Parke Wilde

Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics, United States

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Publications (44)82.06 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Resettled refugees have high rates of chronic disease, which may be partially due to persistent food insecurity. This study describes food experiences on arrival in the U.S. and current food security status and examines characteristics related to food insecurity in a well-established refugee community. Focus groups and a survey assessed food security status and personal characteristics of Cambodian women in Lowell, MA, USA. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine relationships with food insecurity. Current rates of food insecurity are high. In multivariate models, food insecurity was positively associated with being depressed and being widowed, and negatively associated with higher income and acculturation. Early arrivers (1980s) had difficulty in the U.S. food system on arrival, while later arrivers (1990s-2000s) did not. Refugee agencies should consider strategically devoting resources to ensure successful early transition to the U.S. food environment and long-term food security of refugees.
    Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 08/2012; · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2009, the USDA implemented an interim rule that changed the prescribed foods in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Options for mother and infant dyads include a full breastfeeding package with no infant formula, a partial breastfeeding package with some infant formula, and a full formula package with a smaller postpartum food package for the mother. The changes were designed to encourage WIC mothers to choose breastfeeding for their infants. The purpose of this study was to measure changes in the following 3 outcomes: WIC food-package assignments, WIC infant formula amounts, and breastfeeding initiation. We compared outcomes before and after implementation of the interim rule in a national random sample of 17 local WIC agencies (LWAs). The data source was administrative records for 206,092 dyads with an infant aged 0-5 mo in the sampled LWAs. There were changes in WIC food-package assignments and infant formula amounts but no change in breastfeeding initiation. For dyads in whom the infant was in his or her birth month, the percentage of mothers who received the partial breastfeeding package fell from 24.7% (preimplementation) to 13.8% (postimplementation), the percentage of mothers who received the full breastfeeding package rose from 9.8% (preimplementation) to 17.1% (postimplementation), and the percentage of mothers who received the full formula package rose from 20.5% (preimplementation) to 28.5% (postimplementation). After the change, fewer WIC mothers of new infants received the partial breastfeeding package. More WIC mothers received the full breastfeeding package, but more mothers also received the full formula package.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 07/2012; 96(3):560-6. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Household food insecurity contributes to poor nutritional health, with negative consequences on growth and development during childhood. Although early childhood nutrition needs have received much attention, another important nutritional phase is adolescence. In a sample of 670 adolescents from Kilosa District, Tanzania, this study used 3 approaches to better understand the relationship between food insecurity and undernutrition. First, this study examined the associations between 3 commonly used measures of household food security and undernutrition among 670 adolescents from Kilosa District, Tanzania. The measures of household food security, energy adequacy per adult equivalent, dietary diversity score, and coping strategies index, were strongly correlated with each other and household assets (P < 0.05). Second, this study measured the nutritional status of adolescents in this district, finding a high prevalence of undernutrition (21% with BMI-for-age <5th percentile of the National Center for Health Statistics/WHO reference). Third, this study measured the association between the log odds of undernutrition (as the dependent variable) and each of the 3 measures of household food security. In separate models, household energy adequacy per adult equivalent and household dietary diversity score were inversely associated with undernutrition after adjusting for gender, age, puberty, and the interaction between age and puberty. By contrast, a greater use of coping strategies was not associated with undernutrition. Strategies focused on increasing household energy intake and improving dietary diversity among the most vulnerable households could improve the nutritional health of adolescents.
    Journal of Nutrition 07/2012; 142(9):1741-7. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationship between funding sources and the outcomes of published obesity-related research. A list of funded projects for human nutrition research linking food intake to obesity in 2001-2005 was drawn from two distinct sources: (a) the federal government's semi-public generic commodity promotion or "checkoff" programs for Fluid Milk and Dairy and (b) the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The Principal Investigator for each funded project was determined. Published literature by that individual was located using an Ovid MEDLINE and PubMed author search. All articles related to both dairy and obesity were included. Financial sponsorship for each article and article conclusions were classified by independent groups of co-investigators. Seventy-nine relevant articles were included in the study. Of these, 62 were sponsored by the checkoff programs and 17 by the NIH. The study did not find consistent evidence that checkoff-funded projects were more likely to support an obesity prevention benefit from dairy consumption. The study did identify a new research methodology for the investigation of bias by source of sponsorship.
    Physiology & Behavior 05/2012; 107(1):172-5. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Refugees in the United States have higher rates of some chronic diseases than US-born residents or other first-generation immigrants. This may be partially a result of dietary practices in the United States. There is limited information about which factors are related to dietary practices in refugee populations, particularly those who have been in the United States for 10 to 20 years. Research with Cambodian communities may be useful for examining the relationship between refugee characteristics and dietary practices. Two focus groups (n=11) and a survey (n=150) of Cambodian refugee women were conducted in Lowell, MA, from 2007 to 2008. χ(2) analyses, t tests, and analysis of variance tests were used to describe differences in dietary practices (24-hour recall and a targeted qualitative food assessment) by group characteristics. Higher acculturation was related to higher likelihood of eating brown rice/whole grains, and to lower likelihood of eating high-sodium Asian sauces. Higher education was related to higher likelihood of eating vegetables and fruits and to eating white rice fewer times. Nutrition education and receiving dietary advice from a health care provider were related to higher likelihood of eating whole grains/brown rice. Having a child at home was related to a higher likelihood of eating fast food. Among Cambodian refugees who have been in the United States for 10 to 20 years, dietary practices appear to have a relationship with acculturation (positive association), the interrupted education common to refugees (negative association), nutrition education from either programs or health care providers (positive association), and having a child at home (negative association).
    Journal of the American Dietetic Association 09/2011; 111(9):1369-74. · 3.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated Cambodian refugee women's past food experiences and the relationship between those experiences and current food beliefs, dietary practices, and weight status. Focus group participants (n = 11) described past food experiences and current health-related food beliefs and behaviors. We randomly selected survey participants (n = 133) from a comprehensive list of Cambodian households in Lowell, Massachusetts. We collected height, weight, 24-hour dietary recall, food beliefs, past food experience, and demographic information. We constructed a measure of past food deprivation from focus group and survey responses. We analyzed data with multivariate logistic and linear regression models. Participants experienced severe past food deprivation and insecurity. Those with higher past food-deprivation scores were more likely to currently report eating meat with fat (odds ratio [OR] = 1.14 for every point increase on the 9-to-27-point food-deprivation measure), and to be overweight or obese by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (OR = 1.28) and World Health Organization (OR = 1.18) standards. Refugees who experienced extensive food deprivation or insecurity may be more likely to engage in unhealthful eating practices and to be overweight or obese than are those who experienced less-extreme food deprivation or insecurity.
    American Journal of Public Health 10/2010; 100(10):1930-7. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper examines the extent to which males and females from the same household respond differently to household food insecurity questions, and explores the reasons for these differences and the impact for measurement. The data derive from the 2001–2003 Bangladesh Food Insecurity Measurement and Validation Study. Male and female enumerators administered the food insecurity questionnaire to women and men in the same household during three survey rounds and debriefed a subsample of men and women regarding their response discrepancies. The rate of discordance in male-female responses to individual items was examined using contingency tables. Potential explanations for the discordance were informed by the joint respondent debriefing. These hypotheses were assessed through an examination of response patterns. To assess the impact of discordance on measurement, female and male responses to a scale of 13 food insecurity items were compared and the degree of differential classification was assessed. On average the rate of discordance was 15%, but it ranged for particular items from less than 1% to upwards of 53%. Item content interacted with gender to produce discordance; women and men seemed to respond differently due to separate spheres of responsibility within the same household, power imbalances influencing intra-household food allocation, and because men seemed to take more psychological responsibility for ensuring the household food supply. Nearly one-third of households were classified in a different food security category using female versus male responses to the items. The results suggest that the household food insecurity construct is not as useful in places like Bangladesh where certain food insecurity-related manifestations are not collectively or similarly shared by members of the same living space. Individual-level measures of food insecurity are needed to complement household data, along with surveys that allow for proportionate representation of potentially vulnerable individuals with different demographic characteristics across the population. KeywordsGender-Household food insecurity-Measurement-Scale
    Food Security 01/2010; 2(1):81-95. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A two-country, comparative static partial equilibrium model is used to simulate the ex ante market and welfare outcomes of U.S. country-of-origin labeling for the U.S.-Mexico fresh tomato trade. In all scenarios where consumers show a relative preference for U.S. tomatoes, Mexican tomato exports decline and U.S. production increases. Mexican trade losses using low- to mid-range consumer preference assumptions are 14% to 32% of the value of Mexican tomato exports to the United States and 1% to 3% of the total value of agricultural produce exports, partially negating the market access gains of NAFTA. Consumer effects are small and sometimes negative. Producer impact is the big effect, with transfer from Mexican to U.S. tomato producers.
    Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 01/2010; 35(3). · 0.67 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior - J NUTR EDUC BEHAV. 01/2010; 42(4).
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    PARKE E. WILDE, JOSEPH LLOBRERA
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    ABSTRACT: The federal government's Thrifty Food Plan (TFP) minimizes the difference between a proposed food plan and a current consumption bundle, subject to cost and nutrition constraints. This article adapted the TFP framework to estimate the cost of a nutritious diet, distinguishing between nutrition constraints based on food categories (meat, vegetables) or nutrients (saturated fat, calcium). The official cost target for the TFP was sufficient if one tolerated a very high difference from current consumption patterns, or if one used nutrition standards instead of MyPyramid food category standards. In other scenarios, with different constraints, the official cost target was insufficient.
    Journal of Consumer Affairs 05/2009; 43(2):274 - 304. · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    Parke Wilde
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    ABSTRACT: The Institute of Medicine reported in 2005 that food and beverage marketing to children and youth is "out of balance with healthful diets". The dominant policy response in the United States has been to encourage self-regulation by the food, beverage, advertising, and media industries. From a nutrition perspective, this deference to the private sector may seem surprising. This article reviews current economic and legal perspectives on food marketing to children that are motivating the policy decision to attempt a period of self-regulation. The empirical literature on this topic has been reinvigorated by new data on marketing practices and expenditures. The article concludes by considering whether more directive policies are possible in the future.
    Nutrition Reviews 04/2009; 67(3):155-66. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 Puerto Ricans aged 45-75 y living in Massachusetts in relation to cognitive function performances. Food security was assessed with the US Household Food Security Scale. Cognitive function was measured to capture general cognition with a battery of 7 tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning (verbal memory), digit span (attention), clock drawing and figure copying (visual-spatial ability), and Stroop and verbal fluency tests (fluency executive functioning). The overall prevalence of food insecurity during the past 12 mo was 12.1%; 6.1% of the subjects reported very low food security. Food insecurity was inversely associated with global cognitive performance, as assessed by the MMSE score. The adjusted difference in the MMSE score was -0.90 (95% CI: -1.6, -0.19; P for trend = 0.003) for a comparison of participants with very low food security with those who were food secure, after adjustment for age, smoking, education, poverty status, income, acculturation, plasma homocysteine, alcohol, diabetes, and hypertension. Food insecurity was significantly associated with lower scores for word-list learning, percentage retention, letter fluency, and digit span backward tests. Very low food security was prevalent among the study subjects and was associated with lower cognitive performance. Further studies, both observational and experimental, are warranted to clarify the direction of causality in this association.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 03/2009; 89(4):1197-203. · 6.50 Impact Factor
  • Parke E. Wilde, Lisa M. Troy, Beatrice L. Rogers
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    ABSTRACT: Estimation of Food Stamp Program (FSP) effects has been complicated by self-selection and by a contradiction between observed spending patterns and the economic theory of consumer choice. We developed a modified version of the traditional theory, in which participant households may be partly extramarginal even if they have some cash spending on at-home food. Using Current Population Survey (CPS) data for 2001-2005, we estimated Engel functions for at-home and away-from-home food spending for FSP participants and nonparticipants. Compared to nonparticipants with the same level of total income, participants had higher at-home food spending and lower away-from-home food spending. Copyright Copyright 2009 Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    American Journal of Agricultural Economics 01/2009; 91(2):416-430. · 0.99 Impact Factor
  • Journal of The American Dietetic Association - J AMER DIET ASSN. 01/2009; 109(9).
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    Parke E Wilde
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    ABSTRACT: The federal government has estimated the prevalence of household "food insecurity" and "food insecurity with hunger" since 1995. Early observers believed that the new measure could be used to assess and improve the Food Stamp Program (FSP). Ten years of research have tempered the initial optimism. The prevalence of food insecurity with hunger (12.3% of all low-income households in 2004) is much higher among food stamp participant households (18.6% in 2004) than among low-income nonparticipant households (10.1% in 2004), due to strong self-selection effects. Households facing greater hardship are more likely to join the program. This article reviews 6 types of nonexperimental research designs that have been used to address the self-selection problem. The results have been inconclusive and the authors have warned against drawing causal inferences from their research. Ethical random-assignment research designs may be required to satisfy the intense policy interest in measuring the antihunger impact of the FSP. The most promising ethical research designs would test the effects of offering eligibility to households that are currently ineligible or offering increased benefits to households that are currently eligible for small benefit amounts.
    Journal of Nutrition 03/2007; 137(2):307-10. · 4.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

467 Citations
82.06 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics
      United States
  • 2004–2012
    • Tufts University
      • Gerald J. and Dorothy R. Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy
      Georgia, United States
  • 2010–2011
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      • Department of Nutrition
      Amherst Center, MA, United States
  • 2006–2009
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Nutrition
      Cambridge, MA, United States