Manolis Pasparakis

University of Cologne, Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Are you Manolis Pasparakis?

Claim your profile

Publications (152)1674.83 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The status of long-term quiescence and dormancy guarantees the integrity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during adult homeostasis. However the molecular mechanisms regulating HSC dormancy remain poorly understood. Here we show that cylindromatosis (CYLD), a tumor suppressor gene and negative regulator of NF-κB signaling with deubiquitinase activity, is highly expressed in label-retaining dormant HSCs (dHSCs). Moreover, Cre-mediated conditional elimination of the catalytic domain of CYLD induced dHSCs to exit quiescence and abrogated their repopulation and self-renewal potential. This phenotype is dependent on the interactions between CYLD and its substrate TRAF2 (tumor necrosis factor-associated factor 2). HSCs expressing a mutant CYLD with an intact catalytic domain, but unable to bind TRAF2, showed the same HSC phenotype. Unexpectedly, the robust cycling of HSCs lacking functional CYLD-TRAF2 interactions was not elicited by increased NF-κB signaling, but instead by increased activation of the p38MAPK pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of p38MAPK rescued the phenotype of CYLD loss, identifying the CYLD-TRAF2-p38MAPK pathway as a novel important regulator of HSC function restricting HSC cycling and promoting dormancy. © 2015 Tesio et al.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 03/2015; 209(1). DOI:10.1084/jem.20141438 · 13.91 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The gut microbiota modulates host susceptibility to intestinal inflammation, but the cell types and the signalling pathways orchestrating this bacterial regulation of intestinal homeostasis remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the function of intestinal epithelial toll-like receptor (TLR) responses in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mouse model of colitis. We applied an in vivo genetic approach allowing intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific deletion of the critical TLR signalling adaptors, MyD88 and/or TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), as well as the downstream ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 in order to reveal the IEC-intrinsic function of these TLR signalling molecules during DSS colitis. Mice lacking TRAF6 in IECs showed exacerbated DSS-induced inflammatory responses that ensued in the development of chronic colon inflammation. Antibiotic pretreatment abolished the increased DSS susceptibility of these mice, showing that epithelial TRAF6 signalling pathways prevent the gut microbiota from driving excessive colitis. However, in contrast to epithelial TRAF6 deletion, blocking epithelial TLR signalling by simultaneous deletion of MyD88 and TRIF specifically in IECs did not affect DSS-induced colitis severity. This in vivo functional comparison between TRAF6 and MyD88/TRIF deletion in IECs shows that the colitis-protecting effects of epithelial TRAF6 signalling are not triggered by TLRs. Intestinal epithelial TRAF6-dependent but MyD88/TRIF-independent and, thus, TLR-independent signalling pathways are critical for preventing propagation of DSS-induced colon inflammation by the gut microbiota. Moreover, our experiments using mice with dual MyD88/TRIF deletion in IECs unequivocally show that the gut microbiota trigger non-epithelial TLRs rather than epithelial TLRs to restrict DSS colitis severity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    Gut 03/2015; DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2014-308323 · 13.32 Impact Factor
  • Manolis Pasparakis, Peter Vandenabeele
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Regulated cell death has essential functions in development and in adult tissue homeostasis. Necroptosis is a newly discovered pathway of regulated necrosis that requires the proteins RIPK3 and MLKL and is induced by death receptors, interferons, toll-like receptors, intracellular RNA and DNA sensors, and probably other mediators. RIPK1 has important kinase-dependent and scaffolding functions that inhibit or trigger necroptosis and apoptosis. Mouse-model studies have revealed important functions for necroptosis in inflammation and suggested that it could be implicated in the pathogenesis of many human inflammatory diseases. We discuss the mechanisms regulating necroptosis and its potential role in inflammation and disease.
    Nature 01/2015; 517(7534):311-20. DOI:10.1038/nature14191 · 42.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antiangiogenic tumor therapy has failed in the adjuvant setting. Here we show that inhibition of the Tie2 ligand angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) effectively blocks metastatic growth in preclinical mouse models of postsurgical adjuvant therapy. Ang2 antibody treatment combines well with low-dose metronomic chemotherapy (LDMC) in settings in which maximum-dose chemotherapy does not prove effective. Mechanistically, Ang2 blockade could be linked to quenching the inflammatory and angiogenic response of endothelial cells (ECs) in the metastatic niche. Reduced EC adhesion molecule and chemokine expression inhibits the recruitment of tumor-promoting CCR2(+)Tie2(-) metastasis-associated macrophages. Moreover, LDMC contributes to therapeutic efficacy by inhibiting the recruitment of protumorigenic bone marrow-derived myeloid cells. Collectively, these data provide a rationale for mechanism-guided adjuvant tumor therapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Cancer Cell 12/2014; 26(6):880-95. DOI:10.1016/j.ccell.2014.11.005 · 23.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Linear Ubiquitin chain Assembly Complex (LUBAC) is an E3 ligase complex that generates linear ubiquitin chains and is important for tumour necrosis factor (TNF) signaling activation. Mice lacking Sharpin, a critical subunit of LUBAC, spontaneously develop inflammatory lesions in the skin and other organs. Here we show that TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1)-associated death domain (TRADD)-dependent TNFR1 signaling in epidermal keratinocytes drives skin inflammation in Sharpin-deficient mice. Epidermis-restricted ablation of Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) combined with receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) deficiency fully prevented skin inflammation, while single RIPK3 deficiency only delayed and partly ameliorated lesion development in Sharpin-deficient mice, showing that inflammation is primarily driven by TRADD-and FADD-dependent keratinocyte apoptosis while necroptosis plays a minor role. At the cellular level, Sharpin deficiency sensitized primary murine keratinocytes, human keratinocytes, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts to TNF-induced apoptosis. Depletion of FADD or TRADD in Sharpin-deficient HaCaT cells suppressed TNF-induced apoptosis, indicating the importance of FADD and TRADD in Sharpin-dependent anti-apoptosis signaling in keratinocytes.
    eLife Sciences 12/2014; 3. DOI:10.7554/eLife.03422 · 8.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3)-mediated necroptosis is thought to be the pathophysiologically predominant pathway that leads to regulated necrosis of parenchymal cells in ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI), and loss of either Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) or caspase-8 is known to sensitize tissues to undergo spontaneous necroptosis. Here, we demonstrate that renal tubules do not undergo sensitization to necroptosis upon genetic ablation of either FADD or caspase-8 and that the RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) does not protect freshly isolated tubules from hypoxic injury. In contrast, iron-dependent ferroptosis directly causes synchronized necrosis of renal tubules, as demonstrated by intravital microscopy in models of IRI and oxalate crystal-induced acute kidney injury. To suppress ferroptosis in vivo, we generated a novel third-generation ferrostatin (termed 16-86), which we demonstrate to be more stable, to metabolism and plasma, and more potent, compared with the
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2014; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1415518111 · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • C Kim, M Pasparakis
    Cell Death and Differentiation 10/2014; 21(10):1505-7. DOI:10.1038/cdd.2014.100 · 8.39 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits and microglia-dominated inflammatory activation. Innate immune signaling controls microglial inflammatory activities and Aβ clearance. However, studies examining innate immunity in Aβ pathology and neuronal degeneration have produced conflicting results. In this study, we investigated the pathogenic role of innate immunity in AD by ablating a key signaling molecule, IKKβ, specifically in the myeloid cells of TgCRND8 APP-transgenic mice. Deficiency of IKKβ in myeloid cells, especially microglia, simultaneously reduced inflammatory activation and Aβ load in the brain and these effects were associated with reduction of cognitive deficits and preservation of synaptic structure proteins. IKKβ deficiency enhanced microglial recruitment to Aβ deposits and facilitated Aβ internalization, perhaps by inhibiting TGF-β-SMAD2/3 signaling, but did not affect Aβ production and efflux. Therefore, inhibition of IKKβ signaling in myeloid cells improves cognitive functions in AD mice by reducing inflammatory activation and enhancing Aβ clearance. These results contribute to a better understanding of AD pathogenesis and could offer a new therapeutic option for delaying AD progression.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 09/2014; 34(39):12982-99. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1348-14.2014 · 6.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) is recruited to the TNF receptor 1 to mediate proinflammatory signaling and to regulate TNF-induced cell death. RIPK1 deficiency results in postnatal lethality, but precisely why Ripk1(-/-) mice die remains unclear. To identify the lineages and cell types that depend on RIPK1 for survival, we generated conditional Ripk1 mice. Tamoxifen administration to adult RosaCreER(T2)Ripk1(fl/fl) mice results in lethality caused by cell death in the intestinal and hematopoietic lineages. Similarly, Ripk1 deletion in cells of the hematopoietic lineage stimulates proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production and hematopoietic cell death, resulting in bone marrow failure. The cell death reflected cell-intrinsic survival roles for RIPK1 in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, because Vav-iCre Ripk1(fl/fl) fetal liver cells failed to reconstitute hematopoiesis in lethally irradiated recipients. We demonstrate that RIPK3 deficiency partially rescues hematopoiesis in Vav-iCre Ripk1(fl/fl) mice, showing that RIPK1-deficient hematopoietic cells undergo RIPK3-mediated necroptosis. However, the Vav-iCre Ripk1(fl/fl) Ripk3(-/-) progenitors remain TNF sensitive in vitro and fail to repopulate irradiated mice. These genetic studies reveal that hematopoietic RIPK1 deficiency triggers both apoptotic and necroptotic death that is partially prevented by RIPK3 deficiency. Therefore, RIPK1 regulates hematopoiesis and prevents inflammation by suppressing RIPK3 activation.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2014; 111(40). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1409389111 · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Germinal centers (GCs) are the sites where memory B cells and plasma cells producing high-affinity antibodies are generated during T cell-dependent immune responses. The molecular control of GC B cell maintenance and differentiation remains incompletely understood. Activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway has been implicated; however, the distinct roles of the individual NF-κB transcription factor subunits are unknown. We report that GC B cell-specific deletion of the NF-κB subunits c-REL or RELA, which are both activated by the canonical NF-κB pathway, abolished the generation of high-affinity B cells via different mechanisms acting at distinct stages during the GC reaction. c-REL deficiency led to the collapse of established GCs immediately after the formation of dark and light zones at day 7 of the GC reaction and was associated with the failure to activate a metabolic program that promotes cell growth. Conversely, RELA was dispensable for GC maintenance but essential for the development of GC-derived plasma cells due to impaired up-regulation of BLIMP1. These results indicate that activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway in GC B cells controls GC maintenance and differentiation through distinct transcription factor subunits. Our findings have implications for the role of NF-κB in GC lymphomagenesis.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 09/2014; 211(10). DOI:10.1084/jem.20132613 · 13.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interferon Regulatory Factor 5 (IRF5) plays a major role in setting up an inflammatory macrophage phenotype, but the molecular basis of its transcriptional activity is not fully understood. In this study, we conduct a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of IRF5 recruitment in macrophages stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide and discover that IRF5 binds to regulatory elements of highly transcribed genes. Analysis of protein:DNA microarrays demonstrates that IRF5 recognizes the canonical IRF-binding (interferon-stimulated response element [ISRE]) motif in vitro. However, IRF5 binding in vivo appears to rely on its interactions with other proteins. IRF5 binds to a noncanonical composite PU.1:ISRE motif, and its recruitment is aided by RelA. Global gene expression analysis in macrophages deficient in IRF5 and RelA highlights the direct role of the RelA:IRF5 cistrome in regulation of a subset of key inflammatory genes. We map the RelA:IRF5 interaction domain and suggest that interfering with it would offer selective targeting of macrophage inflammatory activities.
    Cell Reports 08/2014; 8(5). DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2014.07.034 · 7.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: CYLD is a tumour suppressor gene mutated in familial cylindromatosis, a genetic disorder leading to the development of skin appendage tumours. It encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme that removes Lys63- or linear-linked ubiquitin chains. CYLD was shown to regulate cell proliferation, cell survival and inflammatory responses, through various signalling pathways. Here we show that CYLD localizes at centrosomes and basal bodies via interaction with the centrosomal protein CAP350 and demonstrate that CYLD must be both at the centrosome and catalytically active to promote ciliogenesis independently of NF-κB. In transgenic mice engineered to mimic the smallest truncation found in cylindromatosis patients, CYLD interaction with CAP350 is lost disrupting CYLD centrosome localization, which results in cilia formation defects due to impairment of basal body migration and docking. These results point to an undiscovered regulation of ciliogenesis by Lys63 ubiquitination and provide new perspectives regarding CYLD function that should be considered in the context of cylindromatosis.
    Nature Communications 08/2014; 5:4585. DOI:10.1038/ncomms5585 · 10.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Necroptosis has emerged as an important pathway of programmed cell death in embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, immunity and inflammation. RIPK1 is implicated in inflammatory and cell death signalling and its kinase activity is believed to drive RIPK3-mediated necroptosis. Here we show that kinase-independent scaffolding RIPK1 functions regulate homeostasis and prevent inflammation in barrier tissues by inhibiting epithelial cell apoptosis and necroptosis. Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific RIPK1 knockout caused IEC apoptosis, villus atrophy, loss of goblet and Paneth cells and premature death in mice. This pathology developed independently of the microbiota and of MyD88 signalling but was partly rescued by TNFR1 (also known as TNFRSF1A) deficiency. Epithelial FADD ablation inhibited IEC apoptosis and prevented the premature death of mice with IEC-specific RIPK1 knockout. However, mice lacking both RIPK1 and FADD in IECs displayed RIPK3-dependent IEC necroptosis, Paneth cell loss and focal erosive inflammatory lesions in the colon. Moreover, a RIPK1 kinase inactive knock-in delayed but did not prevent inflammation caused by FADD deficiency in IECs or keratinocytes, showing that RIPK3-dependent necroptosis of FADD-deficient epithelial cells only partly requires RIPK1 kinase activity. Epidermis-specific RIPK1 knockout triggered keratinocyte apoptosis and necroptosis and caused severe skin inflammation that was prevented by RIPK3 but not FADD deficiency. These findings revealed that RIPK1 inhibits RIPK3-mediated necroptosis in keratinocytes in vivo and identified necroptosis as a more potent trigger of inflammation compared with apoptosis. Therefore, RIPK1 is a master regulator of epithelial cell survival, homeostasis and inflammation in the intestine and the skin.
    Nature 08/2014; 513(7516). DOI:10.1038/nature13608 · 42.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The serine/threonine kinase RIPK1 is recruited to TNFR1 to mediate proinflammatory signaling and to regulate TNF-induced cell death. A RIPK1 deficiency results in perinatal lethality, impaired NFκB and MAPK signaling, and sensitivity to TNF-induced apoptosis. Chemical inhibitor and in vitro-reconstitution studies suggested that RIPK1 displays distinct kinase activity-dependent and -independent functions. To determine the contribution of RIPK1 kinase to inflammation in vivo, we generated knock-in mice endogenously expressing catalytically inactive RIPK1 D138N. Unlike Ripk1(-/-) mice, which die shortly after birth, Ripk1(D138N/D138N) mice are viable. Cells expressing RIPK1 D138N are resistant to TNF- and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-induced necroptosis in vitro, and Ripk1(D138N/D138N) mice are protected from TNF-induced shock in vivo. Moreover, Ripk1(D138N/D138N) mice fail to control vaccinia virus replication in vivo. This study provides genetic evidence that the kinase activity of RIPK1 is not required for survival but is essential for TNF-, TRIF-, and viral-initiated necroptosis.
    The Journal of Immunology 07/2014; 193(4). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1400590 · 5.36 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The serine/threonine protein kinase Akt promotes cell survival, growth and proliferation through phosphorylation of different downstream substrates. A key effector of Akt is the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Akt is known to stimulate mTORC1 activity through phosphorylation of TSC2 and PRAS40, both negative regulators of mTOR activity. We previously reported that IKKalpha, a component of the kinase complex that leads to NF-kappaB activation, plays an important role in promoting mTORC1 activity downstream of activated Akt. Here, we demonstrate IKKalpha-dependent regulation of mTORC1 using multiple PTEN null cancer cell lines and an animal model with deletion of IKKalpha. Importantly, IKKalpha is shown to phosphorylate mTOR at serine 1415 in a manner dependent on Akt to promote mTORC1 activity. These results demonstrate that IKKalpha is an effector of Akt in promoting mTORC1 activity.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2014; DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.554881 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) usually develops in the context of chronic hepatitis triggered by viruses or toxic substances causing hepatocyte death, inflammation and compensatory proliferation of liver cells. Death receptors of the TNFR superfamily regulate cell death and inflammation and are implicated in liver disease and cancer. Liver parenchymal cell-specific ablation of NEMO/IKKγ, a subunit of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex that is essential for the activation of canonical NF-κB signalling, sensitized hepatocytes to apoptosis and caused the spontaneous development of chronic hepatitis and HCC in mice. Here we show that hepatitis and HCC development in NEMO(LPC-KO) mice is triggered by death receptor-independent FADD-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis. TNF deficiency in all cells or conditional LPC-specific ablation of TNFR1, Fas or TRAIL-R did not prevent hepatocyte apoptosis, hepatitis and HCC development in NEMO(LPC-KO) mice. To address potential functional redundancies between death receptors we generated and analysed NEMO(LPC-KO) mice with combined LPC-specific deficiency of TNFR1, Fas and TRAIL-R and found that also simultaneous lack of all three death receptors did not prevent hepatocyte apoptosis, chronic hepatitis and HCC development. However, LPC-specific combined deficiency in TNFR1, Fas and TRAIL-R protected the NEMO-deficient liver from LPS-induced liver failure, showing that different mechanisms trigger spontaneous and LPS-induced hepatocyte apoptosis in NEMO(LPC-KO) mice. In addition, NK cell depletion did not prevent liver damage and hepatitis. Moreover, NEMO(LPC-KO) mice crossed into a RAG-1-deficient genetic background-developed hepatitis and HCC. Collectively, these results show that the spontaneous development of hepatocyte apoptosis, chronic hepatitis and HCC in NEMO(LPC-KO) mice occurs independently of death receptor signalling, NK cells and B and T lymphocytes, arguing against an immunological trigger as the critical stimulus driving hepatocarcinogenesis in this model.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 27 June 2014; doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.83.
    Cell Death and Differentiation 06/2014; DOI:10.1038/cdd.2014.83 · 8.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Chun Kim, Manolis Pasparakis
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway exhibits both tumour-promoting and tumour-suppressing functions in different tissues and models of carcinogenesis. In particular in epidermal keratinocytes, NF-κB signalling was reported to exert primarily growth inhibitory and tumour-suppressing functions. Here, we show that mice with keratinocyte-restricted p65/RelA deficiency were resistant to 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-/12-O-tetra decanoylphorbol-13 acetate (TPA)-induced skin carcinogenesis. p65 deficiency sensitized epidermal keratinocytes to DNA damage-induced death in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that inhibition of p65-dependent prosurvival functions prevented tumour initiation by facilitating the elimination of cells carrying damaged DNA. In addition, lack of p65 strongly inhibited TPA-induced epidermal hyperplasia and skin inflammation by suppressing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by epidermal keratinocytes. Therefore, p65-dependent NF-κB signalling in keratinocytes promotes DMBA-/TPA-induced skin carcinogenesis by protecting keratinocytes from DNA damage-induced death and facilitating the establishment of a tumour-nurturing proinflammatory microenvironment.
    EMBO Molecular Medicine 06/2014; DOI:10.15252/emmm.201303541 · 8.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The serine protease granzyme B (GzmB) is stored in the granules of cytotoxic T and NK cells and facilitates immune-mediated destruction of virus-infected cells. In this study, we use genetic tools to report novel roles for GzmB as an important regulator of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function in response to stress. HSCs lacking the GzmB gene show improved bone marrow (BM) reconstitution associated with increased HSC proliferation and mitochondrial activity. In addition, recipients deficient in GzmB support superior engraftment of wild-type HSCs compared with hosts with normal BM niches. Stimulation of mice with lipopolysaccharide strongly induced GzmB protein expression in HSCs, which was mediated by the TLR4-TRIF-p65 NF-κB pathway. This is associated with increased cell death and GzmB secretion into the BM environment, suggesting an extracellular role of GzmB in modulating HSC niches. Moreover, treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) also induces GzmB production in HSCs. In this situation GzmB is not secreted, but instead causes cell-autonomous apoptosis. Accordingly, GzmB-deficient mice are more resistant to serial 5-FU treatments. Collectively, these results identify GzmB as a negative regulator of HSC function that is induced by stress and chemotherapy in both HSCs and their niches. Blockade of GzmB production may help to improve hematopoiesis in various situations of BM stress.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 04/2014; DOI:10.1084/jem.20131072 · 13.91 Impact Factor
  • Manolis Pasparakis, Ingo Haase, Frank O Nestle
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Immune responses in the skin are important for host defence against pathogenic microorganisms. However, dysregulated immune reactions can cause chronic inflammatory skin diseases. Extensive crosstalk between the different cellular and microbial components of the skin regulates local immune responses to ensure efficient host defence, to maintain and restore homeostasis, and to prevent chronic disease. In this Review, we discuss recent findings that highlight the complex regulatory networks that control skin immunity, and we provide new paradigms for the mechanisms that regulate skin immune responses in host defence and in chronic inflammation.
    Nature Reviews Immunology 04/2014; 14(5). DOI:10.1038/nri3646

Publication Stats

10k Citations
1,674.83 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2015
    • University of Cologne
      • Institute for Genetics
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2010
    • Ghent University
      Gand, Flanders, Belgium
    • University of Milan
      • Department of Physics
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2007
    • University Hospital RWTH Aachen
      • Division of Internal Medicine
      Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2006
    • Catholic University of Louvain
      Лувен-ла-Нев, Walloon, Belgium
    • European Molecular Biology Laboratory
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2004
    • Hannover Medical School
      Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany
    • Molecular and Cellular Biology Program
      Seattle, Washington, United States