PAD participants, 20.4% had 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels < 30 nmol/L, consistent with deficient vitamin D status. Adjusting for age, sex, and race, lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were associated with poorer 6-minute walk performance (p trend = 0.002), slower usual-paced 4-meter walking velocity (p trend = 0.031), slower fast-paced 4-meter walking velocity (p trend = 0.043), and lower calf muscle density (p trend = 0.031). After additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI) and diabetes, none of these associations remained statistically significant. However, lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were associated with poorer peroneal NCV (p trend = 0.013) and poorer sural NCV (p trend = 0.039), even after adjusting for age, sex, race, BMI, comorbidities, smoking, physical activity, and other confounders. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is common among people with PAD encountered in clinical settings. After adjusting for BMI and diabetes mellitus, we found no significant associations of lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with poorer functional performance or calf muscle characteristics. Associations of low vitamin D levels with poorer peripheral nerve function require further study.
Vascular Medicine 07/2012; 17(5):294-302. · 1.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid hormones are essential for normal development and metabolism. Their synthesis requires transport of iodide into thyroid follicles. The mechanisms involving the apical efflux of iodide into the follicular lumen are poorly elucidated. The discovery of mutations in the SLC26A4 gene in patients with Pendred syndrome (congenital deafness, goiter, and defective iodide organification) suggested a possible role for the encoded protein, pendrin, as an apical iodide transporter. We determined whether TSH regulates pendrin abundance at the plasma membrane and whether this influences iodide efflux. Results of immunoblot and immunofluorescence experiments reveal that TSH and forskolin rapidly increase pendrin abundance at the plasma membrane through the protein kinase A pathway in PCCL-3 rat thyroid cells. The increase in pendrin membrane abundance correlates with a decrease in intracellular iodide as determined by measuring intracellular (125)iodide and can be inhibited by specific blocking of pendrin. Elimination of the putative protein kinase A phosphorylation site T717A results in a diminished translocation to the membrane in response to forskolin. These results demonstrate that pendrin translocates to the membrane in response to TSH and suggest that it may have a physiological role in apical iodide transport and thyroid hormone synthesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the past two decades, the genetic and molecular basis of familial forms of diabetes insipidus has been elucidated. Diabetes insipidus is a clinical syndrome characterized by the excretion of abnormally large volumes of diluted urine (polyuria) and increased fluid intake (polydipsia). The most common type of diabetes insipidus is caused by lack of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (vasopressin), which is produced in the hypothalamus and secreted by the neurohypophysis. This type of diabetes insipidus is referred to here as neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus. The syndrome can also result from resistance to the antidiuretic effects of vasopressin on the kidney, either at the level of the vasopressin 2 receptor or the aquaporin 2 water channel (which mediates the re-absorption of water from urine), and is referred to as renal or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Differentiation between these two types of diabetes insipidus and primary polydipsia can be difficult owing to the existence of partial as well as complete forms of vasopressin deficiency or resistance. Seven different familial forms of diabetes insipidus are known to exist. The clinical presentation, genetic basis and cellular mechanisms responsible for them vary considerably. This information has led to improved methods of differential diagnosis and could provide the basis of new forms of therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Copeptin, the C-terminal moiety of provasopressin, is cosecreted with vasopressin. Copeptin may be a useful parameter to characterize disorders of water homeostasis and can be readily measured in plasma or serum. However, it is unknown to date how circulating copeptin and vasopressin levels correlate at different plasma osmolalites.
To correlate plasma copeptin with plasma osmolality and vasopressin concentrations in healthy subjects during iso-, hypo-, and hyperosmolar states.
Plasma osmolalities, copeptin, and vasopressin levels were measured in 20 volunteers at baseline, after an oral water load, and during and after iv infusion of 3% saline. Correlation coefficients were determined between plasma osmolalites and copeptin and vasopressin concentrations, as well as between vasopressin and copeptin concentrations.
Median plasma osmolalities decreased from 290 mOsm/kg (range, 284-302) at baseline to 281 (273-288) mOsm/kg after water load and rose to 301 (298-307) mOsm/kg after hypertonic saline. Median plasma copeptin concentrations decreased from 3.3 (1.1-36.4) pm at baseline to 2.0 (0.9-10.4) pm after water load and increased to 13.6 (3.7-43.3) pm after hypertonic saline. Vasopressin and copeptin concentrations correlated with plasma osmolality (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient 0.49 and 0.77, respectively). There was a close correlation of vasopressin and copeptin concentrations (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient 0.8).
Plasma vasopressin and copeptin correlate strongly over a wide range of osmolalities in healthy individuals. Therefore, the measurement of copeptin, which remains stable for several days, is a useful alternative to vasopressin measurements and will likely facilitate the differential diagnosis of disorders of water metabolism.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 02/2011; 96(4):1046-52. · 6.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroglobulin (Tg) represents one of the largest known self-antigens involved in autoimmunity. Numerous studies have implicated it in triggering and perpetuating the autoimmune response in autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD). Indeed, traditional models of autoimmune thyroid disease, experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT), are generated by immunizing mice with thyroglobulin protein in conjunction with an adjuvant, or by high repeated doses of Tg alone, without adjuvant. These extant models are limited in their experimental flexibility, i.e. the ability to make modifications to the Tg used in immunizations. In this study, we have immunized mice with a plasmid cDNA encoding the full-length human Tg (hTG) protein, in order to generate a model of Hashimoto's thyroiditis which is closer to the human disease and does not require adjuvants to breakdown tolerance. Human thyroglobulin cDNA was injected and subsequently electroporated into skeletal muscle using a square wave generator. Following hTg cDNA immunizations, the mice developed both B and T cell responses to Tg, albeit with no evidence of lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid. This novel model will afford investigators the means to test various hypotheses which were unavailable with the previous EAT models, specifically the effects of hTg sequence variations on the induction of thyroiditis.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(4):e19200. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iodide uptake at the basolateral membrane and iodide efflux at the apical membrane of thyrocytes, essential steps in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormone, are stimulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Pendrin (SLC26A4) is inserted into the apical membrane of thyrocytes and thought to be involved in mediating iodide efflux.
We determined the effects of carboxy-terminal mutations of pendrin on the cellular localization and the ability to transport iodide.
After exposure to forskolin, the membrane abundance of wild type pendrin and iodide efflux increase. Truncation mutants lead to complete intracellular retention. Elimination of the distal part of the sulfate transporter and antisigma factor antagonist (STAS) domain with retention of the putative protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation site (RKDT 714-717) results in residual membrane insertion and a partial loss of function. Deletion of the PKA site results in decreased basal function and membrane insertion and abolishes the response to forskolin.
Pendrin membrane abundance and its ability to mediate iodide efflux increase after activation of the PKA pathway. Elimination of the PKA site abolishes the response to forskolin but partial basal function and membrane insertion are maintained.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2011; 28(3):423-34. · 3.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder defined by sensorineural deafness, goiter and a partial organification defect of iodide. It is caused by biallelic mutations in the multifunctional anion transporter pendrin/SLC26A4. In human thyroid tissue, pendrin is localized at the apical membrane of thyroid follicular cells. The clinical phenotype of patients with Pendred syndrome and the fact that pendrin can mediate iodide efflux in transfected cells suggest that this anion exchanger may be involved in mediating iodide efflux into the follicular lumen, a key step in thyroid hormone biosynthesis. This concept has, however, been questioned. This review discusses supporting evidence as well as arguments questioning a role of pendrin in mediating iodide efflux in thyrocytes.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2011; 28(3):485-90. · 3.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Pendrin is a multifunctional anion transporter that exchanges chloride and iodide in the thyroid, as well as chloride and bicarbonate in the inner ear, kidney and airways. Loss or reduction in the function of pendrin results in both syndromic (Pendred syndrome) and non-syndromic (non-syndromic enlarged vestibular aqueduct (ns-EVA)) hearing loss. Factors inducing an up-regulation of pendrin in the kidney and the lung may have an impact on the pathogenesis of hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Here we characterize the ion transport activity of wild-type (WT) pendrin and seven of its allelic variants selected among those reported in the single nucleotide polymorphisms data base (dbSNPs), some of which were previously identified in a cohort of individuals with normal hearing or deaf patients belonging to the Spanish population. Methods: WT and mutated pendrin allelic variants were functionally characterized in a heterologous over-expression system by means of fluorometric methods evaluating the I-/Cl- and Cl-/OH- exchange and an assay evaluating the efflux of radiolabeled iodide. Results: The transport activity of pendrin P70L, P301L and F667C is completely abolished; pendrin V609G and D687Y allelic variants are functionally impaired but retain significant transport. Pendrin F354S activity is indistinguishable from WT, while pendrin V88I and G740S exhibit a gain of function. Conclusion: Amino acid substitutions involving a proline always result in a severe loss of function of pendrin. Two hyperfunctional allelic variants (V88I, G740S) have been identified, and they may have a contributing role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, COPD and asthma.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2011; 28(3):467-476. · 3.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic testing has a growing impact on clinical medicine in endocrinology. In many disorders, genetic tests permit establishing a diagnosis at the molecular level. Genetic testing has clinical relevance for early carrier detection that may result in early and targeted interventions, and it is important for genetic counseling. Moreover, a detailed understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of endocrine neoplasms is key for the development of novel, more specific therapies. The practitioner should be familiar with key principles and indications for genetic testing. However, it is of importance to recognize potential limitations of genetic analyses, and to inform patients and their relatives accordingly. This review provides a short overview about genetic analyses in the field of endocrinology that are relevant for the practicing physician.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural deafness, goiter and a partial defect in iodide organification. Goiter development and hypothyroidism vary and appear to depend on nutritional iodide intake. Pendred syndrome is caused by biallelic mutations in the SLC26A4 gene, which encodes pendrin, a multifunctional anion exchanger. Pendrin is mainly expressed in the thyroid, the inner ear, and the kidney. In the thyroid, pendrin localizes to the apical membrane of thyrocytes, where it may be involved in mediating iodide efflux. Loss-of-function mutations in the SLC26A4 gene are associated with a partial iodide organification defect, presumably because of a reduced iodide efflux into the follicular lumen. In the kidney, pendrin functions as a chloride/bicarbonate exchanger. In the inner ear, pendrin is important in the maintenance of a normal anion transport and the endocochlear potential. Elucidation of the function of pendrin has provided unexpected novel insights into the pathophysiology of thyroid hormone biosynthesis, chloride retention in the kidney, and composition of the endolymph.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 03/2010; 322(1-2):83-90. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study aimed at evaluating the PROP1 and HESX1 genes in a group of patients with septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) and pituitary hormone deficiency (combined - CPHD; isolated GH deficiency - GHD). Eleven patients with a clinical and biochemical presentation consistent with CPHD, GHD or SOD were evaluated.
In all patients, the HESX1 gene was analyzed by direct sequence analysis and in cases of CPHD the PROP1 gene was also sequenced.
A polymorphism (1772 A > G; N125S) was identified in a patient with SOD. We found three patients carrying the allelic variants 27 T > C; A9A and 59 A > G; N20S in exon 1 of the PROP1 gene. Mutations in the PROP1 and HESX1 genes were not identified in these patients with sporadic GHD, CPHD and SOD.
Genetic alterations in one or several other genes, or non-genetic mechanisms, must be implicated in the pathogenic process.
Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia 01/2010; 54(5):482-7. · 0.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One hundred years ago, in 1909, Theodor Kocher was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his work on the physiology, pathology, and surgery of the thyroid gland. In the late 19th century, the resection of the thyroid was feared because of its high mortality rate. Kocher's innovative techniques resulted in safe outcomes. His observations that radical resection of the thyroid results in 'cachexia strumipriva' contributed to the recognition that the thyroid is essential for normal growth, development and metabolism. He made many other seminal contributions to the field of surgery and medicine, and his expertise was internationally recognized. Kocher served as the chairman of surgery at the University of Bern in Switzerland, his alma mater, until his death in 1917.
Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia 12/2009; 53(9):1176-80. · 0.68 Impact Factor