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Publications (4)11.07 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We established a method for the simultaneous analysis of seven preservatives and five antimicrobials in water. These chemicals are widely used in cosmetics, and their presence in river water is of concern. We used the method to test 13 sites in Japanese rivers and streams contaminated by domestic wastewater, effluent, or industrial wastewater. 2-Phenoxyethanol (2-PE), isopropylmethylphenol, resorcinol, and triclosan were detected at most sites; the maximum concentration of 2-PE detected was 14000ngL(-1). The results suggest that the major sources of 2-PE were cosmetics and household detergents. The ratio of methylparaben to n-propylparaben in river waters with direct wastewater drainage was similar to that in common cosmetics. This is the first research on levels of 2-PE, isopropylmethylphenol, and chlorphenesin in river water.
    Chemosphere 02/2014; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the fact that some hydrophobic pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been found to accumulate in river sediments, little is known about the contribution of these compounds to the toxicity of the whole sediment. We sampled river sediments from two urban creeks with an unsewered drainage area to investigate the toxicity for a benthic organism, Chironomus yoshimatsui. The concentrations of selected hydrophobic PPCPs, triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC) and galaxolide (HHCB) were analysed using gas chromatographic mass spectroscopy or liquid chromatographic mass spectroscopy and were found to lie within the range 50 to 200 ng g(-1). The toxicity of the three individual contaminants for the chironomid was also determined. The toxicity of TCC was found to be the strongest, with an NOEC value of 2.5 microg g(-1). Combining the toxicity and measured environmental concentration, the ecological risk was assessed and the contribution of these contaminants to the whole sediment toxicity estimated, assuming additivity. The hazard quotient of all three compounds, determined without assessment factor, ranged between 0.01 and 0.1. The combined contribution of the three compounds to total sediment toxicity was as high as 8.2%, but other unknown factors may also make an important contribution.
    Environmental Technology 01/2013; 34(9-12):1567-75. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute and chronic (or sub-chronic) toxicity of five selected antimicrobial agents, including triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC), resorcinol, phenoxyethanol and p-thymol, was investigated using the conventional three-aquatic-organism battery. These compounds are widely used in cosmetics and other personal care products and their ecological risk has recently become a significant concern. As results of toxicity tests, TCS was found to be most strongly toxic for green algae [e.g. 72 h no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of 0.50 µg l(-1) ] among the selected compounds, followed by TCC, while TCC was more toxic or similar to TCS for Daphnia and fish (e.g. Daphnia 8 day NOEC of 1.9 µg l(-1) ). Having compared the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) determined from the toxicity data with measured environmental concentrations (MEC), the preliminary ecological risk assessment of these five antimicrobials was conducted. The MEC/PNEC ratios of TCS and TCC were over 1 for some monitoring data, especially in urban streams with watershed areas without sewage service coverage, and their potential risk for green algae and Daphnia might be at a level of concern, although the contribution of TCS/TCC on the total toxicity of the those sites needs to be further investigated. For the three other antimicrobials, the maximum MEC/PNEC ratio for resorcinol was 0.1-1, but those for phenoxyethanol and p-thymol were <0.1 and their risk to aquatic organisms is limited, although the additive effects with TCS, TCC and other antimicrobial agents, such as parabens, need to be further examined in future studies. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Applied Toxicology 07/2012; · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sun-blocking agents including eight UV filters (UVF) and 10 UV light stabilizers (UVLS) were measured in water and sediment collected from 22 rivers, four sewage treatment plant effluents (STPE) and three lakes in Japan. Total sun blocking agents levels ranged from N.D. to 4928 ng/L and from 2.0 to 3422 μg/kg dry wt in surface water and in sediment, respectively. Benzyl salicylate, benzophenone-3, 2-ethyl hexyl-4-methoxycinnamte (EHMC) and octyl salicylate were dominant in surface water receiving wastewater effluents and STPE, although UV-328, benzophenone and EHMC were dominant in other surface water except background sites. Three UVF and nine UVLS were observed from all sediment and their compositions showed similar patterns with UV-328 and UV-234 as the most prevalent compounds. Homosalate, octocrylene, UV-326, UV-327, UV-328 and UV-234 were significantly correlated with Galaxolide® in sediments. Concentrations of UV-327 and UV-328 also had strong correlation between those of UV-326 in sediment.
    Environmental Pollution 03/2011; 159(6):1570-6. · 3.73 Impact Factor