Ranjit S Chima

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States

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Publications (25)76.66 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cardiac complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Cardiac evaluation during the first 100 days after HSCT is usually performed only if clinically indicated and there are no studies examining if routine screening would be of benefit in this patient population at high risk for tissue injury. We conducted a single center prospective clinical study to screen for cardiac complications in pediatric and young adult patients. One hundred consecutive HSCT patients underwent scheduled echocardiographic screening on day +7 after transplantation, independent of their clinical condition. At least one abnormality was identified in 30% of cases. Seventeen children had a pericardial effusion, 13 elevated right ventricular pressure and 3 reduced left ventricular function. Survival was reduced in children with any echocardiographic abnormality at day 7 (67% vs. 80% in those with and without abnormality, p= 0.073). Moreover, raised right ventricular pressure at day +7 was significantly associated with transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) (p=0.004), and may indicate early vascular injury in the lungs. These data suggest that echocardiography 7 days after HSCT can detect early cardiac complications of HSCT and may identify early vascular injury associated with TA-TMA.
    Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 10/2014; · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) leads to generalized endothelial dysfunction that can progress to multi-organ injury and severe cases are associated with poor outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HSCT). Identifying patients at highest risk for severe disease is challenging. We prospectively evaluated 100 consecutive HSCT recipients to determine the incidence of moderate and severe TMA and factors associated with poor overall outcomes. Thirty nine subjects (39%) met previously published criteria for TMA. Subjects with TMA had a significantly higher non-relapse mortality (43.6% versus 7.8%, p<0.0001) at 1 year post-HSCT compared to those without TMA. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase, proteinuria on routine urinalysis, and hypertension were the earliest markers of TMA. Proteinuria (>30mg/dL) and evidence of terminal complement activation (elevated sC5b-9) in the blood at the time of TMA diagnosis were associated with very poor survival (<20% at 1-year), while all TMA subjects without proteinuria and a normal sC5b-9 serum concentration survived (p<0.01). Based on these prospective observations, we conclude that severe TMA occurred in 18% of HSCT recipients in our cohort and propose an algorithm to identify the highest risk patients who might benefit from prompt clinical interventions.
    Blood 05/2014; · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The insulin sensitizing thiazolidinedione drugs, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone are specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists and reduce pro-inflammatory responses in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease, and may be beneficial in sepsis. Sepsis was induced in 8-10-wk-old C57BL/6 mice by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) with a 22 -g double puncture technique. Mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle (DMSO:PBS) or pioglitazone (20 mg/kg) at 1 h and 6 h after CLP, and were sacrificed at various time points. In sepsis, vehicle-treated mice had hypoglycemia, increased lung injury and increased lung neutrophil infiltration. Pro-inflammatory plasma cytokines were increased, but the plasma adipokine, adiponectin, was decreased in vehicle-treated septic mice. This corresponded with inhibitor κB (IκBα) protein degradation and an increase in NF-κB activity in lung. Pioglitazone treatment improved plasma Glc and adiponectin levels, and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines. Lung IκBα protein expression increased and corresponded with a decrease in NF-κB activity in the lung from pioglitazone-treated mice. Pioglitazone reduces the inflammatory response in polymicrobial sepsis in part through inhibition of NF-κB and may be a novel therapy in sepsis.
    Innate Immunity 09/2013; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a potentially fatal complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Given its non-specific clinical presentation it is likely that this clinical entity is under diagnosed after HSCT. Data describing the incidence, risk factors, and etiology of PH in HSCT recipients is minimal. Physicians caring for HSCT recipients should be aware of this severe post-transplant complication since timely diagnosis and treatment may allow improved clinical outcomes. We summarize the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of PH in HSCT recipients.
    Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 07/2013; · 3.15 Impact Factor
  • Ranjit S Chima, Kamal Abulebda, Sonata Jodele
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    ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (SCT) remains a curative option for a variety of malignant and non-malignant disorders in children. Following transplant a proportion of SCT recipients become critically ill and need intensive care. Critical illness may occur in the setting of transplant complications such as graft versus host disease (GVHD), idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS), veno-occlusive disease (VOD) and transplant associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA). Hence, familiarity with recent advances in the transplant process and complications is crucial for the intensivist. This article will highlight common complications encountered in the critically ill SCT recipient.
    Pediatric Clinics of North America 06/2013; 60(3):689-707. · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is being increasingly recognized as a significant issue in children. Despite the low incidence of DVT, the risks of pulmonary embolism and death in children are significant. Post-thrombotic syndrome, a syndrome of chronic venous insufficiency, can have long-term adverse consequences in children and adolescents. Adult studies have shown that catheter-directed therapy can reduce the incidence of post-thrombotic syndrome. Safety of catheter-directed therapy in adolescents has also been demonstrated. These reasons compelled us to institute a pediatric endovascular thrombolysis program at our institute for management of pediatric DVT. We describe the process of developing a multi-disciplinary thrombolysis program involving interventional radiology (pediatric and adult), pediatric hematology, critical care, anesthesia and vascular surgery, and describe the role of each specialty in the development of the program. We also describe our experience with patient selection, endovascular therapy procedure, pre-, intra- and post-procedure monitoring, and follow-up management for endovascular therapy for DVT.
    Pediatric Radiology 03/2013; · 1.57 Impact Factor
  • Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 02/2013; 19(2):S160. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is rarely included in the differential diagnosis of cardiorespiratory failure after pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) as the clinical presentation is nonspecific and may mimic other etiologies. The pathogenesis of PAH in HSCT is poorly understood and the diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion. We describe 5 children diagnosed with PAH after allogeneic HSCT. All 5 patients had prolonged clinical signs of transplantation-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) when they presented with hypoxemic respiratory failure and evidence of PAH. Four of the 5 patients had echocardiographic evidence of PAH and 1 patient was diagnosed with PAH only on autopsy. PAH was diagnosed a median of 76 days (range, 56-101 days) after a diagnosis of TA-TMA. Despite aggressive medical management, including inhaled nitric oxide, 4 of the 5 patients died. One patient recovered from PAH after 11 months of sildenafil therapy. Three of the 4 deceased patients had an autopsy performed demonstrating severe pulmonary vascular disease consistent with TA-TMA and severe PAH. We conclude that TA-TMA can be associated with significant pulmonary vascular injury presenting as hypoxemic respiratory failure with PAH after HSCT. Pediatric patients with unexplained hypoxemia after HSCT should be evaluated for both transplantation complications, TA-TMA, and PAH, accordingly.
    Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 09/2012; · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:: Survival for hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients requiring pediatric intensive care unit admission may be improving. This study was conducted to review outcomes for patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation requiring admission to our pediatric intensive care unit and to identify variables impacting survival. DESIGN:: Retrospective database review. SETTING:: Pediatric intensive care unit and bone marrow transplant service of a children's hospital. PATIENTS:: Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at our center from July 2004 through June 2010 requiring pediatric intensive care unit admission during the same period. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Thirty-five percent of patients (155 of 448) undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation required 319 admissions over this period. Of these 155 patients, 63% (97 of 155) were discharged alive following their most recent admission with a 100-day survival of 51% (79 of 155). Forty-five percent (69 of 155) of patients were still alive on long-term follow-up. Intubation and mechanical ventilation were required for 57% (88 of 155) of patients, with 39% (34 of 88) of patients surviving their last pediatric intensive care unit admission. Renal support was utilized for 25% (38 of 155) of patients with 34% (13 of 38) survival to pediatric intensive care unit discharge. Admissions surviving to pediatric intensive care unit discharge had significantly lower Pediatric Risk of Mortality II scores, shorter pediatric intensive care unit length of stay, lower utilization of intubation and mechanical ventilation with fewer ventilator days, and lower use of renal support when compared to nonsurvivors. Of note, each prior pediatric intensive care unit admission significantly reduced the odds of pediatric intensive care unit survival. CONCLUSIONS:: We report a 63% survival to pediatric intensive care unit discharge, with 45% surviving at a median follow-up of over 2 yrs for all hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit over a 6-yr period. Our data suggest improved survival outcomes for this high risk patient population.
    Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 07/2012; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia is common in critically ill children and appears to be associated with poor outcomes. However, the incidence of hypoglycemia while attempting glycemic control using an insulin infusion may be as high as 25% and hypoglycemia may be an independent risk factor for mortality in critically ill children. An improvement team developed a guideline for initiation and maintenance of insulin infusions for hyperglycemia in critically ill, nondiabetic patients in the pediatric intensive care unit. The guideline included an insulin infusion algorithm that provided an initiating dose, titration instructions, and discontinuation parameters. Guideline recommendations addressed the frequency of bedside blood glucose monitoring and management of symptomatic hypoglycemia while on insulin infusion. The guideline was implemented in late January 2007 and revised in September 2007. Hypoglycemic events in at-risk patients decreased significantly following implementation of the guideline, from 36% to 3%, despite an increase in the total number of patient days on insulin infusion. The average days between hypoglycemic events increased from 21 to 186. Implementation of a guideline to manage critical illness hyperglycemia in nondiabetic, critically ill pediatric patients resulted in a reduction in hypoglycemic events and a sustained increase in the days between such events.
    Quality management in health care 01/2012; 21(1):20-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Septic shock heterogeneity has important implications for clinical trial implementation and patient management. We previously addressed this heterogeneity by identifying three putative subclasses of children with septic shock based exclusively on a 100-gene expression signature. Here we attempted to prospectively validate the existence of these gene expression-based subclasses in a validation cohort. Prospective observational study involving microarray-based bioinformatics. Multiple pediatric intensive care units in the United States. Separate derivation (n = 98) and validation (n = 82) cohorts of children with septic shock. None other than standard care. Gene expression mosaics of the 100 class-defining genes were generated for 82 individual patients in the validation cohort. Using computer-based image analysis, patients were classified into one of three subclasses ("A," "B," or "C") based on color and pattern similarity relative to reference mosaics generated from the original derivation cohort. After subclassification, the clinical database was mined for phenotyping. Subclass A patients had higher illness severity relative to subclasses B and C as measured by maximal organ failure, fewer intensive care unit-free days, and a higher Pediatric Risk of Mortality score. Patients in subclass A were characterized by repression of genes corresponding to adaptive immunity and glucocorticoid receptor signaling. Separate subclass assignments were conducted by 21 individual clinicians using visual inspection. The consensus classification of the clinicians had modest agreement with the computer algorithm. We have validated the existence of subclasses of children with septic shock based on a biologically relevant, 100-gene expression signature. The subclasses have relevant clinical differences.
    Critical care medicine 06/2011; 39(11):2511-7. · 6.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Long-segment congenital tracheal stenosis is characterized by complete tracheal rings. Surgery is required during infancy to optimize outcomes, and the post-surgery complications include mucus plugging, airway trauma, dehiscence at the surgery site, and death. We report a 5-week-old patient who developed a tracheal-wall dehiscence after a slide tracheoplasty. To safeguard against further dehiscence and to protect her one functional lung, we used extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). After she was stabilized on veno-arterial ECMO we extubated and continued ECMO for 5 days. On postoperative day 14 we removed the ECMO and transitioned her to high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, and performed slow lung-recruitment maneuvers every 2 hours. This strategy of ECMO with extubation, then high-frequency oscillatory ventilation is a useful rescue therapy in patients with postoperative tracheal dehiscence.
    Respiratory care 04/2011; 56(8):1198-202. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: C-peptide is a 31-amino acid peptide cleaved from proinsulin during insulin synthesis. Initially thought to be inert, C-peptide may modulate the inflammatory response in the setting of endotoxemia and ischemia reperfusion. However, the spectrum of its biological effects is unclear. We hypothesized that exogenous administration of C-peptide would modulate pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways and thereby attenuate lung inflammation in an in vivo model of hemorrhagic shock. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in male Wistar rats (aged 3-4 mo) by withdrawing blood to a mean arterial pressure of 50 mmHg. At 3 h after hemorrhage, rats were rapidly resuscitated by returning their shed blood. At the time of resuscitation and every hour thereafter, animals received C-peptide (280 nmol/kg) or vehicle parenterally. Animals were euthanized at 1 and 3 h after resuscitation. C-peptide administration at resuscitation following hemorrhagic shock ameliorated hypotension and blunted the systemic inflammatory response by reducing plasma levels of IL-1, IL-6, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1. This was associated with a reduction in lung neutrophil infiltration and plasma levels of receptor for advanced glycation end products. Mechanistically, C-peptide treatment was associated with reduced expression of proinflammatory transcription factors activator protein-1 and NF-κB and activation of the anti-inflammatory transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Our data suggest that C-peptide ameliorates the inflammatory response and lung inflammation following hemorrhagic shock. These effects may be modulated by altering the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling in the lung.
    AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 03/2011; 300(5):L730-9. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reperfusion injury following hemorrhagic shock is accompanied by the development of a systemic inflammatory state that may lead to organ failure. Insulin connecting peptide (C-peptide) has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects in sepsis and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and to ameliorate renal dysfunction in diabetic animals. Hence, we investigated the effect of C-peptide on kidney injury after hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that C-peptide would exert renoprotective effects by blunting inflammation. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in male rats (3-4 months old) by withdrawing blood from the femoral artery to a mean arterial pressure of 50 mmHg. Animals were kept in shock for 3 h, at which time they were rapidly resuscitated by returning their shed blood. At the time of resuscitation and every hour thereafter, one group of animals received C-peptide (280 nmol/kg), whereas another group received vehicle. Hemorrhagic shock resulted in significant rise in plasma levels of creatinine and elevated kidney neutrophil infiltration as evaluated by myeloperoxidase activity in vehicle-treated rats in comparison with sham rats, thus suggesting kidney injury. Treatment with C-peptide significantly attenuated the rise in creatinine and kidney myeloperoxidase activity when compared with vehicle group. At a molecular level, these effects of C-peptide were associated with reduced expression of the c-Fos subunit and reduced activation of the proinflammatory kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and subsequently reduced DNA binding of activator protein 1 in the kidney. Thus, our data suggest that C-peptide may exert renoprotective effects after hemorrhagic shock by modulating activator protein 1 signaling.
    Shock (Augusta, Ga.) 01/2011; 35(5):524-9. · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To develop a clinically feasible stratification strategy for pediatric septic shock, using gene expression mosaics and a 100-gene signature representing the first 24 hrs of admission to the pediatric intensive care unit. Prospective, observational study involving microarray-based bioinformatics. Multiple pediatric intensive care units in the United States. Ninety-eight children with septic shock. None other than standard care. Patients were classified into three previously published, genome-wide, expression-based subclasses (subclasses A, B, and C) having clinically relevant phenotypic differences. The class-defining 100-gene signature was depicted for each individual patient, using mosaics generated by the Gene Expression Dynamics Inspector (GEDI). Composite mosaics were generated representing the average expression patterns for each of the three subclasses. Nine individual clinicians served as blinded evaluators. Each evaluator was shown the 98 individual patient mosaics and asked to classify each patient into one of the three subclasses, using the composite mosaics as the reference point. The respective sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of the subclassification strategy were ≥ 4% across the three subclasses. The classification strategy also generated positive likelihood ratios of ≥ 6.8 and negative likelihood ratios of ≤ .2 across the three subclasses. The κ coefficient across all possible interevaluator comparisons was 0.81. We have provided initial evidence (proof of concept) for a clinically feasible and robust stratification strategy for pediatric septic shock based on a 100-gene signature and gene expression mosaics.
    Critical care medicine 10/2010; 38(10):1955-61. · 6.37 Impact Factor
  • Ranjit S Chima, Basilia Zingarelli
    Critical care medicine 10/2010; 38(10):2062-3. · 6.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Apoptosis or programmed cell death has been demonstrated to play a role in the development of lung injury following hemorrhagic shock. A major pathway modulating the apoptotic response is the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/serine/threonine kinase (PI3K/Akt) pathway. Ciglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-y (PPARy) ligand has previously been shown to attenuate lung inflammation following hemorrhagic shock. In vivo similar ligands have demonstrated anti-apoptotic effects with a reduction in organ injury in models of acute illness. In this study we examined the effect of ciglitazone on apoptosis and PI3K/Akt signaling in the lung following severe hemorrhage and resuscitation. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in male Wistar rats by withdrawing blood from the femoral artery to a mean arterial pressure of 50 mmHg. Animals were kept in shock for 3h at which time they were rapidly resuscitated by returning their shed blood. At the time of resuscitation and every hour thereafter, groups of animals received ciglitazone (10mg/kg) or DMSO intraperitoneally. Vehicle-treated rats had increased lung apoptosis following hemorrhage and resuscitation by Tunel staining. This was associated with increased activity of caspase-3. Ciglitazone treatment reduced lung apoptosis with a significant reduction in caspase-3 activity. This was associated with increased phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinase Akt. Thus, our data suggest that ciglitazone, a PPARy ligand, promotes cell survival in the lung following hemorrhagic shock.
    International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 01/2010; 3(1):1-9. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A clinical observation in pediatric and adult intensive care units is that the incidence of multiple organ failure in pediatric trauma victims is lower than in adult patients. However, the molecular mechanisms are not yet defined. Recent experimental studies have shown that the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) modulates the inflammatory process. In this study, we hypothesized that severity of liver injury may be age dependent and PPARgamma activation may provide beneficial effects. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in anesthetized young (3-5 mo old) and mature male Wistar rats (11-13 mo old) by withdrawing blood to a mean arterial blood pressure of 50 mmHg. After 3 h, rats were rapidly resuscitated with shed blood. Animals were euthanized 3 h after resuscitation. In mature rats, liver injury appeared more pronounced compared with young rats and was characterized by marked hepatocyte apoptosis, extravasation of erythrocytes, and accumulation of neutrophils. The ratio between the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the proapoptotic protein BAX was lower, whereas activity of caspase-3, the executioner of apoptosis, was higher in liver of mature rats compared with young rats. Plasma alanine aminotransferase levels were not different between the two age groups. This heightened liver apoptosis was associated with a significant downregulation of PPARgamma DNA binding in mature rats compared with young rats. Treatment with the PPARgamma ligand ciglitazone significantly reduced liver apoptosis in mature rats. Our data suggest that liver injury after severe hemorrhage is age dependent and PPARgamma activation is a novel hepatoprotective mechanism.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 11/2009; 298(1):G133-41. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma is a ligand-activated transcription factor. Ciglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligand, has been shown to provide beneficial effects in experimental models of sepsis and ischemia/reperfusion injury. We investigated the effects of ciglitazone on lung inflammation after severe hemorrhage. Prospective, laboratory study, rodent model of hemorrhagic shock. University hospital laboratory. Male rats. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by withdrawing blood to a mean arterial pressure of 50 mm Hg. At 3 hrs after hemorrhage, rats were rapidly resuscitated by returning their shed blood. At the time of resuscitation and every hour thereafter, animals received ciglitazone (10 mg/kg) or vehicle intraperitoneally. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure were measured throughout the experiment. Plasma and lung tissue were collected for analysis up to 3 hrs after resuscitation. Ciglitazone treatment ameliorated mean arterial pressure, reduced lung injury, significantly blunted lung neutrophil infiltration, and lowered plasma interleukin-6, interleukin-10, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels. In a time course analysis, vehicle-treated rats had a significant increase in nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding, which was preceded by increased inhibitor kappaB protein kinase activity and inhibitor kappaB alpha degradation in the lung. Treatment with ciglitazone significantly reduced inhibitor kappaB protein kinase activity and inhibitor kappaB alpha degradation and completely inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding. This reduction of inhibitor kappaB protein kinase activity afforded by ciglitazone appeared to be a consequence of a physical interaction between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and increased inhibitor kappaB protein kinase. Ciglitazone ameliorates the inflammatory response and may reduce lung injury after hemorrhagic shock. These protective effects appear to be mediated through inhibition of the inhibitor kappaB protein kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB pathway.
    Critical care medicine 11/2008; 36(10):2849-57. · 6.37 Impact Factor
  • Ranjit S Chima, Basilia Zingarelli
    Critical Care Medicine 11/2007; 35(10):2442-3. · 6.12 Impact Factor