Angeliki Karanasiou

Spanish National Research Council, Hispalis, Andalusia, Spain

Are you Angeliki Karanasiou?

Claim your profile

Publications (46)146.23 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emitted by eight different light-duty vehicles. Exhaust samples from petrol and diesel cars (Euro 3 to Euro 5) were collected in a chassis dynamometer facility. To simulate the real-world driving conditions, three ARTEMIS cycles were followed: road, to simulate a fluid traffic flow and urban with hot and cold starts, to simulate driving conditions in cities. Samples were analysed for the water-soluble ions, for the elemental composition and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), respectively, by ion chromatography, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nitrate and phosphate were the major water-soluble ions in the exhaust particles emitted from diesel and petrol vehicles, respectively. The amount of material emitted is affected by the vehicle age. For vehicles ≥Euro 4, most elements were below the detection limits. Sodium, with emission factors in the ranges 23.5-62.4 and 78.2-227μg km(-1), for petrol and diesel Euro 3 vehicles, respectively, was the major element. The emission factors of metallic elements indicated that diesel vehicles release three to five times more than petrol automobiles. Element emissions under urban cycles are higher than those found for on-road driving, being three or four times higher, for petrol vehicles, and two or three times, for diesel vehicles. The difference between cycles is mainly due to the high emissions for the urban cycle with hot start-up. As registered for elements, most of the PAH emissions for vehicles ≥Euro 4 were also below the detection limits. Regardless of the vehicle models or driving cycles, the two- to four-ring PAHs were always dominant. Naphthalene, with emission factors up to 925 μg km(-1), was always the most abundant PAH. The relative cancer risk associated with naphthalene was estimated to be up to several orders of magnitude higher than any of the chemical species found in the PM phase. The highest PAH emission factors were registered for diesel-powered vehicles. The condition of the vehicle can exert a decisive influence on both element and PAH emissions.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11356-015-4394-x · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In order to address road traffic emissions, studies need to be performed under realistic driving conditions where the input from other sources is minimised. Measurements in traffic tunnels have been used for quantifying emissions, but so far no study has established emission factors (EFs) for Southern Europe. To fill this gap, a sampling campaign was carried out for one week in the Liberdade Avenue tunnel (Braga, Portugal). The campaign included the monitoring of gaseous pollutants (CO2, CO, NOx) and suspended particulate matter (PM) at two sites, one in the tunnel and another in an urban background location. Organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in size-segregated particles (PM0.5, PM0.5–1, PM1–2.5 and PM2.5–10) were determined by a thermal–optical system, whereas major and trace elements were analysed by ICP-MS and ICP-AES. PM0.5 accounted for 56% of the PM10 mass, while PM2.5–10 represented only 12%. The carbonaceous fraction was concentrated in PM0.5, encompassing 88% of the EC and 67% of the OC present in PM10. Elements attributable to non-exhaust emissions could be divided into two groups. Fe, Ba, Cu, Sb, Sn and Zn, from tyre and brake wear, were more abundant in particles between 1 and 2 μm. Ca, Al, K, Sr and Ti, associated with soil resuspension, were mainly present in particles > 2 μm. The average EFs of CO, CO2 and NOx were 212, 4.02 and 1.22 g veh− 1 km− 1, respectively, while values of 152 mg PM10 veh− 1 km− 1 and 133 mg PM2.5 veh− 1 km− 1 were obtained for the particles. OC and EC emission factor was 39 mg veh− 1 km− 1 for PM10. The corresponding OC and EC values for PM2.5 were 34 and 38 mg veh− 1 km− 1. The EFs are slightly lower than those found for other tunnels, but within the ranges presented by the EMEP/EEA inventory.
    Atmospheric Research 02/2015; 153:134–144. DOI:10.1016/j.atmosres.2014.08.002 · 2.42 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A comparison exercise on thermal-optical elemental carbon/organic carbon (ECOC) analysers was carried out among 17 European laboratories. Contrary to previous comparison exercises, the 17 participants made use of an identical instrument set-up, after correcting for temperature offsets with the application of a recently developed temperature calibration kit (Sunset Laboratory Inc, OR, US). Temperature offsets reported by participants ranged from −93 to +100 °C per temperature step. Five filter samples and two sucrose solutions were analysed with both the EUSAAR2 and NIOSH870 thermal protocols. z scores were calculated for total carbon (TC); nine outliers and three stragglers were identified. Three outliers and eight stragglers were found for EC. Overall, the participants provided results between the warning levels with the exception of two laboratories that showed poor performance, the causes of which were identified and corrected through the course of the comparison exercise. The TC repeatability and reproducibility (expressed as relative standard deviations) were 11 and 15% for EUSAAR2 and 9.2 and 12% for NIOSH870; the standard deviations for EC were 15 and 20% for EUSAAR2 and 20 and 26% for NIOSH870. TC was in good agreement between the two protocols, TCNIOSH870 = 0.98 × TCEUSAAR2 (R2 = 1.00, robust means). Transmittance (TOT) calculated EC for NIOSH870 was found to be 20% lower than for EUSAAR2, ECNIOSH870 = 0.80 × ECEUSAAR2 (R2 = 0.96, robust means). The thermograms and laser signal values were compared and similar peak patterns were observed per sample and protocol for most participants. Notable deviations from the typical patterns indicated either the absence or inaccurate application of the temperature calibration procedure and/or pre-oxidation during the inert phase of the analysis. Low or zero pyrolytic organic carbon (POC), as reported by a few participants, is suggested as an indicator of an instrument-specific pre-oxidation. A sample-specific pre-oxidation effect was observed for filter G, for all participants and both thermal protocols, indicating the presence of oxygen donors on the suspended particulate matter. POC (TOT) levels were lower for NIOSH870 than for EUSAAR2, which is related to the heating profile differences of the two thermal protocols.
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 01/2015; 8(2):779. DOI:10.5194/amt-8-779-2015 · 3.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emitted by eight different light-duty vehicles. Exhaust samples from petrol and diesel cars (Euro 3 to Euro 5) were collected in a chassis dynamometer facility. To simulate the real-world driving conditions, three ARTEMIS cycles were followed: road, to simulate a fluid traffic flow and urban with hot and cold starts, to simulate driving conditions in cities. Samples were analysed for the water-soluble ions, for the elemental composition and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), respectively, by ion chromatography, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nitrate and phosphate were the major water-soluble ions in the exhaust particles emitted from diesel and petrol vehicles, respectively. The amount of material emitted is affected by the vehicle age. For vehicles ≥Euro 4, most elements were below the detection limits. Sodium, with emission factors in the ranges 23.5–62.4 and 78.2–227μg km−1, for petrol and diesel Euro 3 vehicles, respectively, was the major element. The emission factors of metallic elements indicated that diesel vehicles release three to five times more than petrol automobiles. Element emissions under urban cycles are higher than those found for on-road driving, being three or four times higher, for petrol vehicles, and two or three times, for diesel vehicles. The difference between cycles is mainly due to the high emissions for the urban cycle with hot start-up. As registered for elements, most of the PAH emissions for vehicles ≥Euro 4 were also below the detection limits. Regardless of the vehicle models or driving cycles, the two- to four-ring PAHs were always dominant. Naphthalene, with emission factors up to 925 μg km−1, was always the most abundant PAH. The relative cancer risk associated with naphthalene was estimated to be up to several orders of magnitude higher than any of the chemical species found in the PM phase. The highest PAH emission factors were registered for diesel-powered vehicles. The condition of the vehicle can exert a decisive influence on both element and PAH emissions.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 01/2015; · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Few recent studies examined acute effects on health of individual chemical species in the particulate matter (PM) mixture, and most of them have been conducted in North America. Studies in Southern Europe are scarce. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between particulate matter constituents and daily hospital admissions and mortality in five cities in Southern Europe. The study included five cities in Southern Europe, three cities in Spain: Barcelona (2003-2010), Madrid (2007-2008) and Huelva (2003-2010); and two cities in Italy: Rome (2005-2007) and Bologna (2011-2013). A case-crossover design was used to link cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions and total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality with a pre-defined list of 16 PM10 and PM2.5 constituents. Lags 0 to 2 were examined. City-specific results were combined by random-effects meta-analysis. Most of the elements studied, namely EC, SO4(2-), SiO2, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ti, Mn, V and Ni, showed increased percent changes in cardiovascular and/or respiratory hospitalizations, mainly at lags 0 and 1. The percent increase by one interquartile range (IQR) change ranged from 0.69% to 3.29%. After adjustment for total PM levels, only associations for Mn, Zn and Ni remained significant. For mortality, although positive associations were identified (Fe and Ti for total mortality; EC and Mg for cardiovascular mortality; and NO3(-) for respiratory mortality) the patterns were less clear. The associations found in this study reflect that several PM constituents, originating from different sources, may drive previously reported results between PM and hospital admissions in the Mediterranean area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Environment international 11/2014; 75C:151-158. DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2014.11.011 · 5.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives While several studies have reported associations of daily exposures to PM2.5 (particles less than 2.5 mu m) with mortality, few studies have examined the impact of its constituents such as black carbon (BC), which is also a significant contributor to global climate change. Methods We assessed the association between daily concentrations of BC and total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in two southern Mediterranean cities. Daily averages of BC were collected for 2 years in Barcelona, Spain and Athens, Greece. We used case-crossover analysis and examined single and cumulative lags up to 3 days. Results We observed associations between BC and all mortality measures. For a 3-day moving average, cardiovascular mortality increased by 4.5% (95% CI 0.7 to 8.5) and 2.0% (95% CI 0 to 4.0) for an interquartile change in BC in Athens and Barcelona, respectively. Considerably higher effects for respiratory mortality and for those above age 65 were observed. In addition, BC exhibited much greater toxicity per microgram than generic PM2.5. Conclusions Our findings suggest that BC, derived in western industrialised nations primarily from diesel engines and biomass burning, poses a significant burden to public health, particularly in European cities with high-traffic density.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine 11/2014; 72(2). DOI:10.1136/oemed-2014-102184 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The variability of common aerosol species in large Metropolitan urban areas is a major air quality issue with strong health impacts of large populations. PM10 and PM2.5 particulate matter samples were obtained at three sites characteristic of industrial, urban traffic and sub-urban residential areas in the Athens basin. Samples were analysed for anions (Cl−, NO3−, SO42−) and cations (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+) using ion chromatography. The spatial and temporal variability for the particulate matter (PM) concentration mass and water-soluble ionic species concentrations for the investigated sites were studied. Mean PM fine concentration levels were 20% higher at the industrial and the central urban areas compared to those in the suburban area (24.2 μg/m3). The mean values for the coarse fraction at those two sites were two to three times higher compared to those at the suburban site (12.4 μg/m3). Comparable concentration levels of most species were observed in all areas, while SO42− and NO3− differ at a significant level. Furthermore, the average size distributions of the mass and individual ions at the suburban site (NCSR Demokritos) showed a bimodal size distribution. SO42− and NH4+ have their main peak in the fine fraction while NO3− showed equal distribution on the fine and coarse mode. . Good correlation was found for SO42− and NO3− with Ca2+ and Na+ with Cl− for the coarse fraction in the industrial area. NH4+ was closely correlated with SO42− in the fine particles and in all areas. For the urban site the best correlations in coarse particulates were reported between Na+/Mg2+–Cl−, Ca2+/Mg2+–SO42−, explained by neutralization of acidic aerosol by soil dust and sea salt in the coarse fraction. Moreover, time weighted concentrations roses at the industrial and urban sites, showed no significant directional dependence, indicating either uniform generation of mainly the coarse species within the metropolitan area or major influence of the regional background for the fine aerosol species.
    Atmospheric Environment 11/2014; 97:252–261. DOI:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.08.013 · 3.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A detailed spatial and temporal assessment of urban NH3 levels and potential emission sources was made with passive samplers in six major Spanish cities (Barcelona, Madrid, A Coruña, Huelva, Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Valencia). Measurements were conducted during two different periods (winter-autumn and spring-summer) in each city. Barcelona showed the clearest spatial pattern, with the highest concentrations in the old city centre, an area characterised by a high population density and a dense urban architecture. The variability in NH3 concentrations did not follow a common seasonal pattern across the different cities. The relationship of urban NH3 with SO2 and NOX allowed concluding on the causes responsible for the variations in NH3 levels between measurement periods observed in Barcelona, Huelva and Madrid. However, the factors governing the variations in A Coruña, Valencia and Santa Cruz de Tenerife are still not fully understood. This study identified a broad variability in NH3 concentrations at the city-scale, and it confirms that NH3 sources in Spanish urban environments are vehicular traffic, biological sources (e.g. garbage containers), wastewater treatment plants, solid waste treatment plants and industry. The importance of NH3 monitoring in urban environments relies on its role as a precursor of secondary inorganic species and therefore PMX. Further research should be addressed in order to establish criteria to develop and implement mitigation strategies for cities, and to include urban NH3 sources in the emission inventories.
    Chemosphere 09/2014; 119C:769-777. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.07.097 · 3.50 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Metal contents in soil samples are commonly used to evaluate contamination levels. However, the distribution of metals is dependent on particle size. We investigated the distribution of metals in various particle size fractions of the soil from four sites of the Puchuncaví Valley (Central Chile). The soil samples were segregated into size fractions ranging from 0.3 to 20μm and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results of the statistical analysis of the total metal concentrations indicated that the soil samples from Greda and Maitenes, the sites nearest the industrial sources, are the most contaminated. For these sites, the size-fractionated samples containing higher concentrations of Cu, Zn, As, and Pb were found in the finer fractions, suggesting anthropogenic depositions from smelter facilities. In addition, a high Ca concentration was observed in the finer fractions, which could be attributed to the technological approaches used to reduce the SO2 emissions from the roasting process of copper sulfide. The mineral composition of fine particles permitted the identification of Tenorite and Calcium oxide, which are most likely associated with smelting activities, confirming emission of enriched particulate matter from the copper smelter.
    Chemosphere 09/2014; 111C:513-521. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.03.127 · 3.50 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The application of statistical techniques for the recognition and identification of contamination sources has become an increasingly important tool. The chemical compositions of soil samples collected in the Puchuncaví Valley (Chile) provide a dataset suitable for the application of source apportionment techniques such as positive matrix factorization (PMF) and principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation. PMF allowed the identification of the chemical profile and the relative contribution of three interpretable factors related to three contamination sources. Combining these results with a PCA analysis successfully showed that the main source of pollution emits Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Sn, Sb and Pb. Therefore, the use of source profiles for contaminated soils shows much promise both for incorporating well-established knowledge about pollution sources and as a tool for incremental, exploratory data analysis.
    Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 08/2014; 138:127–132. DOI:10.1016/j.chemolab.2014.08.003 · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous studies reported significant variability of air pollutants across Europe with the lowest concentrations generally found in Northern Europe and the highest in Southern European countries. Within the MED-PARTICLES project the spatial and temporal variations of long-term PM and gaseous pollutants data were investigated in traffic and urban background sites across Southern Europe. The highest PM levels were observed in Greece and Italy (Athens, Thessaloniki, Turin and Rome) while all traffic sites showed high NO2 levels, frequently exceeding the established limit value. High PM2.5/PM10 ratios were calculated indicating that fine particles comprise a large fraction of PM10, with the highest values found in the urban background sites. It seems that although in traffic sites the concentrations of both PM2.5 and PM10 are significantly higher than those registered in urban background sites, the coarse fraction PM2.5–10 is more important at the traffic sites. This fact is probably due to the high levels of resuspended road dust in sites highly affected by traffic, a phenomenon particularly relevant for Mediterranean countries. The long-term trends of air pollutants revealed a significant decrease of the concentration levels for PM, SO2 and CO while for NO2 no clear trend or slightly increasing trends were observed. This reduction could be attributed to the effectiveness of abatement measures and strategies and also to meteorological conditions and to the economic crisis that affected Southern Europe.
    Science of The Total Environment 08/2014; s 488–489:297–315. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.04.096 · 3.16 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The abatement of road dust emissions is currently a major challenge for sustainable transportation, causing exceedances of limits on particulate matter (PM) and high population exposures to mineral dust and metals. Mitigation measures have been proposed such as improved street cleaning and the use of dust suppressants. This study evaluated, for the first time, the effectiveness of calcium-magnesium acetate (CMA) and MgCl2 in reducing road dust emissions in a Mediterranean city. During a two-month campaign, a typical urban road in the city of Barcelona was sprayed, and changes in PMx levels and components were monitored at four traffic sites and one background monitoring sites. The integrated results indicate no statistically significant effectiveness of dust suppressants on PM10 and PM2.5-10 levels. Episodic reductions of Al, K, Mg, Cr, Li, Cu, and Zn were observed during CMA applications, but they were not systematically statistically significant over different stations and spreading days. MgCl2 days showed lower PM10 mean concentrations, but these reductions were not statistically significant and were not supported by significant drops in mineral and brake-wear metals. Based on our literature review, it can be postulated that the higher the road dust loading, the higher the dust suppressant effectiveness.
    Environmental Science and Technology 07/2014; 48(14):8069-8077. DOI:10.1021/es502496s · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Commuting is considered as one of the high-exposure periods among various daily activities, especially in high vehicle-density metropolitan areas. There is a growing awareness of the need to change our transportation habits by reducing our use of cars and shifting instead to active transport, i.e. walking or cycling. A review was undertaken using the ISI web of knowledge database with the objective to better understand personal exposure during commuting by different modes of transport, and to suggest potential strategies to minimise exposure. The air pollutants studied include particulate matter, PM black carbon, BC and particle number concentration. We focused only in European studies in order to have comparable situation in terms of vehicle fleet and policy regulations applied. Studies on personal exposure to air pollutants during car commuting are more numerous than those dealing with other types of transport, and typically conclude by emphasising that travelling by car involves exposure to relatively high particulate matter, PM exposure concentrations. Thus, compared to other transport methods, travelling by car has been shown to involve exposure both to higher PM and BC as compared with cycling. Widespread dependence on private car transport has produced a significant daily health threat to the urban commuter. However, a forward-looking, integrated transport policy, involving the phased renovation of existing public vehicles and the withdrawal of the more polluting private vehicles, combined with incentives to use public transport and the encouragement of commuter physical exercise, would reduce commuters' exposure.
    Science of The Total Environment 06/2014; 490C:785-797. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.05.036 · 3.16 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated the short-term effects of particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), between 2.5 and 10 μm (PM2.5–10) and less than 10 μm (PM10) on deaths from diabetes, cardiac and cerebrovascular causes, lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in 10 European Mediterranean metropolitan areas participating in the MED-PARTICLES project during 2001–2010. In the first stage of the analysis, data from each city were analyzed separately using Poisson regression models, whereas in the second stage, the city-specific air pollution estimates were combined to obtain overall estimates. We investigated the effects following immediate (lags 0–1), delayed (lags 2–5) and prolonged exposure (lags 0–5) and effect modification patterns by season. We evaluated the sensitivity of our results to co-pollutant exposures or city-specific model choice. We applied threshold models to investigate the pattern of selected associations. For a 10 μg/m3 increase in two days' PM2.5 exposure there was a 1.23% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): − 1.63%, 4.17%) increase in diabetes deaths, while six days' exposure statistically significantly increased cardiac deaths by 1.33% (95% CI: 0.27, 2.40%), COPD deaths by 2.53% (95% CI: − 0.01%, 5.14%) and LRTI deaths by 1.37% (95% CI: − 1.94%, 4.78%). PM2.5 results were robust to co-pollutant adjustments and alternative modeling approaches. Stronger effects were observed in the warm season. Coarse particles displayed positive, even if not statistically significant, associations with mortality due to diabetes and cardiac causes that were more variable depending on exposure period, co-pollutant and seasonality adjustment. Our findings provide support for positive associations between PM2.5 and mortality due to diabetes, cardiac causes, COPD, and to a lesser degree to cerebrovascular causes, in the European Mediterranean region, which seem to drive the particles short-term health effects.
    Environment international 06/2014; 67:54–61. DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2014.02.013 · 5.66 Impact Factor
  • 01/2014; 7(8):8697-8742. DOI:10.5194/amtd-7-8697-2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background In recent years, Spain has implemented a number of air quality control measures that are expected to lead to a future reduction in fine particle concentrations and an ensuing positive impact on public health. Objectives We aimed to assess the impact on mortality attributable to a reduction in fine particle levels in Spain in 2014 in relation to the estimated level for 2007. Methods To estimate exposure, we constructed fine particle distribution models for Spain for 2007 (reference scenario) and 2014 (projected scenario) with a spatial resolution of 16×16 km2. In a second step, we used the concentration–response functions proposed by cohort studies carried out in Europe (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects and Rome longitudinal cohort) and North America (American Cancer Society cohort, Harvard Six Cities study and Canadian national cohort) to calculate the number of attributable annual deaths corresponding to all causes, all non-accidental causes, ischemic heart disease and lung cancer among persons aged over 25 years (2005–2007 mortality rate data). We examined the effect of the Spanish demographic shift in our analysis using 2007 and 2012 population figures. Results Our model suggested that there would be a mean overall reduction in fine particle levels of 1 µg/m3 by 2014. Taking into account 2007 population data, between 8 and 15 all-cause deaths per 100,000 population could be postponed annually by the expected reduction in fine particle levels. For specific subgroups, estimates varied from 10 to 30 deaths for all non-accidental causes, from 1 to 5 for lung cancer, and from 2 to 6 for ischemic heart disease. The expected burden of preventable mortality would be even higher in the future due to the Spanish population growth. Taking into account the population older than 30 years in 2012, the absolute mortality impact estimate would increase approximately by 18%. Conclusions Effective implementation of air quality measures in Spain, in a scenario with a short-term projection, would amount to an appreciable decline in fine particle concentrations, and this, in turn, would lead to notable health-related benefits. Recent European cohort studies strengthen the evidence of an association between long-term exposure to fine particles and health effects, and could enhance the health impact quantification in Europe. Air quality models can contribute to improved assessment of air pollution health impact estimates, particularly in study areas without air pollution monitoring data.
    Environmental Research 01/2014; 128:15–26. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2013.10.009 · 3.95 Impact Factor
  • Source
    ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 11/2013; 13(21):10767-10768. DOI:10.5194/acp-13-10767-2013 · 5.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 09/2013; 13:8991-9019. DOI:10.5194/acp-13-8991-2013 · 5.30 Impact Factor
  • European Aerosol Conference; 09/2013
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We interpret here the variability of levels of carbonaceous aerosols based on a 12-yr database from 78 monitoring stations across Spain especially compiled for this article. Data did not evidence any spatial trends of carbonaceous aerosols across the country. Conversely, results show marked differences in average concentrations from the cleanest, most remote sites (around 1 μg m-3 of non-mineral carbon (nmC), mostly made of organic carbon (OC), with very little elemental carbon (EC) 0.1 μg m-3; OC/EC = 12-15), to the highly polluted major cities (8-10 μg m-3 of nmC; 3-4 μg m-3 of EC; 4-5 μg m-3 of OC; OC/EC = 1-2). Thus, urban (and very specific industrial) pollution was found to markedly increase levels of carbonaceous aerosols in Spain, with much lower impact of biomass burning. Correlations between yearly averaged OC/EC and EC concentrations adjust very well to a potential equation (OC/EC = 3.37 EC-0.67 R2 = 0.94). A similar equation is obtained when including average concentrations obtained at other European sites (y = 3.61x-0.5, R2 = 0.78). A clear seasonal variability in OC and EC concentrations was detected. Both OC and EC concentrations were higher during winter at the traffic and urban sites, but OC increased during the warmer months at the rural sites. Hourly equivalent black carbon (EBC) concentrations at urban sites accurately depict road traffic contributions, varying with distance to road, traffic volume and density, mixing layer height and wind speed. Weekday urban rush-hour EBC peaks are mimicked by concentrations of primary gaseous emissions from road traffic, whereas a single midday peak is characteristic of remote and rural sites. Decreasing annual trends for carbonaceous aerosols were observed between 1999 and 2011 at a large number of stations, probably reflecting the impact of the EURO4 and EURO5 standards in reducing the diesel PM emissions. This has resulted in some cases in an increasing trend of NO2/OC+EC ratios, because these standards have been much less effective for the abatement of NOx exhaust emissions in passenger diesel cars. This study concludes that EC, EBC, and especially nmC and OC+EC are very good candidates for new air quality standards since they cover both emission impact and health related issues.
    ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 07/2013; 13:6185–6206. DOI:10.5194/acp-13-6185-2013 · 5.30 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

282 Citations
146.23 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2015
    • Spanish National Research Council
      • Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research
      Hispalis, Andalusia, Spain
  • 2013–2014
    • CREAL Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • Parc de recerca biomedica de barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2011–2014
    • Institut Marqués, Spain, Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2007–2014
    • National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos
      • Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory (ERL)
      Athínai, Attica, Greece
  • 2005
    • National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
      • Division of Biochemistry
      Athínai, Attica, Greece