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ABSTRACT: To investigate HIV and treponema pallidum infection status, risky sexual behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) and its impact factors in China. Snowball sampling was used to recruit subjects from April to August in 2008 in Beijing, Harbin, Zhengzhou and Chengdu city. Serological test of HIV and treponema pallidum were conducted and a questionnaire survey was undertaken among subjects. The questionnaire included social demographics, characteristics of sexual partners and sexual behaviors. A total of 1693 subjects was enrolled in present study, which included 1390 MSM/M (82.1%) and 303 MSMW (17.9%). The infection rate of HIV among MSM/M and MSMW subjects were 7.0% (97/1390) and 6.6% (20/303), respectively. The infection rate of treponema pallidum among MSM/M and MSMW subjects were 11.9% (166/1390) and 13.2% (40/303), respectively. The proportions of MSM/M subjects who never used or sometimes used condoms when having same-sex anal intercourse in recent 6 months were 8.6% (120/1390), 45.3% (630/1390), respectively. The according proportions among MSMW subjects were 10.2% (31/303), 44.6% (135/303), respectively. Among MSM/M subjects, the risk factors of risk sexual behaviors included having less than 6 sexual partners (OR = 6.03, 95%CI: 2.54 - 14.28), no same-sex regular sexual partner (OR = 2.18, 95%CI: 1.30 - 3.65), no same-sex casual sexual partner (OR = 2.90, 95%CI: 1.79 - 4.71), T-pattern only during anal intercourse (OR = 1.64, 95%CI: 1.13 - 2.37) or P-pattern only (OR = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.04 - 2.41). Among MSMW subjects, the risk factors of same-sex risk sexual behaviors included having less than 6 sexual partners (OR = 12.95, 95%CI: 2.38 - 70.52), no same-sex regular sexual partners (OR = 0.42, 95%CI: 0.21 - 0.85), never used condom during heterosexual intercourse (OR = 3.53, 95%CI: 1.48 - 8.42). The infection rate of HIV and treponema pallidum among MSM subjects were quite high, and the same-sex risk sexual behaviors among MSM subjects were ubiquity, whose risk factors including having less than six of sexual partners, no same-sex casual sexual partner, T-pattern or P-pattern only during anal intercourse and never used condemn during heterosexual intercourse among MSMW subjects no same-sex regular partner was a risk factor in MSMS population, while having same-sex regular partners was a risk factor in MSMW population.Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] 04/2012; 46(4):324-8.