[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although platinum-based drugs are widely used chemotherapeu-tics for cancer treatment, the determinants of tumor cell responsiveness remain poorly understood. We show that the loss of subunits LRRC8A and LRRC8D of the heteromeric LRRC8 volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) increased resistance to clinically relevant cisplatin/carboplatin concentrations. Under isotonic conditions, about 50% of cisplatin uptake depended on LRRC8A and LRRC8D, but neither on LRRC8C nor on LRRC8E. Cell swelling strongly enhanced LRRC8-dependent cisplatin uptake, bolstering the notion that cisplatin enters cells through VRAC. LRRC8A disruption also suppressed drug-induced apoptosis independently from drug uptake, possibly by impairing VRAC-dependent apoptotic cell volume decrease. Hence, by mediating cisplatin uptake and facilitating apoptosis, VRAC plays a dual role in the cellular drug response. Incorporation of the LRRC8D subunit into VRAC substantially increased its permeability for cisplatin and the cellular osmo-lyte taurine, indicating that LRRC8 proteins form the channel pore. Our work suggests that LRRC8D-containing VRACs are crucial for cell volume regulation by an important organic osmolyte and may influence cisplatin/carboplatin responsiveness of tumors.
The EMBO Journal 11/2015; DOI:10.15252/embj.201592409 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a frequently lethal disease with heterogeneous outcomes and drug responses. To resolve inconsistencies among the reported gene expression-based CRC classifications and facilitate clinical translation, we formed an international consortium dedicated to large-scale data sharing and analytics across expert groups. We show marked interconnectivity between six independent classification systems coalescing into four consensus molecular subtypes (CMSs) with distinguishing features: CMS1 (microsatellite instability immune, 14%), hypermutated, microsatellite unstable and strong immune activation; CMS2 (canonical, 37%), epithelial, marked WNT and MYC signaling activation; CMS3 (metabolic, 13%), epithelial and evident metabolic dysregulation; and CMS4 (mesenchymal, 23%), prominent transforming growth factor-β activation, stromal invasion and angiogenesis. Samples with mixed features (13%) possibly represent a transition phenotype or intratumoral heterogeneity. We consider the CMS groups the most robust classification system currently available for CRC-with clear biological interpretability-and the basis for future clinical stratification and subtype-based targeted interventions.
Nature medicine 10/2015; DOI:10.1038/nm.3967 · 27.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
A central challenge in cancer research is to create models that bridge the gap between the molecular level on which interventions can be designed and the cellular and tissue levels on which the disease phenotypes are manifested. This study was undertaken to construct such a model from functional annotations and explore its use when integrated with large-scale cancer genomics data.
We created a map that connects genes to cancer hallmarks via signaling pathways. We projected gene mutation and focal copy number data from various cancer types onto this map. We performed statistical analyses to uncover mutually exclusive and co-occurring oncogenic aberrations within this topology.
Our analysis showed that although the genetic fingerprint of tumor types could be very different, there were less variations at the level of hallmarks, consistent with the idea that different genetic alterations have similar functional outcomes. Additionally, we showed how the multilevel map could help to clarify the role of infrequently mutated genes, and we demonstrated that mutually exclusive gene mutations were more prevalent in pathways, whereas many co-occurring gene mutations were associated with hallmark characteristics.
Overlaying this map with gene mutation and focal copy number data from various cancer types makes it possible to investigate the similarities and differences between tumor samples systematically at the levels of not only genes but also pathways and hallmarks.
Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer 09/2015; 34(3):48. DOI:10.1186/s40880-015-0050-6 · 2.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many anticancer drugs induce DNA breaks to eliminate tumor cells. The anthracycline topoisomerase II inhibitors additionally cause histone eviction. Here, we performed genome-wide high-resolution mapping of chemotherapeutic effects of various topoisomerase I and II (TopoI and II) inhibitors and integrated this mapping with established maps of genomic or epigenomic features to show their activities in different genomic regions. The TopoI inhibitor topotecan and the TopoII inhibitor etoposide are similar in inducing DNA damage at transcriptionally active genomic regions. The anthracycline daunorubicin induces DNA breaks and evicts histones from active chromatin, thus quenching local DNA damage responses. Another anthracycline, aclarubicin, has a different genomic specificity and evicts histones from H3K27me3-marked heterochromatin, with consequences for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells with elevated levels of H3K27me3. Modifying anthracycline structures may yield compounds with selectivity for different genomic regions and activity for different tumor types.
Nature Chemical Biology 05/2015; 11(7). DOI:10.1038/nchembio.1811 · 13.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancers with BRCA1 germline mutation have a characteristic DNA copy number (CN) pattern. We developed a test that assigns CN profiles to be ‘BRCA1-like’ or ‘non-BRCA1-like’, which refers to resembling a BRCA1-mutated tumor or resembling a tumor without a BRCA1 mutation, respectively. Approximately one third of the BRCA1-like breast cancers have a BRCA1 mutation, one third has hypermethylation of the BRCA1 promoter and one third has an unknown reason for being BRCA1-like. This classification is indicative of patients' response to high dose alkylating and platinum containing chemotherapy regimens, which targets the inability of BRCA1 deficient cells to repair DNA double strand breaks. We investigated whether this classification can be reliably obtained with next generation sequencing and copy number platforms other than the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) on which it was originally developed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retroviruses and DNA transposons are an important part of molecular biologists' toolbox. The applications of these elements range from functional genomics to oncogene discovery and gene therapy. However, these elements do not integrate uniformly across the genome, which is an important limitation to their use. A number of genetic and epigenetic factors have been shown to shape the integration preference of these elements. Insight into integration bias can significantly enhance the analysis and interpretation of results obtained using these elements. For three different applications, we outline how bias can affect results, and can potentially be addressed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current methods for detection of copy number variants (CNV) and aberrations (CNA) from targeted sequencing data are based on the depth of coverage of captured exons. Accurate CNA determination is complicated by uneven genomic distribution and non-uniform capture efficiency of targeted exons. Here we present CopywriteR, which eludes these problems by exploiting ‘off-target’ sequence reads. CopywriteR allows for extracting uniformly distributed copy number information, can be used without reference, and can be applied to sequencing data obtained from various techniques including chromatin immunoprecipitation and target enrichment on small gene panels. CopywriteR outperforms existing methods and constitutes a widely applicable alternative to available tools.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13059-015-0617-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we describe a conditional piggyBac transposition system in mice and report the discovery of large sets of new cancer genes through a pancreatic insertional mutagenesis screen. We identify Foxp1 as an oncogenic transcription factor that drives pancreatic cancer invasion and spread in a mouse model and correlates with lymph node metastasis in human patients with pancreatic cancer. The propensity of piggyBac for open chromatin also enabled genome-wide screening for cancer-relevant noncoding DNA, which pinpointed a Cdkn2a cis-regulatory region. Histologically, we observed different tumor subentities and discovered associated genetic events, including Fign insertions in hepatoid pancreatic cancer. Our studies demonstrate the power of genetic screening to discover cancer drivers that are difficult to identify by other approaches to cancer genome analysis, such as downstream targets of commonly mutated human cancer genes. These piggyBac resources are universally applicable in any tissue context and provide unique experimental access to the genetic complexity of cancer.