Reyes Barberá

University of Valencia, Valenza, Valencia, Spain

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Publications (133)175.46 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: High dietary intakes of cholesterol together with sedentary habits have been identified as major contributors to atherosclerosis. The latter has long been considered a cholesterol storage disease; however, today atherosclerosis is considered a more complex disease in which both innate and adaptive immune-inflammatory mechanisms as well as bacteria play a major role, in addition to interactions between the arterial wall and blood components. This scenario has promoted nutritional recommendations to enrich different type of foods with plant sterols (PS) because of their cholesterol-lowering effects. In addition to cholesterol, PS can also be oxidized during food processing or storage, and the oxidized derivatives, known as phytosterol oxidation products (POPs), can make an important contribution to the negative effects of both cholesterol and cholesterol oxidation oxides (COPs) in relation to inflammatory disease onset and the development of atherosclerosis. Most current research efforts have focused on COPs, and evaluations of the particular role and physiopathological implications of specific POPs have been only inferential. Appreciation of the inflammatory role described for both COPs and POPs derived from foods also provides additional reasons for safety studies after long-term consumption of PS. The balance and relevance for health of all these effects deserves further studies in humans. This review summarizes current knowledge about the presence of sterol oxidation products (SOPs) in foods and their potential role in inflammatory process and cardiovascular disease.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 04/2014; · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High dietary intakes of cholesterol together with sedentary habits have been identified as major contributors to atherosclerosis. The latter has long been considered a cholesterol storage disease; however, today atherosclerosis is considered a more complex disease in which both innate and adaptive immune-inflammatory mechanisms as well as bacteria play a major role, in addition to interactions between the arterial wall and blood components. This scenario has promoted nutritional recommendations to enrich different type of foods with plant sterols (PS) because of their cholesterol-lowering effects. In addition to cholesterol, PS can also be oxidized during food processing or storage, and the oxidized derivatives, known as phytosterol oxidation products (POPs), can make an important contribution to the negative effects of both cholesterol and cholesterol oxidation oxides (COPs) in relation to inflammatory disease onset and the development of atherosclerosis. Most current research efforts have focused on COPs, and evaluations of the particular role and physiopathological implications of specific POPs have been only inferential. Appreciation of the inflammatory role described for both COPs and POPs derived from foods also provides additional reasons for safety studies after long-term consumption of PS. The balance and relevance for health of all these effects deserves further studies in humans. This review summarizes current knowledge about the presence of sterol oxidation products (SOPs) in foods and their potential role in inflammatory process and cardiovascular disease.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology. 01/2014; 69:140–149.
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aim Post-menopausal women are at higher risk of cardiovascular disease and bone demineralization. Phytosterols (PS) may be used for hypercholesterolemia in some groups and β-cryptoxanthin (β-Cx) displays a unique anabolic effect on bone. Our aim was to assess the changes in cardiovascular and bone turnover markers from the oral intake of β-Cx and PS in post-menopausal women. Methods and results; A randomized, double-blind, crossover study with β-Cx (0.75 mg/day) and PS (1.5 g/day), single and combined, was performed in 38 postmenopausal women. Diet was supplemented with 1 x 250 mL milk-based fruit drink/day for 4 weeks with a wash-out period of 4-weeks in between. Serum β-Cx and PS were determined by UPLC and CG-FID respectively. Outcome variables included markers of bone turnover and cardiovascular risk. Biological effect was assessed by paired t test and generalized estimating equations analysis that included the previous treatment, the order of intervention and the interactions. The intake of beverages containing β-Cx and PS brought about a significant increase in serum levels of β-Cx, β-sitosterol and campesterol. Intervention caused changes in almost all the markers while the order, previous treatment and the interaction did not reach statistical significance. Only the intake of the beverage containing β-Cx plus PS brought about significant decreases in total cholesterol, c-HDL, c-LDL and bone turnover markers. Conclusions β-Cx improves the cholesterol-lowering effect of PS when supplied simultaneously and this combination may also be beneficial in reducing risk of osteoporosis. Clinical Trial Registry ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01074723.
    Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A study has been made of the influence of two pools of caseinophosphopeptides (CPPs) obtained from α(s)- and β-casein (CN) fractions, and of three specific CPPs (β-CN(1-25)4P, α(s1)-CN(64-74)4P and α(s2)-CN(1-19)4P), on iron bioavailability (ferritin synthesis) and zinc bioavailability (retention, transport and uptake of zinc) in Caco-2 cells. α-CPP and β-CPP pools did not improve ferritin synthesis, but the three specific CPPs showed an increase in ferritin synthesis in Caco-2 cells versus iron sulphate, β-CN(1-25)4P being the most effective. In relation to zinc bioavailability, α-CPPs, β-CPPs, α(s1)-CN(64-74)4P and β-CN(1-25)4P increased zinc uptake. However, this increase was of the same order as the increase due to the presence of zinc sulphate.
    Food Chemistry 06/2013; 138(2-3):1298-303. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human diets contain sterol oxidation products that can induce cytotoxic effects, mainly caused by cholesterol oxides. However, phytosterol oxides effects have been less extensively investigated. This study evaluates the production of inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, TNFα) and the influence of gene expression transporters and enzymes related to cholesterol absorption and metabolism (NPC1L1, ABCG5/8, HMGCoA, ACAT) produced by 7-ketosterols (stigmasterol/cholesterol) in Caco-2 cells. These effects were linked to intracellular signaling pathways by using several inhibitors. Results showed 7-ketostigmasterol to have a greater proinflammatory potential than 7-ketocholesterol. In non-pre-treated cells, only efflux transporters were down-regulated by 7-ketosterols, showing a greater influence upon ABCG5 expression. Cell-pre-incubation with bradykinin induced changes in ABCG expression levels after 7-ketostigmasterol-incubation; however, the energetic metabolism inhibition reduced NPC1L1 expression only in 7-ketocholesterol-incubated cells. In non-pre-treated cells, HMG-CoA was up-regulated by both 7-ketosterols. However, exposure to inhibitors down-regulated the expression levels, mainly in 7-ketocholesterol-incubated cells. While ACAT expression values in non-pre-treated cells were unchanged, exposure to inhibitors caused down-regulation of mRNA levels. These results suggest that internalization and excretion of 7-ketostigmasterol is probably influenced by [Ca]i, which also could mediate HMGCoA activity in POPs metabolism. However, energetic metabolism and reducing equivalents exert different influences upon the 7-ketosterol internalization.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 02/2013; · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of the main gangliosides (GM(1), GM(3), GD(3)) and free sialic acid (Neu5Ac) upon the adhesion of pathogenic bacteria implicated in infant diarrhoea is assessed in vitro using the Caco-2 cell line. Concentrations of the bioactive compounds found in the bioaccessible (soluble) fraction of infant formula and human milk are employed. Bacterial adhesion behaviour included enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC), Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella entericaserovartyphi, Shigella sonnei, Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pylori. Three different approaches were assayed: pre-incubation of bacteria and compounds before addition to cells (competition); pre-incubation of the cells with compounds (exclusion); and pre-incubation of cells with bacteria (displacement). Furthermore, the spatial localization of the most abundant gangliosides, GM(3) and GD(3), in Caco-2 cells has been determined using confocal microscopy. Results show that GM(3), GD(3), GM(1) and Neu5Ac at the assayed concentrations are able to interfere with the adhesion of several pathogenic bacteria involved in neonatal diseases-the greatest effect corresponding to Neu5Ac, followed by GD(3), GM(1) and GM(3). Gangliosides GM(3) and GD(3) are located in the apical and basolateral membranes of the Caco-2 cells.
    Food Chemistry 01/2013; 136(2):726-34. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 01/2013; 72(OCE1). · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Determination of the main phytosterols (Ps, b-sitosterol and campesterol) and cholesterol precursors (desmosterol and lathosterol) in human serum using a simple GC-FID method has been validated. Direct saponification, without lipid extraction, sterols extraction, and further derivatization was applied to samples prior to GC analysis. To evaluate the method, a pool of serum samples from eight healthy women was used. Good linearity (r>0.99) was found in the assay range: b-sitosterol (0.99–17.82 mg/mL), campesterol (0.14–10.8 mg/mL), desmosterol (0.17–2.6 mg/mL), and lathosterol (0.6–5.97 mg/mL). Limits of detection (ng/mL) were: 86 (b-sitosterol), 42 (campesterol), 4 (desmosterol), and 44 (lathosterol). Accuracy, estimated by recovery assays (%), were: 113 (b-sitosterol), 114 (campesterol), 111 (desmosterol), and 102 (lathosterol). Within and between precision values (%), expressed as the relative SD (RSD), were: 2.6 and 8.1 (b-sitosterol), 1.6 and 7.2 (campesterol), 2.1 and 7.9 (desmosterol), and 4.1 and 5.8 (lathosterol), respectively. The developed methodology allowed fast (1-day analysis) and reliable quantification of sterols in serum, required a small volume of sample and reduced use of solvents. It therefore could be used in clinical assays for the determination of serum sterols, as in evaluating the pharmacological response to lipid-lowering agents, and in assessing biological responses to Ps-enriched diets. Practical applications: This methodology allows fast and reliable quantification of sterols in serum, requiring a small volume of sample and reduced use of solvents. It can be used as a routine method for the quantification of phytosterols and cholesterol precursors in clinical assays, and it is also suitable for monitoring biological responses to health-promoting phytosterol-enriched diets.
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    ABSTRACT: Two different plant sterol (PS) sources (free PS from tall oil and esterified PS from vegetable oils) were used for manufacturing two types of functional beverages (fruit and milk-based fruit beverages), and their PS and phytosterol oxidation product (POP) contents were determined. Gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS) was used for identification and gas chromatography–flame ionization detection (GC–FID) for quantitation purposes. Brassicasterol, campesterol, campestanol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol and sitostanol were the quantified PS, conforming a profile in order with current legislation. The relative percentages of PS differed according to the enrichment source involved, though the enrichment levels (g/100 g beverage) were of the same order (1.77 from tall oil and 1.84 from vegetable oils). Only POPs from β-sitosterol (the prevalent PS in the analyzed beverages) were detected — the predominant representative being 7β-hydroxysitosterol (39–58.5% of total POP content). The following POPs were quantified: 7α-hydroxy, β-epoxy, α-epoxy, and 7-ketositosterol, yielding a total POP content ranging between 42.9 and 57.4 mg/100 g of PS. No statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) in total and individual POP content according to the source of PS were found. The mean β-sitosterol oxidation percentage was < 0.07%, which reflected a low PS oxidation extent, though manufacture was on a laboratory scale regardless of the PS source used in enrichment of the functional beverages. These functional drinks therefore can be regarded as healthy food products and as an adequate PS vehicle as well.
    Food Research International. 08/2012; 48(1):265–270.
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    ABSTRACT: The biological implications of cholesterol oxidation products have been investigated, though research on plant sterol oxidation products is scarce and in some cases contradictory. The cytotoxicity of 7keto(k)-stigmasterol versus 7keto(k)-cholesterol at different concentrations (0-120 μM) and incubation times (4-24h), in intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2 cells) was evaluated. The 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,3-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and neutral red uptake tests, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and relative DNA and RNA contents in the cell cycle phases were determined. Possible interaction effects between 7k-derivatives or non-oxidized stigmasterol were monitored. Endo/lysosomal activity was not impaired by either oxide. 7k-cholesterol showed a deleterious effect upon the mitochondrial compartment after 24h of exposure (120 μM), as well as upon ΔΨm when incubated at all concentrations (12/24h). Only cells incubated with 7k-cholesterol (120 μM) exhibited a decrease in RNA proportion in the G1 population. The presence of 7k-stigmasterol or stigmasterol with 7k-cholesterol reduced the deleterious metabolic effects upon mitochondrial functionality and integrity and the distribution of RNA contents in G1 and G2 phases. A decrease in the G1 phase proportion was detected in cells exposed to mixtures, without alterations in RNA content. The results obtained indicate the absence of 7k-stigmasterol cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells and its capacity to reduce 7k-cholesterol toxicity.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 06/2012; 50(9):3106-13. · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A study was made of the effect of high-pressure processing (HPP) and thermal treatment (TT) on plant bioactive compounds (tocopherols, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid) in 12 fruit juice-milk beverages and of how the food matrix [whole milk (JW), skimmed milk (JS), and soy milk (JSy)] modulates their bioaccessibility (%). HPP (400 MPa/40 °C/5 min) produced a significant decrease in carotenoid and ascorbic acid bioaccessibility in all three beverages and maintained the bioaccessibility of tocopherols in JW and JS while decreasing it in JSy. TT (90 °C/30 s) produced a significant decrease in tocopherol and carotenoid bioaccessibility in all three beverages and increased the bioaccessibility of ascorbic acid. With regard to the food matrix, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid bioaccessibility was greatest in JW beverages and lowest in JSy beverages, whereas no significant differences were found among the three beverages in terms of carotenoid bioaccessibility. HPP-treated samples showed higher tocopherol and carotenoid bioaccessibility than TT-treated samples, thus indicating that HPP combined with a milk matrix positively modulates the bioaccessibility of certain types of bioactive components of food, mainly those of a lipophilic nature.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 06/2012; 60(29):7282-90. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluates Hg and Se concentrations and bioaccessibility (element solubilised after simulated gastrointestinal digestion) in 16 raw seafood species consumed in Spain. The concentrations varied greatly (Hg, 3.8-1621 ng/g wet weight, ww; Se, 84-1817 ng/g ww). Only one sample of swordfish exceeded the Hg limit permitted in Spain (1mg/kg), and for this sample the Hg/Se molar ratio and Se Health Benefit Value food safety criteria also indicated the presence of a risk. Bioaccessibility of Hg (35-106%) and Se (17-125%) was very variable and the Hg/Se molar ratio in the bioaccessible fraction was less than one for all samples. Transport by Caco-2 cells, an intestinal epithelium model, was also evaluated from the swordfish bioaccessible fraction. Hg and Se transport from the food was less than 14%, and cell retention was much greater for Hg (49-69%) than Se (8-12%).
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 05/2012; 50(8):2696-702. · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t The stability of fatty acids and tocopherols from human milk from 8 healthy lactating mothers was determined in fresh milk and after cold storage. Refrigeration at 4 C for 48 h or freezing at À20 C for 30 days did not significantly decrease fatty acid contents (mg per 100 g human milk), or concentrations of a-, b-, g-and d-tocopherol isomers, compared with fresh milk. Results obtained in the present study showed that cold storage under the usual storage conditions in neonatal units, at home or in milk banks did not have a detrimental effect upon fatty acids and tocopherols contents in human milk. Thus, infants can receive stored human milk without losses in the nutritional value of these components.
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    ABSTRACT: Plant sterols (PS) stability, antioxidant parameters, and color were studied during 6 months of storage at 4, 24, and 37 °C in three PS-enriched functional beverages. Beverages were skimmed milk with fruit juice and PS (MFJPS), fruit juice and PS (FJPS), and skimmed milk with PS (MPS). No loss in total PS content occurred during storage observing the same values at any given storage time point. Total carotenoids decreased 36% with storage at two months and then remained stable. Total polyphenols showed fluctuations throughout the storage, remaining stable at 6 months and reaching initial values. The antioxidant capacity (TEAC method) increased 18% at 6 months, and there was an increase in color over time and temperature, probably due to Maillard reaction compound formation. The increase in total antioxidant capacity might have helped PS maintenance throughout storage, these beverages being a good PS source even after 6 months of storage.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 04/2012; 60(18):4725-34. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 11/2011; · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t Caseinophosphopeptides can sequester prooxidant metals and scavenge free radicals, and may thus be used as functional food ingredients. The total antioxidant capacity (TEAC and ORAC) of two pools of case-inophosphopeptides (1–3 mg/ml), obtained from casein subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion (at two different pH values) and selective precipitation, was evaluated to determine dose–response activity. Pool B (which showed the highest antioxidant capacity due to the presence of more antioxidant amino acids) was used to test its cytoprotective effect against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells. Caseinophosphopeptides protected the cells against oxidative damage by preserving cell viability, increasing GSH content, inducing catalase enzyme activity, diminishing lipid peroxidation and maintain-ing a correct cell cycle progression. However, they failed to exert protection at a mitochondrial level (ROS and mitochondrial membrane potential), implying a partial and site-specific effect. Thus, their mecha-nism of action is not only related to free radical scavenging activity, but also to metal chelation and the modulation of intracellular signaling cascades.
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    ABSTRACT: Fruit beverages are commonly supplemented with milk, vitamins and/or minerals in order to improve their healthy effects by providing some bioactive components that can act additively or synergistically against oxidative stress. Aims: To test whether iron, zinc, and milk added to fruit beverages do not affect the cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage to Caco-2 cells through GSH-related enzymes induction and cell cycle progression preservation, in comparison with non-supplemented fruit beverage. Caco-2 cells were incubated 24 h with the bioaccessible fraction (BF) of eight fruit beverages with/without iron and/or zinc, and/or milk, and then challenged with H2O2 (5 mmol L-1 -2 h). Mitochondrial enzyme activities (MTT test), GSH-Rd and GSH-Px enzyme activities, cell cycle progression and caspase-3 activity were measured. Fruit beverages prevented the deleterious effect of H2O2 on cell viability, with almost all samples reaching control basal levels. Only independent iron or zinc supplementation with/without milk exerted positive effects upon GSH-Rd activity. Both minerals with milk, afforded improved preservation of GSH-Px activity. All samples prevented the decrease in the G1 phase of cell cycle induced by H2O2, except iron supplemented samples with/without milk, but none of them avoided the increase in sub-G1 phase. However, this fact was not associated to caspase-3 activity, with a probable positive effect of zinc upon this parameter. Mineral and/or milk supplementation of fruit beverages helps in the prevention of oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells based on cell viability maintenance, GSH-related enzymes activation, cell cycle distribution preservation and inhibition of caspase-3 activation.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 06/2011; 26(3):614-21. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Fruit beverages are commonly supplemented with milk, vitamins and/or minerals in order to improve their healthy effects by providing some bioactive components that can act additively or synergistically against oxidative stress. Aims: To test whether iron, zinc, and milk added to fruit beverages do not affect the cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage to Caco-2 cells through GSH-related enzymes induction and cell cycle progression preservation, in comparison with non-supplemented fruit beverage. Methods: Caco-2 cells were incubated 24 h with the bioaccessible fraction (BF) of eight fruit beverages with/without iron and/or zinc, and/or milk, and then challenged with H2O2 (5 mmol L-1 -2 h). Mitochondrial enzyme activities (MTT test), GSH-Rd and GSH-Px enzyme activities, cell cycle progression and caspase-3 activity were measured. Results and discussion: Fruit beverages prevented the deleterious effect of H2O2 on cell viability, with almost all samples reaching control basal levels. Only independent iron or zinc supplementation with/without milk exerted positive effects upon GSH-Rd activity. Both minerals with milk, afforded improved preservation of GSH-Px activity. All samples prevented the decrease in the G1 phase of cell cycle induced by H2O2, except iron supplemented samples with/without milk, but none of them avoided the increase in sub-G1 phase. However, this fact was not associated to caspase-3 activity, with a probable positive effect of zinc upon this parameter. Conclusion: Mineral and/or milk supplementation of fruit beverages helps in the prevention of oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells based on cell viability maintenance, GSH-related enzymes activation, cell cycle distribution preservation and inhibition of caspase-3 activation.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 06/2011; 26(3):614-621. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of simulated gastrointestinal digestion upon sialic acid and gangliosides in infant and follow-on formulas and human milk, as well as their bioaccessibility, have been evaluated. The gastric stage is the step that causes a greater decrease in sialic acid and ganglioside contents. The intestinal stage only decreases the total and individual contents of gangliosides. After gastrointestinal digestion, neither sialic acid nor gangliosides were found in the nonbioaccessible fraction. The highest bioaccessibility (100 × content in soluble fraction after gastrointestinal digestion/total content) of sialic acid is found in human milk (87%), followed by infant formula (77%) and follow-on formula (16%). In the case of gangliosides, the highest bioaccessibility is present in the follow-on formula (51%), followed by human milk (29%) and infant formula (5%).
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 05/2011; 59(10):5755-62. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Resumen Introducción: En la actualidad las bebidas a base de zumo de frutas llevan adicionadas leche, vitaminas y/o minerales con objeto de mejorar sus efectos beneficiosos para la salud mediante el aporte de numerosos compues-tos bioactivos que pueden actuar de forma aditiva o sinér-gica frente al estrés oxidativo. Objetivos: Evaluar si la adición de hierro, cinc y leche a las bebidas a base de zumo de frutas no afecta al efecto cito-protector frente al daño oxidativo en células Caco-2 a través de la inducción de enzimas del ciclo del GSH y la preserva-ción de la progresión del ciclo celular, en comparación con la bebida a base de zumo de frutas no suplementada. Métodos: Las células Caco-2 se incubaron 24 h con las fracciones bioaccesibles (FB) de ocho bebidas a base de zumo de frutas con/sin hierro y/o cinc y/o leche, y se some-tieron a estrés oxidativo con H 2 O 2 (5 mmol L -1 -2 h). Se deter-minó la actividad enzimática mitocondrial (test MTT), la actividad de las enzimas GSH-Rd y GSH-Px, la progresión del ciclo celular y la actividad de la enzima caspasa-3. Resultados y discusión: Las bebidas a base de zumo de frutas previnieron del efecto perjudicial del H 2 O 2 sobre la viabilidad celular, con casi todas las muestras alcanzando los niveles basales del control. Sólo la adición independiente de hierro o cinc con/sin leche ejerció efectos positivos sobre la actividad de la enzima GSH-Rd. Por otra parte, ambos minerales con leche proporcionaron una mejor preserva-ción en la actividad de la enzima GSH-Px. Todas las mues-tras previnieron el descenso en la fase G1 del ciclo celular inducido por el H 2 O 2 , excepto la muestra adicionada de hie-rro, pero ninguna de ellas evitó el incremento en la fase subG1 del ciclo celular. Abstract Introduction: Fruit beverages are commonly supple-mented with milk, vitamins and/or minerals in order to improve their healthy effects by providing some bioactive components that can act additively or synergistically against oxidative stress. Aims: To test whether iron, zinc, and milk added to fruit beverages do not affect the cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage to Caco-2 cells through GSH-related enzymes induction and cell cycle progression preservation, in comparison with non-supplemented fruit beverage. Methods: Caco-2 cells were incubated 24 h with the bioaccessible fraction (BF) of eight fruit beverages with/without iron and/or zinc, and/or milk, and then chal-lenged with H 2 O 2 (5 mmol L -1 -2 h). Mitochondrial enzyme activities (MTT test), GSH-Rd and GSH-Px enzyme activities, cell cycle progression and caspase-3 activity were measured. Results and discussion: Fruit beverages prevented the deleterious effect of H 2 O 2 on cell viability, with almost all samples reaching control basal levels. Only independent iron or zinc supplementation with/without milk exerted positive effects upon GSH-Rd activity. Both minerals with milk, afforded improved preservation of GSH-Px activity. All samples prevented the decrease in the G1 phase of cell cycle induced by H 2 O 2 , except iron supple-mented samples with/without milk, but none of them avoided the increase in sub-G1 phase. However, this fact was not associated to caspase-3 activity, with a probable positive effect of zinc upon this parameter. Conclusion: Mineral and/or milk supplementation of fruit beverages helps in the prevention of oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells based on cell viability maintenance, GSH-related enzymes activation, cell cycle distribution preser-vation and inhibition of caspase-3 activation.

Publication Stats

790 Citations
175.46 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1989–2014
    • University of Valencia
      • Facultad de Farmacia
      Valenza, Valencia, Spain
  • 2010
    • Hospital Universitario Doctor Peset
      • Endocrinology Service
      Valencia, Valencia, Spain
  • 2008
    • Instituto de Biomecánica de Valencia
      Valenza, Valencia, Spain
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Food Science
      Ithaca, NY, United States
  • 1993–2007
    • Polytechnical University of Valencia
      Valenza, Valencia, Spain
  • 2006
    • Spanish National Research Council
      Hispalis, Andalusia, Spain
  • 1988
    • University of Barcelona
      • Department Analytical Chemistry
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain