Franco Laghi

Edward Hines, Jr. VA Hospital, Hines, Oregon, United States

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Publications (90)360.84 Total impact

  • Intensive care medicine. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: For many critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit, the insertion of an endotracheal tube and the initiation of mechanical ventilation (MV) can be lifesaving procedures. Subsequent patient care often requires intensivists to manage the complex interaction of multiple failing organ systems. The shift in the intensivists' focus toward the discontinuation of MV can thus occur late in the course of critical illness. The dangers of MV, however, make it imperative to wean patients at the earliest possible time. Premature weaning trials, however, trigger significant respiratory distress, which can cause setbacks in the patient's clinical course. Premature extubation is also risky. To reduce delayed weaning and premature extubation, a three-step diagnostic strategy is suggested: measurement of weaning predictors, a trial of unassisted breathing (T-tube trial), and a trial of extubation. Since each step constitutes a diagnostic test, clinicians must not only command a thorough understanding of each test but must also be aware of the principles of clinical decision making when interpreting the information generated by each step. Many difficult aspects of pulmonary pathophysiology encroach on weaning management. Accordingly, weaning commands sophisticated, individualized care. Few other responsibilities of an intensivist require a more analytical effort and carry more promise for improving patient outcome than the application of physiologic principles in the weaning of patients.
    Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 08/2014; 35(4):451-468. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that improved diaphragmatic neuromechanical coupling during inspiratory loading is not sufficient to prevent alveolar hypoventilation and task failure, and that the latter results primarily from central-output inhibition of the diaphragm and air hunger rather than contractile fatigue. Eighteen subjects underwent progressive inspiratory loading. By task failure all developed hypercapnia. Tidal transdiaphragmatic pressure (ΔPdi) and diaphragmatic electrical activity (ΔEAdi) increased during loading–the former more than the latter; thus, neuromechanical coupling (ΔPdi/ΔEAdi) increased during loading. Progressive increase in extra-diaphragmatic muscle contribution to tidal breathing, expiratory muscle recruitment, and decreased end-expiratory lung volume contributed to improved neuromechanical coupling. At task failure, subjects experienced intolerable breathing discomfort, at which point mean ΔEAdi was 74.9 ± 4.9% of maximum, indicating that the primary mechanism of hypercapnia was submaximal diaphragmatic recruitment. Contractile fatigue was an inconsistent finding. In conclusion, hypercapnia during acute loading primarily resulted from central-output inhibition of the diaphragm suggesting that acute loading responses are controlled by the cortex rather than bulbopontine centers.
    Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 07/2014; · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because the diaphragm is essential for survival, we wondered if it might be less vulnerable to the long-lasting effects of fatigue than limb muscles. Using a recently introduced magnetic probe to activate the phrenic nerves, we followed the evolution of twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure after inducing fatigue in healthy volunteers. Twenty-four hours after its induction, diaphragmatic fatigue had not fully recovered. Findings from this study later served as the foundation for incorporating a once-daily, T-tube-trial arm into a randomized controlled trial of techniques for ventilator weaning in intensive care unit patients and also influenced the design of a controlled trial of the weaning of tracheostomy patients who required prolonged ventilation. The research methodology was later employed to determine whether low-frequency fatigue is responsible for weaning failure. Employing a further modification of the technique-twitch airway pressure-it became evident that respiratory muscle weakness is a greater problem than fatigue in ventilated patients. Twitch airway pressure is now being used to document the prevalence and consequences of ventilator-induced respiratory muscle weakness. Our study-which began with a circumscribed, simple question-has yielded dividends in unforeseen directions, illustrating the fruitfulness of research into basic physiological mechanisms.
    Intensive care medicine. 05/2014;
  • Hameeda Shaikh, Franco Laghi
    Critical care medicine 03/2014; 42(3):737-8. · 6.37 Impact Factor
  • Franco Laghi, Hameeda Shaikh
    Critical care medicine 02/2014; 42(2):492-4. · 6.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breathing-retraining and helium-oxygen (heliox) have been used to improve exercise tolerance in COPD. We hypothesized that, in patients with COPD, exercise duration after exercise-training plus breathing-retraining and oxygen would be longer than after exercise-training plus heliox or after exercise-training plus oxygen alone. We also explored the short-term maintenance of gains in exercise duration after using each technique. Of 192 COPD patients recruited, 103 were randomly assigned to exercise-training plus heliox (n = 33), exercise-training plus breathing-retraining and oxygen (n = 35) and exercise-training and oxygen (n = 35). FiO2 was 0.30 during testing and training in all groups. Patients exercised on a treadmill thrice-weekly for eight weeks. Before, at completion of training, and six-weeks later, patients underwent constant-load treadmill testing. At completion of training, improvements in exercise duration in the heliox and breathing-retraining groups were not significantly different. Compared to the exercise-training plus oxygen group, exercise duration improved more in the breathing-retraining group (P = 0.008) but not in the heliox group (P = 0.142). Hyperinflation was reduced with breathing-retraining plus oxygen compared to the other two groups. Six-weeks later, improvements in exercise duration were still greater with breathing-retraining than with exercise-training (P = 0.015). In contrast, improvements in exercise duration with heliox did not differ from those in the other two groups. In moderate-to-severe COPD, exercise-training combined with either heliox or with breathing-retraining yielded not significantly different improvements in exercise duration - with only the latter being superior to exercise-training. Six-weeks after training, these improvements were still greater after exercise-training plus breathing-retraining than after exercise-training. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00123422.
    Respiratory medicine 11/2013; · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 56-year-old woman with a history of paraplegia and chronic pain due to neuromyelitis optica (Devic's syndrome) was admitted to a spinal cord injury unit for management of a sacral decubitus ulcer. During the hospitalization, she required emergency transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU) because of progressive deterioration of respiratory muscle function, severe respiratory acidosis, obtundation and hypotension. Upon transfer to the ICU, arterial blood gas revealed severe acute-on-chronic respiratory acidosis (pH 7.00, PCO2 120 mm Hg, PO2 211 mm Hg). The patient was immediately intubated and mechanically ventilated. Intravenous fluid boluses of normal saline (10.5 L in about 24 h) and vasopressors were started with rapid correction of hypotension. In addition, she was given hydrocortisone. Within 40 min of initiation of mechanical ventilation, there was improvement in acute respiratory acidosis. Sixteen hours later, however, the patient developed life-threatening hypokalemia (K(+) of 2.1 mEq/L) and hypomagnesemia (Mg of 1.4 mg/dL). Despite aggressive potassium supplementation, hypokalemia continued to worsen over the next several hours (K(+) of 1.7 mEq/L). Urine studies revealed renal potassium wasting. We reason that the recalcitrant life-threatening hypokalemia was caused by several mechanisms including total body potassium depletion (chronic respiratory acidosis), a shift of potassium from the extracellular to intracellular space (rapid correction of respiratory acidosis with mechanical ventilation), increased sodium delivery to the distal nephron (normal saline resuscitation), hyperaldosteronism (secondary to hypotension plus administration of hydrocortisone) and hypomagnesemia. We conclude that rapid correction of respiratory acidosis, especially in the setting of hypotension, can lead to life-threatening hypokalemia. Serum potassium levels must be monitored closely in these patients, as failure to do so can lead to potentially lethal consequences.
    Heart & lung: the journal of critical care 05/2013; · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • Martin J Tobin, Franco Laghi, Amal Jubran
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    ABSTRACT: The development of acute ventilatory failure represents an inability of the respiratory control system to maintain a level of respiratory motor output to cope with the metabolic demands of the body. The level of respiratory motor output is also the main determinant of the degree of respiratory distress experienced by such patients. As ventilatory failure progresses and patient distress increases, mechanical ventilation is instituted to help the respiratory muscles cope with the heightened workload. While a patient is connected to a ventilator, a physician's ability to align the rhythm of the machine with the rhythm of the patient's respiratory centers becomes the primary determinant of the level of rest accorded to the respiratory muscles. Problems of alignment are manifested as failure to trigger, double triggering, an inflationary gas-flow that fails to match inspiratory demands, and an inflation phase that persists after a patient's respiratory centers have switched to expiration. With recovery from disorders that precipitated the initial bout of acute ventilatory failure, attempts are made to discontinue the ventilator (weaning). About 20% of weaning attempts fail, ultimately, because the respiratory controller is unable to sustain ventilation and this failure is signaled by development of rapid shallow breathing. Substantial advances in the medical management of acute ventilatory failure that requires ventilator assistance are most likely to result from research yielding novel insights into the operation of the respiratory control system. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:2871-2921, 2012.
    Comprehensive Physiology. 10/2012; 2(4):2871-2921.
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    Franco Laghi, Rafael Fernandez
    European Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 08/2012; 38(10):1583-5. · 5.17 Impact Factor
  • Franco Laghi
    Critical care medicine 08/2012; 40(8):2525-6. · 6.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are middle-aged or older, and by definition all have a chronic illness. Aging and chronic illness decrease sexual interest, sexual function, and testosterone levels. To date, researchers have not simultaneously explored prevalence, risk factors, and impact of sexual dysfunctions on quality of life and survival in men with COPD. We tested three hypotheses: First, sexual dysfunctions, including erectile dysfunction, are highly prevalent and impact negatively the quality of life of those with COPD. Second, gonadal state is a predictor of erectile dysfunction. Third, erectile dysfunction, a potential maker of systemic atherosclerosis, is a risk factor for mortality in men with COPD. In this prospective study, sexuality was assessed in 90 men with moderate-to-severe COPD (40 hypogonadal) by questionnaire. Testosterone levels, comorbidities, dyspnea, depressive symptoms, and survival (4.8 years median follow-up) were recorded. Seventy-four percent of patients had at least one sexual dysfunction, with erectile dysfunction being the most common (72 %). Most were dissatisfied with their current and expected sexual function. Severity of COPD was equivalent in patients with and without erectile dysfunction. Low testosterone, depressive symptoms, and presence of partner were independently associated with erectile dysfunction. Severity of lung disease and comorbidities, but not erectile dysfunction, were independently associated with mortality (p = 0.006). Sexual dysfunctions, including erectile dysfunction, were highly prevalent and had a negative impact on quality of life in men with COPD. In addition, gonadal state was an independent predictor of erectile dysfunction. Finally, erectile dysfunction was not associated with all-cause mortality.
    Beiträge zur Klinik der Tuberkulose 07/2012; 190(5):545-56. · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • American Thoracic Society 2012 International Conference, May 18-23, 2012 • San Francisco, California; 05/2012
  • American Thoracic Society 2012 International Conference, May 18-23, 2012 • San Francisco, California; 05/2012
  • American Thoracic Society 2012 International Conference, May 18-23, 2012 • San Francisco, California; 05/2012
  • American Thoracic Society 2012 International Conference, May 18-23, 2012 • San Francisco, California; 05/2012
  • American Thoracic Society 2012 International Conference, May 18-23, 2012 • San Francisco, California; 05/2012
  • American Thoracic Society 2012 International Conference, May 18-23, 2012 • San Francisco, California; 05/2012
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    F Laghi, A Goyal
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    ABSTRACT: Intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (auto-PEEP) is a common occurrence in patients with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Auto-PEEP can cause severe respiratory and hemodynamic compromise. The presence of auto-PEEP should be suspected when airflow at end-exhalation is not zero. In patients receiving controlled mechanical ventilation, auto-PEEP can be estimated measuring the rise in airway pressure during an end-expiratory occlusion maneuver. In patients who trigger the ventilator or who are not connected to a ventilator, auto-PEEP can be estimated by simultaneous recordings of airflow and airway and esophageal pressure, respectively. The best technique to accurately measure auto-PEEP in patients who actively recruit their expiratory muscle remains controversial. Strategies that may reduce auto-PEEP include reduction of minute ventilation, use of small tidal volumes and prolongation of the time available for exhalation. In patients in whom auto-PEEP is caused by expiratory flow limitation, the application of low-levels of external PEEP can reduce dyspnea, reduce work of breathing, improve patient-ventilator interaction and cardiac function, all without worsening hyperinflation. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist, a novel strategy of ventilatory assist, may improve patient-ventilator interaction in patients with auto-PEEP.
    Minerva anestesiologica 02/2012; 78(2):201-21. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is greater than in the general population, but the mechanism is unknown. Depression has been linked mechanistically to testosterone deficiency, and testosterone deficiency (hypogonadism) affects many men with COPD. Accordingly, we hypothesized that significant depressive symptoms would be associated with hypogonadism in men with COPD. The hypothesis was tested in a prospective cross-sectional investigation of 104 men (FEV1 = 43 ± 1% predicted (± SE)), 36 of whom had significant depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale score or GDS ≥ 11). Hypogonadism was present in 14 patients with GDS ≥ 11 (39%) and in 21 with GDS < 11 (31%; p = 0.41). The independent association between depressive symptoms and gonadal state was evaluated after adjusting for potential confounders: combined severity of lung disease and functional impairment (BODE-index), co-morbidities (Charlson co-morbidity-Index), age, active smoking, education, and marital status. After controlling for confounding variables, multivariable logistic-regression analysis revealed that only BODE-index (odds ratio 1.40; p = 0.003), lack of companion (2.73; p = 0.045) and younger age (0.93; p = 0.021) were independently associated with depressive symptoms. In a secondary analysis, patients were stratified into those with severe depressive symptoms (GDS ≥ 19) and those with mild depressive symptoms (GDS 11-18). Prevalence of hypogonadism was greater in first group than in the second (62% vs. 26%; p = 0.036). After controlling for confounders, however, gonadal state was not associated with severe depressive symptoms. Similarly, gonadal state was not associated with mood and motivation subscale scores of the GDS. In conclusion, presence of significant depressive symptoms was not associated with hypogonadism in men with COPD.
    COPD Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 07/2011; 8(5):346-53. · 2.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
360.84 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995–2014
    • Edward Hines, Jr. VA Hospital
      Hines, Oregon, United States
  • 2008–2013
    • Loyola University
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • College of Nursing
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • Yale University
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2003–2012
    • Loyola University Medical Center
      • Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine
      Maywood, Illinois, United States
  • 2007–2010
    • U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2005
    • Hacettepe University
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Ankara, Ankara, Turkey
  • 1993–2003
    • Loyola University Chicago
      • • Stritch School of Medicine
      • • Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 2001
    • Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Hospital
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States