[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity. Comorbid disorders include mood and anxiety disorders as well as obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs). This paper aims to investigate comorbidity of DSM Axis I-disorders, including OCSDs, in patients with OCD from 10 centers affiliated with the International College of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background / Purpose:
Depression is often unrecognized and undertreated in patients with chronic medical illness leading to negative outcomes. Recognition of depression is poor in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) because symptoms of depression overlap with those of uraemia. Depressive symptoms in ESRD may negatively affect general health awareness, mortality rate, treatment adherence and inpatient hospitalisation. It is therefore an important health issue in this population.
Antidepressants are commonly prescribed. beck depression inventory (BDI-II) score was high despite antidepressant in a substantial proportion of patients. BDI-II screen positive patients receiving antidepressants appear to be more depressed, and younger than their untreated counterparts. This questions the role of antidepressants in this population.
7th Biennial Congress of The International Society of Affective Disorders 2014; 06/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Why do we repeat choices that we know are bad for us? Decision making is characterized by the parallel engagement of two distinct systems, goal-directed and habitual, thought to arise from two computational learning mechanisms, model-based and model-free. The habitual system is a candidate source of pathological fixedness. Using a decision task that measures the contribution to learning of either mechanism, we show a bias towards model-free (habit) acquisition in disorders involving both natural (binge eating) and artificial (methamphetamine) rewards, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This favoring of model-free learning may underlie the repetitive behaviors that ultimately dominate in these disorders. Further, we show that the habit formation bias is associated with lower gray matter volumes in caudate and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Our findings suggest that the dysfunction in a common neurocomputational mechanism may underlie diverse disorders involving compulsion.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 20 May 2014; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.44.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This revision of the 2005 British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines for the evidence-based pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders provides an update on key steps in diagnosis and clinical management, including recognition, acute treatment, longer-term treatment, combination treatment, and further approaches for patients who have not responded to first-line interventions. A consensus meeting involving international experts in anxiety disorders reviewed the main subject areas and considered the strength of supporting evidence and its clinical implications. The guidelines are based on available evidence, were constructed after extensive feedback from participants, and are presented as recommendations to aid clinical decision-making in primary, secondary and tertiary medical care. They may also serve as a source of information for patients, their carers, and medicines management and formulary committees.
Journal of Psychopharmacology 04/2014; · 3.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It may be useful to consider the application of Huang & Bargh's (H&B's) theory of unconscious motivational processes to psychopathology. In disorders of compulsivity and impulsivity, an unconscious habit system may play a key role in explaining ego-dystonic or self-destructive behaviour. H&B's theory may provide some insights into understanding conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and drug addiction; however, additional work is needed to address the neurocircuitry and neurochemistry mediating their abnormal underlying motivational processes.
Behavioral and Brain Sciences 04/2014; 37(2):141. · 18.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Impulsivity and compulsivity represent useful conceptualizations that involve dissociable cognitive functions, which are mediated by neuroanatomically and neurochemically distinct components of cortico-subcortical circuitry. The constructs were historically viewed as diametrically opposed, with impulsivity being associated with risk-seeking and compulsivity with harm-avoidance. However, they are increasingly recognized to be linked by shared neuropsychological mechanisms involving dysfunctional inhibition of thoughts and behaviors. In this article, we selectively review new developments in the investigation of the neurocognition of impulsivity and compulsivity in humans, in order to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology of impulsive, compulsive, and addictive disorders and indicate new directions for research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2014). New developments in human neurocognition: clinical, genetic, and brain imaging correlates of impulsivity and compulsivity . CNS Spectrums, 19, pp 69-89 doi:10.1017/S1092852913000801 Request Permissions : Click here
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:It is unknown what next-step strategies are being used in clinical practice for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who do not respond to first-line treatment. As part of a cross-sectional study of OCD, treatment and symptom information was collected.Method:Consecutive OCD out-patients in nine international centers were evaluated by self-report measures and clinical/structured interviews. OCD symptom severity was evaluated by the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S). Clinical response to current treatment was evaluated by the CGI-Improvement Scale (CGI-I ≤ 2).Results:In total, 361 participants reported taking medication; 77.6% were taking a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor; 50% reported use of at least one augmentation strategy. Antipsychotics were most often prescribed as augmenters (30.3%), followed by benzodiazepines (24.9%) and antidepressants (21.9%). No differences in OCD symptom severity were found between patients taking different classes of augmentation agents.Conclusions:Results from this international cross-sectional study indicate that current OCD treatment is in line with evidence-based treatment guidelines. Although augmentation strategies are widely used, no significant differences in OCD symptom severity were found between monotherapy and augmentation or between different therapeutic agents.
Journal of Psychopharmacology 01/2014; · 3.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is disagreement regarding the role of perceived control in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study used a traditional illusion of control paradigm (Alloy and Abramson, 1979) to empirically test control estimation in OCD. Twenty-six OCD patients and 26 matched comparison subjects completed an illusion of control task wherein their goal was to attempt to exert control over a light bulb. The density of reinforcement (high, low) and the valence of trials (gain, loss) were experimentally manipulated within subjects. Unbeknownst to participants, the illumination of the light bulb was predetermined and irrespective of their behavior. OCD patients exhibited lower estimates of control compared with healthy comparison subjects. There were no interactions between group and outcome density or group and valence. We found that OCD patients endorse lower estimates of control than comparison subjects. This finding highlights a potential role for contingency learning in the disorder.
Frontiers in Psychology 01/2014; 5:204. · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hoarding disorder is a new mental disorder in DSM-5. It is classified alongside OCD and other presumably related disorders in the Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders chapter. We examined cognitive performance in two distinct groups comprising individuals with both OCD and severe hoarding, and individuals with hoarding disorder without comorbid OCD. Participants completed executive function tasks assessing inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, spatial planning, probabilistic learning and reversal and decision making. Compared to a matched healthy control group, OCD hoarders showed significantly worse performance on measures of response inhibition, set shifting, spatial planning, probabilistic learning and reversal, with intact decision making. Despite having a strikingly different clinical presentation, individuals with only hoarding disorder did not differ significantly from OCD hoarders on any cognitive measure suggesting the two hoarding groups have a similar pattern of cognitive difficulties. Tests of cognitive flexibility were least similar across the groups, but differences were small and potentially reflected subtle variation in underlying brain pathology together with psychometric limitations. These results highlight both commonalities and potential differences between OCD and hoarding disorder, and together with other lines of evidence, support the inclusion of the new disorder within the new Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders chapter in DSM-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trichotillomania (TTM) (hair-pulling disorder) is a prevalent and disabling disorder characterised by recurrent hair-pulling. The effect of medication on trichotillomania has not been systematically evaluated.
To assess the effects of medication for trichotillomania in adults compared with placebo or other active agents.
We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group Register (to 31 July 2013), which includes relevant randomised controlled trials from the following bibliographic databases: The Cochrane Library (all years); EMBASE (1974 to date); MEDLINE (1950 to date) and PsycINFO (1967 to date). Two review authors identified relevant trials by assessing the abstracts of all possible studies.
We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of a medication versus placebo or active agent for TTM in adults.
Two review authors independently performed the data extraction and 'Risk of bias' assessments, and disagreements were resolved through discussion with a third review author. Primary outcomes included the mean difference (MD) in reduction of trichotillomania symptoms on a continuous measure of trichotillomania symptom severity, and the risk ratio (RR) of the clinical response based on a dichotomous measure, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
We identified eight studies with a total of 204 participants and a mean sample size of 25. All trials were single-centre trials, and participants seen on an outpatient basis. Seven studies compared medication and placebo (n = 184); one study compared medication and another active agent (n = 13). Duration of the studies was six to twelve weeks. Meta-analysis was not undertaken because of the methodological heterogeneity of the trials. The studies did not employ intention-to-treat analyses and were at a high risk of attrition bias. Adverse events were not well-documented in the studies.None of the three studies of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) demonstrated strong evidence of a treatment effect on any of the outcomes of interest. The unpublished naltrexone study did not provide strong evidence of a treatment effect. Two studies, an olanzapine study and a N-acetylcysteine (NAC) study, reported statistically significant treatment effects. One study of clomipramine demonstrated a treatment effect on two out of three measures of response to treatment.
No particular medication class definitively demonstrates efficacy in the treatment of trichotillomania. Preliminary evidence suggests treatment effects of clomipramine, NAC and olanzapine based on three individual trials, albeit with very small sample sizes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and related conditions (trichotillomania, pathological skin-picking, pathological nail-biting) are common and disabling. Current treatment approaches fail to help a significant proportion of patients. Multiple tiers of evidence link these conditions with underlying dysregulation of particular cortico-subcortical circuitry and monoamine systems, which represent targets for treatment. Animal models designed to capture aspects of these conditions are critical for several reasons. First, they help in furthering our understanding of neuroanatomical and neurochemical underpinnings of the obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum. Second, they help to account for the brain mechanisms by which existing treatments (pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, deep brain stimulation) exert their beneficial effects on patients. Third, they inform the search for novel treatments. This article provides a critique of key animal models for selected OC spectrum disorders, beginning with initial work relating to anxiety, but moving on to recent developments in domains of genetic, pharmacological, cognitive, and ethological models. We find that there is a burgeoning literature in these areas with important ramifications, which are considered, along with salient future lines of research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:The aim of this paper is to increase awareness of the prevalence and cost of psychiatric and neurological disorders (brain disorders) in the UK.Method:UK data for 18 brain disorders were extracted from a systematic review of European epidemiological data and prevalence rates and the costs of each disorder were summarized (2010 values).Results:There were approximately 45 million cases of brain disorders in the UK, with a cost of €134 billion per annum. The most prevalent were headache, anxiety disorders, sleep disorders, mood disorders and somatoform disorders. However, the five most costly disorders (€ million) were: dementia: €22,164; psychotic disorders: €16,717; mood disorders: €19,238; addiction: €11,719; anxiety disorders: €11,687. Apart from psychosis, these five disorders ranked amongst those with the lowest direct medical expenditure per subject (<€3000). The approximate breakdown of costs was: 50% indirect costs, 25% direct non-medical and 25% direct healthcare costs.Discussion:The prevalence and cost of UK brain disorders is likely to increase given the ageing population. Translational neurosciences research has the potential to develop more effective treatments but is underfunded. Addressing the clinical and economic challenges posed by brain disorders requires a coordinated effort at an EU and national level to transform the current scientific, healthcare and educational agenda.
Journal of Psychopharmacology 07/2013; · 3.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resolving the entangled nosological dilemma of whether obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with and without schizophrenia (schizo-OCD and OCD, respectively) are two independent entities or whether schizo-OCD is a combined product of its parent disorders.
Studying motor activity in OCD and in schizo-OCD patients. Performance of the patients was compared with the performance of the same motor task by a matching control individual.
Behavior in both schizo-OCD and OCD patients differed from controls in the excessive repetition and addition of acts, thus validating an identical OC facet. However, there was a significant difference in spatial behavior. Schizo-OCD patients traveled over a greater area with less focused activity as typical to schizophrenia patients and in contrast to OCD patients, who were more focused and traveled less in a confined area. While schizo-OCD and OCD patients share most of the OC ritualistic attributes, they differ in the greater spread of activity in schizo-OCD, which is related to schizophrenia disorder. Discussion It is suggested that the finding on difference in spatial behavior is a reflection of the mental differences between OCD and schizophrenia. In other words, this could be an overt and observable manifestation of the mental state, and therefore may facilitate the nosology of OC spectrum disorders and OCD.
It seems as if both the OCD patients' focus on specific thoughts, and the contrasting wandering thoughts of schizophrenia patients, are reflected in the focused activity of the former and wandering from one place to the next of the latter.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies reported a negative effect of early onset and long duration of illness on long-term outcome in psychiatric disorders, including Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). OCD is a prevalent, comorbid and disabling condition, associated with reduced quality of life and overall well-being for affected patients and related caregivers. The present multicenter naturalistic study sought to assess the influence of early onset and duration of illness on long-term outcome in a sample of 376 OCD out-patients worldwide, as part of the "International College of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders" (ICOCS) network. Binary logistic regressions were performed with age at the onset and duration of illness, as continuous independent variables, on a series of different outcome dependent variables, including lifetime number of hospitalizations and suicide attempts, poly-therapy and psychiatric comorbidity. Correlations in terms of disability (SDS) were analyzed as well. Results showed that a longer duration of illness (but not earlier age of onset) was associated with hospitalization (odds ratio=1.03, p=0.01), earlier age at onset with CBT (odds ratio=0.94, p<0.001) and both a later age at onset (odds ratio=1.05, p=0.02) and a shorter duration of illness (odds ratio=0.93, p=0.02) with panic disorder comorbidity. In addition, earlier age at onset inversely correlated with higher social disability (r=-0.12, p=0.048) and longer duration of illness directly correlated with higher disability in work, social and family life (r=0.14, p=0.017; r=0.13, p=0.035; r=0.14, p=0.02). The findings from the present large, multicenter study indicate early onset and long duration of illness as overall negative predictors of long-term outcome in OCD.
European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 06/2013; · 3.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric condition that typically manifests in compulsive urges to perform irrational or excessive avoidance behaviors. A recent account has suggested that compulsivity in OCD might arise from excessive stimulus-response habit formation, rendering behavior insensitive to goal value. We tested if OCD patients have a bias toward habits using a novel shock avoidance task. To explore how habits, as a putative model of compulsivity, might relate to obsessions and anxiety, we recorded measures of contingency knowledge, explicit fear, and physiological arousal. METHODS: Twenty-five OCD patients and 25 control subjects completed a shock avoidance task designed to induce habits through overtraining, which were identified using goal-devaluation. The relationship between habitual behavior, erroneous cognitions, and physiological arousal was assessed using behavior, questionnaires, subjective report, and skin conductance responses. RESULTS: A devaluation sensitivity test revealed that both groups could inhibit unnecessary behavioral responses before overtraining. Following overtraining, OCD patients showed greater avoidance habits than control subjects. Groups did not differ in conditioned arousal (skin conductance responses) at any stage. Additionally, groups did not differ in contingency knowledge or explicit ratings of shock expectancy following the habit test. Habit responses were associated with a subjective urge to respond. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that OCD patients have a tendency to develop excessive avoidance habits, providing support for a habit account of OCD. Future research is needed to fully characterize the causal role of physiological arousal and explicit fear in habit formation in OCD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder of automatic, uncontrollable behaviors and obsessive rumination. There is evidence that OCD patients have difficulties performing goal-directed actions, instead exhibiting repetitive stimulus-response habit behaviors. This might result from the excessive formation of stimulus-response habit associations or from an impairment in the ability to use outcome value to guide behavior. We investigated the latter by examining counterfactual decision making, which is the ability to use comparisons of prospective action-outcome scenarios to guide economic choice. METHODS: We tested decision making (forward counterfactual) and affective responses (backward counterfactual) in 20 OCD patients and 20 matched healthy control subjects using an economic choice paradigm that previously revealed attenuation of both the experience and avoidance of counterfactual emotion in schizophrenia patients and patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions. RESULTS: The use of counterfactual comparison to guide decision making was diminished in OCD patients, who relied primarily on expected value. Unlike the apathetic affective responses previously shown to accompany this decision style, OCD patients reported increased emotional responsivity to the outcomes of their choices and to the counterfactual comparisons that typify regret and relief. CONCLUSIONS: Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients exhibit a pattern of decision making consistent with a disruption in goal-directed forward modeling, basing decisions instead on the temporally present (and more rational) calculation of expected value. In contrast to this style of decision making, emotional responses in OCD were more extreme and reactive than control subjects. These results are in line with an account of disrupted goal-directed cognitive control in OCD.