[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Innate sensing mechanisms trigger a variety of humoral and cellular events that are essential to adaptive immune responses. Here we describe an innate sensing pathway triggered by Plasmodium infection that regulates dendritic cell homeostasis and adaptive immunity through Flt3 ligand (Flt3l) release. Plasmodium-induced Flt3l release in mice requires Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation and type I interferon (IFN) production. We found that type I IFN supports the upregulation of xanthine dehydrogenase, which metabolizes the xanthine accumulating in infected erythrocytes to uric acid. Uric acid crystals trigger mast cells to release soluble Flt3l from a pre-synthesized membrane-associated precursor. During infection, Flt3l preferentially stimulates expansion of the CD8-α(+) dendritic cell subset or its BDCA3(+) human dendritic cell equivalent and has a substantial impact on the magnitude of T cell activation, mostly in the CD8(+) compartment. Our findings highlight a new mechanism that regulates dendritic cell homeostasis and T cell responses to infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In comparison to murine dendritic cells (DCs), less is known about the function of human DCs in tissues. Here, we analyzed, by using lung tissues from humans and humanized mice, the role of human CD1c(+) and CD141(+) DCs in determining the type of CD8(+) T cell immunity generated to live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccine. We found that both lung DC subsets acquired influenza antigens in vivo and expanded specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells in vitro. However, lung-tissue-resident CD1c(+) DCs, but not CD141(+) DCs, were able to drive CD103 expression on CD8(+) T cells and promoted CD8(+) T cell accumulation in lung epithelia in vitro and in vivo. CD1c(+) DCs induction of CD103 expression was dependent on membrane-bound cytokine TGF-β1. Thus, CD1c(+) and CD141(+) DCs generate CD8(+) T cells with different properties, and CD1c(+) DCs specialize in the regulation of mucosal CD8(+) T cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) form a remarkable cellular network that shapes adaptive immune responses according to peripheral cues. After four decades of research, we now know that DCs arise from a hematopoietic lineage distinct from other leukocytes, establishing the DC system as a unique hematopoietic branch. Recent work has also established that tissue DCs consist of developmentally and functionally distinct subsets that differentially regulate T lymphocyte function. This review discusses major advances in our understanding of the regulation of DC lineage commitment, differentiation, diversification, and function in situ.
Annual Review of Immunology 03/2013; 31:563-604. · 41.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the field has a long collaborative tradition, immunology has made less use than genetics of 'consortium biology', wherein groups of investigators together tackle large integrated questions or problems. However, immunology is naturally suited to large-scale integrative and systems-level approaches, owing to the multicellular and adaptive nature of the cells it encompasses. Here, we discuss the value and drawbacks of this organization of research, in the context of the long-running 'big science' debate, and consider the opportunities that may exist for the immunology community. We position this analysis in light of our own experience, both positive and negative, as participants of the Immunological Genome Project.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD8+ cytotoxic T cells are critical for viral clearance from the lungs upon influenza virus infection. The contribution of antigen cross-presentation by DCs to the induction of anti-viral cytotoxic T cells remains controversial. Here, we used a recombinant influenza virus expressing a nonstructural 1-GFP (NS1-GFP) reporter gene to visualize the route of antigen presentation by lung DCs upon viral infection in mice. We found that lung CD103+ DCs were the only subset of cells that carried intact GFP protein to the draining LNs. Strikingly, lung migratory CD103+ DCs were not productively infected by influenza virus and thus were able to induce virus-specific CD8+ T cells through the cross-presentation of antigens from virally infected cells. We also observed that CD103+ DC resistance to infection correlates with an increased anti-viral state in these cells that is dependent on the expression of type I IFN receptor. These results show that efficient cross-priming by migratory lung DCs is coupled to the acquisition of an anti-viral status, which is dependent on the type I IFN signaling pathway.
The Journal of clinical investigation 10/2012; · 15.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed gene expression in tissue macrophages from various mouse organs. The diversity in gene expression among different populations of macrophages was considerable. Only a few hundred mRNA transcripts were selectively expressed by macrophages rather than dendritic cells, and many of these were not present in all macrophages. Nonetheless, well-characterized surface markers, including MerTK and FcγR1 (CD64), along with a cluster of previously unidentified transcripts, were distinctly and universally associated with mature tissue macrophages. TCEF3, C/EBP-α, Bach1 and CREG-1 were among the transcriptional regulators predicted to regulate these core macrophage-associated genes. The mRNA encoding other transcription factors, such as Gata6, was associated with single macrophage populations. We further identified how these transcripts and the proteins they encode facilitated distinguishing macrophages from dendritic cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although much progress has been made in the understanding of the ontogeny and function of dendritic cells (DCs), the transcriptional regulation of the lineage commitment and functional specialization of DCs in vivo remains poorly understood. We made a comprehensive comparative analysis of CD8(+), CD103(+), CD11b(+) and plasmacytoid DC subsets, as well as macrophage DC precursors and common DC precursors, across the entire immune system. Here we characterized candidate transcriptional activators involved in the commitment of myeloid progenitor cells to the DC lineage and predicted regulators of DC functional diversity in tissues. We identified a molecular signature that distinguished tissue DCs from macrophages. We also identified a transcriptional program expressed specifically during the steady-state migration of tissue DCs to the draining lymph nodes that may control tolerance to self tissue antigens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GM-CSF (Csf-2) is a critical cytokine for the in vitro generation of dendritic cells (DCs) and is thought to control the development of inflammatory DCs and resident CD103(+) DCs in some tissues. Here we showed that in contrast to the current understanding, Csf-2 receptor acts in the steady state to promote the survival and homeostasis of nonlymphoid tissue-resident CD103(+) and CD11b(+) DCs. Absence of Csf-2 receptor on lung DCs abrogated the induction of CD8(+) T cell immunity after immunization with particulate antigens. In contrast, Csf-2 receptor was dispensable for the differentiation and innate function of inflammatory DCs during acute injuries. Instead, inflammatory DCs required Csf-1 receptor for their development. Thus, Csf-2 is important in vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cell immunity through the regulation of nonlymphoid tissue DC homeostasis rather than control of inflammatory DCs in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: R-Ras is a member of the RAS superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins. The physiologic function of R-Ras has not been fully elucidated. We found that R-Ras is expressed by lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues and drastically up-regulated when bone marrow progenitors are induced to differentiate into dendritic cells (DCs). To address the role of R-Ras in DC functions, we generated a R-Ras-deficient mouse strain. We found that tumors induced in Rras(-/-) mice formed with shorter latency and attained greater tumor volumes. This finding has prompted the investigation of a role for R-Ras in the immune system. Indeed, Rras(-/-) mice were impaired in their ability to prime allogeneic and antigen-specific T-cell responses. Rras(-/-) DCs expressed lower levels of surface MHC class II and CD86 in response to lipopolysaccharide compared with wild-type DCs. This was correlated with a reduced phosphorylation of p38 and Akt. Consistently, R-Ras-GTP level was increased within 10 minutes of lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Furthermore, Rras(-/-) DCs have attenuated capacity to spread on fibronectin and form stable immunologic synapses with T cells. Altogether, these findings provide the first demonstration of a role for R-Ras in cell-mediated immunity and further expand on the complexity of small G-protein signaling in DCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) have been extensively studied in mice lymphoid organs, but less is known about the origin and the mechanisms that regulate DC development and function in non-lymphoid tissues. Here, we discuss recent evidence establishing the contribution of the DC-restricted lineage to the non-lymphoid tissue DC pool and discuss the mechanisms that control the homeostasis of non-lymphoid tissue DCs. We also review recent results underlining the functional specialization of tissue DCs and discuss the potential implications of these findings in tissue immunity and in the development of novel vaccine strategies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cutaneous dendritic cells represent the first immunological interface with the environment and play a key role in the defense against pathogens that breach the skin. This protocol describes how to isolate cutaneous dendritic cells from mouse ears for flow cytometry analysis and functional assay studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in nonlymphoid tissues are specialized in the cross-presentation of cell-associated antigens. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate the development of these cells. We show that two populations of CD11c(+)MHCII(+) cells separated on the basis of CD103 and CD11b expression coexist in most nonlymphoid tissues with the exception of the lamina propria. CD103(+) DCs are related to lymphoid organ CD8(+) DCs in that they are derived exclusively from pre-DCs under the control of fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3) ligand, inhibitor of DNA protein 2 (Id2), and IFN regulatory protein 8 (IRF8). In contrast, lamina propria CD103(+) DCs express CD11b and develop independently of Id2 and IRF8. The other population of CD11c(+)MHCII(+) cells in tissues, which is CD103(-)CD11b(+), is heterogenous and depends on both Flt3 and MCSF-R. Our results reveal that nonlymphoid tissue CD103(+) DCs and lymphoid organ CD8(+) DCs derive from the same precursor and follow a related differentiation program.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 12/2009; 206(13):3115-30. · 13.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CX(3)CR1(+) and CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in intestinal lamina propria play a key role in mucosal immunity. However, the origin and the developmental pathways that regulate their differentiation in the lamina propria remain unclear. We showed that monocytes gave rise exclusively to CD103(-)CX(3)CR1(+) lamina propria DCs under the control of macrophage-colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR) and Fms-like thyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3) ligands. In contrast, common DC progenitors (CDP) and pre-DCs, which give rise to lymphoid organ DCs but not to monocytes, differentiated exclusively into CD103(+)CX(3)CR1(-) lamina propria DCs under the control of Flt3 and granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor receptor (GM-CSFR) ligands. CD103(+)CX(3)CR1(-) DCs but not CD103(-)CX(3)CR1(+) DCs in the lamina propria constitutively expressed CCR7 and were the first DCs to transport pathogenic Salmonella from the intestinal tract to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Altogether, these results underline the diverse origin of the lamina propria DC network and identify mucosal DCs that arise from pre-DCs as key sentinels of the gut immune system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphatic vessels are essential for lipid absorption and transport. Despite increasing numbers of observations linking lymphatic vessels and lipids, little research has been devoted to address how dysregulation of lipid balance in the blood, ie, dyslipidemia, may affect the functional biology of lymphatic vessels. Here, we show that hypercholesterolemia occurring in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice is associated with tissue swelling, lymphatic leakiness, and decreased lymphatic transport of fluid and dendritic cells from tissue. Lymphatic dysfunction results in part from profound structural abnormalities in the lymphatic vasculature: namely, initial lymphatic vessels were greatly enlarged, and collecting vessels developed notably decreased smooth muscle cell coverage and changes in the distribution of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronic acid receptor-1 (LYVE-1). Our results provide evidence that hypercholesterolemia in adult apoE(-/-) mice is associated with a degeneration of lymphatic vessels that leads to decreased lymphatic drainage and provides an explanation for why dendritic cell migration and, thus, immune priming, are. compromised in hypercholesterolemic mice. (Am J Pathol 2009, 175:1328-1337; DOI. 10.2353/ajpath.2009.080963)
American Journal Of Pathology 09/2009; · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) have the striking ability to cross-present exogenous antigens in association with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I to CD8(+) T cells. However, the intracellular pathways underlying cross-presentation remain ill defined. Current models involve cytosolic proteolysis of antigens by the proteasome and peptide import into endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or phagosomal lumen by the transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP1 and TAP2). Here, we show that DCs expressed an ER-resident 47 kDa immune-related GTPase, Igtp (Irgm3). Igtp resides on ER and lipid body (LB) membranes where it binds the LB coat component ADFP. Inactivation of genes encoding for either Igtp or ADFP led to defects in LB formation in DCs and severely impaired cross-presentation of phagocytosed antigens to CD8(+) T cells but not antigen presentation to CD4(+) T cells. We thus define a new role for LB organelles in regulating cross-presentation of exogenous antigens to CD8(+) T lymphocytes in DCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cell migration from the airway to lymph nodes is a key event in the development of airway immunity during infection, allergy, and vaccination. To identify the best approaches to investigate DC migration to lung-draining lymph nodes, we directly compared three methods previously used to track DC migration: airway administration of fluorescent OVA, latex beads, or carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE). We show that two of the methods employed in optimal conditions-administration of fluorescent OVA or latex particles-have broadly relevant utility in studies of pulmonary DC migration, both in the presence and absence of inflammatory mediators. However, CFSE was of limited value because it induced a robust airway inflammatory response upon instillation. Unexpectedly, antigen-loaded tracers with distinct physical properties differently affected the populations that acquired the tracers and the overall T cell response. Specifically, soluble OVA and OVA formulated as a particulate after conjugation to latex beads were acquired in different proportions in vivo by the two characterized subsets of pulmonary DCs: CD11b(hi)CD103(-) and CD11b(lo)CD103(+)langerin(+) DC populations. Consequently, and in line with recent studies that these two subsets of DCs respectively activate CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocyte populations, the physical nature of the antigen delivery vehicle strongly influenced the degree of CD4(+) versus CD8(+) OVA-specific T cell activation. This finding suggests that changes in the physical presentation of the same antigen delivered to the airway during natural immune responses or vaccinations may markedly affect the character of the T cell response that ensues.
Journal of Immunological Methods 10/2008; 337(2):121-31. · 2.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The regulation of CD4 T-cell numbers during an immune response should take account of the amount of antigen (Ag), the initial frequency of Ag-specific T cells, the mix of naive versus experienced cells, and (ideally) the diversity of the repertoire. Here we describe a novel mechanism of T-cell regulation that potentially deals with all of these parameters. We found that CD4 T cells establish a negative feedback loop by capturing their cognate major histocompatibility class (MHC)/peptide complexes from Ag-presenting cells and presenting them to Ag-experienced CD4 T cells, thereby inhibiting their recruitment into the response while allowing recruitment of naive T cells. The inhibition is Ag specific, begins at day 2 (long before Ag disappearance), and cannot be overcome by providing new Ag-loaded dendritic cells. In this way, CD4 T-cell proliferation is regulated in a functional relationship to the amount of Ag, while allowing naive T cells to generate repertoire variety.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Langerin is a C-type lectin receptor that recognizes glycosylated patterns on pathogens. Langerin is used to identify human and mouse epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), as well as migratory LCs in the dermis and the skin draining lymph nodes (DLNs). Using a mouse model that allows conditional ablation of langerin(+) cells in vivo, together with congenic bone marrow chimeras and parabiotic mice as tools to differentiate LC- and blood-derived dendritic cells (DCs), we have revisited the origin of langerin(+) DCs in the skin DLNs. Our results show that in contrast to the current view, langerin(+)CD8(-) DCs in the skin DLNs do not derive exclusively from migratory LCs, but also include blood-borne langerin(+) DCs that transit through the dermis before reaching the DLN. The recruitment of circulating langerin(+) DCs to the skin is dependent on endothelial selectins and CCR2, whereas their recruitment to the skin DLNs requires CCR7 and is independent of CD62L. We also show that circulating langerin(+) DCs patrol the dermis in the steady state and migrate to the skin DLNs charged with skin antigens. We propose that this is an important and previously unappreciated element of immunosurveillance that needs to be taken into account in the design of novel vaccine strategies.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 01/2008; 204(13):3133-46. · 13.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T cells need to migrate to and accumulate inside tumors before mediating rejection of the tumor. The number of specific T cells inside tumors may depend on the efficiency of priming in the draining lymph node (DLN), intratumor deletion, suppressive phenomena, or both. We used monoclonal anti-male antigen CD4 (Marilyn) T cells and tumor cell lines expressing or not the corresponding antigen (Dby) to analyze CD4 T-cell accumulation in tumors. Priming by MHC II(+) or MHC II(-) male splenocytes or Dby(+) tumor cells induced similar Marilyn T-cell expansion in the DLN and recirculation in other lymph nodes and capacity to produce IFN-gamma. However, intratumor accumulation was different for each priming condition. In mice with Dby(-) tumors, MHC II(+) male splenocyte priming induced greater, although not statistically significant, Marilyn T-cell accumulation in the tumors than MHC II(-) male splenocyte priming. In mice with Dby(+) tumors, priming in the tumor DLN induced less Marilyn T-cell intratumor accumulation than priming by MHC II(+) male splenocytes. We saw comparable differences for Marilyn T-cell accumulation in gut lamina propria, suggesting that priming affects effector T-cell accumulation in inflamed tissues. Mature dendritic cells were loaded with graded doses of Dby peptide to control for antigen-presenting cell characteristics during priming. We observed similar proliferation, with higher concentrations inducing higher intratumor accumulation. Thus, intratumor accumulation requires stronger stimulation than for proliferation or the capacity to secrete lymphokines. In this system, priming intensity alone can explain the number of intratumor T cells without having to call for intratumor deletion or suppression phenomena.
Cancer Research 06/2006; 66(10):5443-51. · 9.28 Impact Factor