[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Detection of pathogens in bloodstream infections is important for directing antimicrobial treatment, but current culture-based approaches can be problematic. Broad-range PCR assays which target conserved genomic motifs for postamplification amplicon analysis permit detection of sepsis-causing pathogens. Comparison of different broad-range assays is important for informing future implementation strategies. In this study, we compared positive-blood-culture bottles processed by PCR coupled to high-resolution melting curve analysis (PCR/HRMA) and PCR coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) to microbiology culture results. Genus-level concordance was 90% (confidence interval [CI], 80 to 96%) for PCR/HRMA and 94% (CI, 85 to 98%) for PCR/ESI-MS. Species-level concordance was 90% (CI, 80 to 96%) for PCR/HRMA and 86% (CI, 75 to 93%) for PCR/ESI-MS. Unlike PCR/HRMA, PCR/ESI-MS was able to resolve polymicrobial samples. Our results demonstrated that the two assays have similar overall concordance rates but may have different roles as potential adjunctive tests with standard blood culture, since each method has different capabilities, advantages, and disadvantages.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to conduct a pilot evaluation of broad-based multiprobe polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in clinical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples compared to local conventional PCR/culture methods used for bacterial meningitis surveillance. A previously described PCR consisting of initial broad-based detection of Eubacteriales by a universal probe, followed by Gram typing, and pathogen-specific probes was designed targeting variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. The diagnostic performance of the 16S rRNA assay in "127 CSF samples was evaluated in samples from patients from Togo, Africa, by comparison to conventional PCR/culture methods. Our probes detected Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. Uniprobe sensitivity and specificity versus conventional PCR were 100% and 54.6%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of uniprobe versus culture methods were 96.5% and 52.5%, respectively. Gram-typing probes correctly typed 98.8% (82/83) and pathogen-specific probes identified 96.4% (80/83) of the positives. This broad-based PCR algorithm successfully detected and provided species level information for multiple bacterial meningitis agents in clinical samples.