ABSTRACT: Myocardial edema can arise in several disease states. MRI contrast agent can accumulate in edematous tissue, which complicates differential diagnosis with contrast-enhanced (CE)-MRI and might lead to overestimation of infarct size. Sodium Chemical Shift Imaging ((23)Na-CSI) may provide an alternative for edema imaging. We have developed a non-infarct, isolated rat heart model with two levels of edema, which was studied with (23)Na-CSI and CE-MRI. In edematous, but viable tissue the extracellular sodium (Na (e) (+) ) signal is hypothesized to increase, but not the intracellular sodium (Na (i) (+) ) signal. Isolated hearts were perfused at 60 (n = 6) and 140 mmHg (n = 5). Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and phenylphosphonate (PPA) were used to follow edema formation by (31)P-MR Spectroscopy. In separate groups, Thulium(III)1,4,7,10 tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N″,N'''-tetra(methylenephosphonate) (TmDOTP(5-)) and Gadovist were used for (23)Na-CSI (n = 8) and CE-MRI (n = 6), respectively. PPA normalized signal intensity (SI) was higher at 140 versus 60 mmHg, with a ratio of 1.27 ± 0.12 (p < 0.05). The (DMMP-PPA)/dry weight ratio, as a marker of intracellular volume, remained unchanged. The mid-heart cross sectional area (CSA) of the left ventricle (LV) was significantly increased at 140 mmHg. In addition, at 140 mmHg, the LV Na (e) (+) SI increased with a 140 mmHg/60 mmHg ratio of 1.24 ± 0.18 (p < 0.05). Na (i) (+) SI remained essentially unchanged. With CE-MRI, a subendocardially enhanced CSA was identified, increasing from 0.20 ± 0.02 cm(2) at 60 mmHg to 0.31 ± 0.02 cm(2) at 140 mmHg (p < 0.05). Edema shows up in both CE-MRI and Na (e) (+) . High perfusion pressure causes more edema subendocardially than subepicardially. (23)Na-CSI is an attractive alternative for imaging of edema and is a promising tool to discriminate between edema, acute and chronic MI.
The international journal of cardiovascular imaging 07/2012; · 2.15 Impact Factor