[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several laparoscopic approaches to the adrenal gland have been described. We prefer the lateral transabdominal approach. The aim of this study is to evaluate prospectively the presence of any anatomical and dynamic changes in the spleen after laparoscopic transperitoneal left adrenalectomy (LTLA), which can cause an increased risk of early and late complications.
We have evaluated 21 patients before and 6 months after surgery in order to verify the possible presence of a wandering spleen. A clinical and instrumental follow-up [ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance (MR)] were performed. During US protocol, in supine, right lateral, and orthostatic position, the longitudinal and anteroposterior diameter of the spleen and the resistive index within 3 cm of the origin of the splenic artery in three different measurements averaged were measured. MR protocol evaluated, in supine and right lateral position, the splenic volume and its distances from the diaphragm dome and the lateral margin of the costal arch.
p Values calculated for each parameter were not statistically significant. Our results confirm the absence of any anatomical and dynamic changes in the spleen after LTLA.
The most common complications after laparoscopic adrenalectomy are well known and widely described. Our experience does not exclude the occurrence of a wandering spleen, but allows us to state that a rightful mobilization of the pancreaticosplenic block can avoid this event, and in agreement with other authors, the presence of a wandering spleen remains an isolated complication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac CT (CCT) is an imaging modality that is becoming a standard in clinical cardiology. We evaluated indications, safety, and impact on patient management of routine CCT in a multicenter national registry.
During a period of 6 months, 47 centers in Italy enrolled 3,455 patients.
CCT was performed mainly with 64-slice CT scanners (73.02 %). Contrast agents were administrated in 3,185 patients (92.5 %). Mean DLP changes with type of scanner and was lower in >64 row detector scanner. The most frequent indication for CCT was suspected CAD (44.8 %), followed by calcium scoring (9.6 %), post-angioplasty/stenting (8.3 %), post-CABGs (7.5 %), study of cardiac anatomy (4.22 %) and assessment in patients with known CAD (4.1 %) and acute chest pain (1.99 %). Most of the CCTs were performed in outpatient settings (2,549; 74 %) and a minority in inpatient settings (719, 20.8 %). Adverse clinical events (mild-moderate) occurred in 26 examinations (0.75 %). None of them was severe. In 45.3 % of the cases CCT findings impacted patient management.
CCT is performed with different workloads in participating centers. It is a safe procedure and its results have a strong impact on patient management.
La radiologia medica 02/2015; 120(10). DOI:10.1007/s11547-015-0518-0 · 1.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Penile paraffinoma is a well-known delayed complication of paraffin oil injection into the penis for penile girth augmentation but its MRI features have not been previously described.
A 35-year-old Ukraine man presented with erectile dysfunction, voiding difficulty and an irregular, hard and painful penile mass that had progressively grown over the last year. He reported having received, seven years before, several penile injections of paraffin oil for penile girth augmentation. On physical examination, the mass was tender, poorly delimited, and involved the whole penile shaft and the cranial part of the scrotum. Preoperative MRI, performed to determine the extent of tissue to be removed and the possibilities of penile reconstruction, showed a newly-formed homogeneous tissue, compressing but not infiltrating Buck's fascia, iso-hypointense relative to muscle on T1-weighted sequences, and with a low signal intensity at T2-weighted sequences. On T1-weighted fat suppressed sequences, it did not enhance with contrast administration. MRI data were confirmed by surgical findings, as the newly-formed scar tissue did not infiltrate Buck's fascia. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of penile paraffinoma.
MRI seems to provide an adequate imaging of the histological events occurring after injection of paraffin oil in the subcutaneous tissues. Penile paraffinoma remains a clinical diagnosis, but MRI features may be helpful in planning an adequate surgical strategy and, in selected cases, establishing the differential diagnosis with other penile diseases, including cancer.
BMC Medical Imaging 12/2014; 14(1):39. DOI:10.1186/1471-2342-14-39 · 1.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
We aimed to assess the correlation between pulmonary hemorrhage and pneumothorax in computed tomography (CT)-guided transthoracic fine needle aspiration (TTFNA), particularly its possible value as protection against the development of pneumotorax.
Materials and methods:
We reviewed the CT images of 538 patients (364 males and 174 females, mean age 70 years, range 36-90 years) who underwent CT-guided TTFNA of pulmonary nodules between January 2008 and September 2013. The following CT findings were assessed: pulmonary hemorrhage (type 1, along the needle track; type 2, perilesional; low-grade, ≤6 mm; high-grade, >6 mm), pneumothorax, distance between the target nodule and the pleural surface, and emphysema.
Pneumothorax occurred in 154 cases (28.6%) and pulmonary hemorrhage occurred in 144 cases (26.8%). The incidence of pneumothorax was lower in patients showing type 1 and high-grade pulmonary hemorrhage pattern. The incidence of pneumothorax in biopsies ≥30 mm from pleural surface was 26% (12/46) in cases showing this pattern, while it was 71.4% (30/42) when this pattern was not seen. Similarly, the incidence of pneumothorax in biopsies <30 mm from the pleural surface was 0% (0/28) in cases showing this hemorrhage pattern, while it was 19% (76/394) when this pattern was not seen.
Pulmonary hemorrhage during TTFNA is a frequent event that protects against pneumothorax. A bleeding greater than 6 mm along the needle track is associated with lower incidence of pneumothorax, especially in biopsies deeper than 3 cm.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
There is a growing evidence that carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) and it should be used as a predictor of atherosclerotic burden of coronary arteries. However, these studies have been performed by using invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and in high-risk patients for CAD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CIMT by ultrasound and coronary atherosclerosis in symptomatic intermediate risk patients by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA).
We enrolled 204 consecutive symptomatic patients (mean age: 61±10; men: 118) and intermediate risk for CAD. All patients underwent CIMT ultrasound evaluation and CCTA. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS), characteristics of plaques, severity of CAD, segment involvement score (SIS) and Gensini's score were assessed and compared with CIMT values.
CIMT has been proved as an independent predictor of a number of coronary artery plaques, overall number of mixed and remodeled plaques, presence of obstructive CAD, high SIS and Gensini's score (HR 1.2, CI 1.05-1.42, p 0.01; HR 1.2, CI 1.01-1.41, p 0.03; HR 9.0, CI 1.37-59.7, p 0.02; HR 21.0, CI 2.40-184, p<0.01; HR 1.2, CI 1.08-1.42, p<0.01; HR 1.2, CI 1.08-1.42, p<0.01, respectively). A cut-off value>1.3 was associated with a better positive and negative predictive value (100% and 69%) to predict the combined endpoint of presence and mixed and/or remodeled coronary artery plaques.
CIMT is an independent predictor of coronary atherosclerotic burden as detected by CCTA in symptomatic intermediate risk patients.
International Journal of Cardiology 08/2014; 176(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.08.141 · 4.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (PRFA) of renal malignancies is currently a therapeutic option for patients who are not able to undergo surgery. Some authors consider PRFA as the therapeutic standard in the treatment of renal neoplasms in non-operable patients due to comorbid conditions and in patients with mild-moderate renal failure, to preserve residual renal functionality. The use of PRFA has become more and more widespread due to a rise in the incidental detection of renal cell carcinomas with the ever-increasing use of Imaging for the study of abdominal diseases. Clinical studies indicate that RF ablation is an effective therapy with a low level of risk of complications, which provides good results in selected patients over short and medium term periods of time, however up to now few long-term studies have been carried out which can confirm the effectiveness of PRFA.
La radiologia medica 07/2014; 119(7). DOI:10.1007/s11547-014-0412-1 · 1.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a 33 year-old woman addicted to chronic unspecified solvents abuse with stupor, respiratory disorders, tetraplegia and severe metabolic acidosis. On admission an unenhanced cranial CT scan showed symmetrical hypodensities of both lentiform nuclei. MR imaging performed 12 hours after stupor demonstrates bilateral putaminal hemorrhagic necrosis, bilateral external capsule, corona radiata and deep cerebellar hyperintensities with right cingulate cortex involvement. DWI reflected bilateral putaminal hyperintensities with restricted water diffusion as to citotoxic edema and development of vasogenic edema in the external capsule recalling a fork. On day twenty, after specific treatments MRI demonstrated a bilateral putaminal marginal enhancement. Bilateral putaminal necrosis is a characteristic but non-specific radiological finding of methanol poisoning. Lentiform Fork sign is a rare MRI finding reported in literature in 22 patients with various conditions characterized by metabolic acidosis. Vasogenic edema may be due to the differences in metabolic vulnerability between neurons and astrocytes. We postulate that metabolic acidosis could have an important role to generate this sign.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of 3-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (3D MRI) using the ProSet technique in the diagnosis of lumbar radiculopathy and to compare morphological findings with clinical and neurophysiological data. 40 patients suffering from L5 or S1 mono-radiculopathy caused by a disc herniation were evaluated through preliminary clinical assessment and electromyography (EMG) technique. Both conventional spin-echo sequences and 3D coronal FFE with selective water excitation (ProSet imaging) were acquired. Indentation, swelling and tilt angle of the nerve root were assessed by means of a 3D MR radiculography. 3D ProSet multiplanar reconstructions (MPR) were used for quantitative measurements of L5 and S1 nerve root widths. Widths of the symptomatic nerve root were compared with those of the contralateral nerve. Data were processed using Epi Info 3.3 software (CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA) and were compared through a paired t-Student test. We observed an abnormal tilt angle in 22 patients (57,2 percent, P less than 0.05). Morphologic alterations such as monolateral swelling or indentation of the involved roots were found in 36 patients (90 percent, P less than0.01) using 3D MR radiculography. In 10 patients, EMG revealed more nerve roots involved, while 3D FFE with ProSet technique shows a single root involved. In 2 patients, alterations were demonstrated only through EMG technique. We suggest that 3D MR radiculography can provide more information than other techniques about symptomatic disc herniation, supporting the detection of morphological changes of all nerve segments. 3D FFE with ProSet technique demonstrates high sensibility to exactly identify the level of the root involved and can provide an extremely useful tool to lead a surgical planning.
Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents 10/2013; 27(3):817-25. · 2.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate any discrepancy between radiological reports for clinical purposes and for medicolegal purposes and to quantify its economic impact on repayments made by private insurance companies for meniscal injuries of the knee. The medical records obtained pertaining to 108 knee injury patients (mean age 43.3 years) assessed over a period of 12 months were analysed. Clinical medical reports, aimed at assessing the lesion, and medicolegal reports, drawn up with a view to quantifying compensation, were compared. Unlike reports for clinical purposes in reports for medicolegal purposes, in the evaluation of meniscal lesions, in addition to morphological features of lesions, chronological, topographical, severity and exclusion criteria were applied. To estimate the economic impact resulting from the biological damage, we consulted an actuarial table based on the 9-point minor incapacity classification system. Meniscal lesions not compatible with a traumatic event and therefore not eligible for an insurance payout were found in 56 patients. Of these, 37 failed exclusion criteria, while 19 failed to meet chronological criteria. This difference resulted in a reduction in compensation made by private insurance companies with savings estimated with a saving between 203,715.41 and 622,315.39. The use of a clinical report for medicolegal purposes can be a source of valuation error, as chronological and/or dynamic information regarding the trauma mechanism may be lacking. Therefore, the use of a full radiological appraisal allows a better damage's assessment and an adequate compensation for injuries.
MUSCULOSKELETAL SURGERY 08/2013; 97 Suppl 2:137-44. DOI:10.1007/s12306-013-0282-z
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chronic ankle pain is a very frequent clinical problem, which is often characterized by a painful mechanical limitation of full-range ankle movement. A large amount of causes are involved in its pathogenesis, but the most common forms are secondary to an osseous or soft tissue abnormality. Especially for professional athletes, impingement lesions are the most important causes of chronic pain; however, this symptomatology can also affect ordinary people, mostly in those who work in environments that cause severe mechanical stress on the joints. This group of pathologies is characterized by a joint conflict secondary to an abnormal contact among bone surfaces or between bones and soft tissues. Diagnosis is mainly clinic and secondly supported by imaging in order to localize the critical area of impingement and determine the organic cause responsible for the joint conflict. Treatments for different forms of impingement are similar. Usually, the first step is a conservative approach (rest, physiotherapy, ankle bracing, shoe modification and local injection of corticosteroids), and only in case of unsuccessful response, the second step is the operative treatment with open and arthroscopic techniques. The aim of the study is to describe different MR imaging patterns, comparing our data with those reported in the literature, in order to identify the best accurate diagnostic protocol.
MUSCULOSKELETAL SURGERY 08/2013; 97 Suppl 2(S2):145-53. DOI:10.1007/s12306-013-0280-1
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone bruises are focal abnormalities in subchondral bone marrow due to trabecular microfractures as a result of traumatic force. These trauma-induced lesions are better detected with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using water-sensitive sequences. Moreover, the pattern of bone bruise is distinctive and allows us to understand the dynamics of trauma and to predict associated soft injuries. This article discusses the mechanism of traumatic injury and MR findings.
MUSCULOSKELETAL SURGERY 08/2013; 97 Suppl 2(S2):127-35. DOI:10.1007/s12306-013-0279-7
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ankle fractures account for 9 % of fractures (Clare in Foot Ankle Clin 13(4):593-610, 1) representing a significant portion of the trauma workload; proximal femoral fractures are the only lower limb fracture to present more frequently. Ankle fractures have a bimodal age distribution with peaks in younger males and older females (Arimoto and Forrester in AJR Am J Roentgenol 135(5):1057-1063, 2). There has been threefold increase in the incidence among elderly females over the past three decades (Haraguchi and Armiger in J Bone Joint Surg Am 91(4):821-829, 3). In 1950, Lauge-Hansen devised a classification of ankle fractures based on the position of the foot and the deforming force at the time of injury. This has been widely accepted by orthopedists, but is not in general use by radiologists. Identification of the fractures and classification of the type of injury allows diagnosis of the otherwise occult ligamentous injuries. Three radiographic views of the ankle (anteroposterior, mortise, and lateral) are necessary to classify an injury with the Lauge-Hansen system. Two additional criteria are also necessary: the position of the foot at the time of injury and the direction of the deforming force.
MUSCULOSKELETAL SURGERY 08/2013; 97 Suppl 2(3):155-60. DOI:10.1007/s12306-013-0284-x
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance arthrography (MR-A) of the shoulder in the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears involving the humeral insertion of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon (footprint), using arthroscopy as the reference standard.
The study population included 90 consecutive patients with history and clinical diagnosis of instability of the shoulder, rotator cuff tear or posterosuperior glenoid impingement. A total of 108 MR arthrograms were performed, since 18 patients had undergone a bilateral procedure. Arthroscopy, which was performed within 45 days after MR-A, was used as the reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values were then calculated.
Magnetic resonance arthrography showed a sensitivity of 92 % and a specificity of 78 % for the overall detection of tears involving the rotator cuff footprint. The diagnostic accuracy was 90 %, and the positive and negative predictive values were 95 and 64 %, respectively. Ten lesions were non-classifiable on surgery, of which eight were non-classifiable on MR-A also.
Magnetic resonance arthrography is extremely accurate for the detection and classification of rotator cuff footprint tears. Most of these lesions are articular-sided (partial articular-sided supraspinatus tendon avulsion lesions) with predominance in younger patients and concealed type of tear (concealed interstitial delamination lesions).
MUSCULOSKELETAL SURGERY 08/2013; 97 Suppl 2(S2):197-202. DOI:10.1007/s12306-013-0289-5
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle metastases are very rare events in colorectal carcinoma. By contrast, dermatomyositis is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy with characteristic cutaneous manifestations and a well-recognized association with several human malignancies and, among others, colorectal cancer. Here, we report the case of a 71-year-old woman with paraneoplastic dermatomyositis followed by the development of a metastatic colon cancer. Interestingly, this patient developed multiple skeletal metastases which were preceded by the worsening of systemic symptoms of dermatomyositis. This observation suggests that, while muscle tissue is usually resistant to the development of tumor metastases, the inflammatory and immune response which characterizes and boosts paraneoplastic myopathy may represent a favorable soil for tumor cell invasion and metastasization to skeletal muscles.
Case Reports in Medicine 07/2013; 2013:392609. DOI:10.1155/2013/392609
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the common sources of diagnostic errors in emergency ultrasonography.
The authors performed a Medline search using PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland) for original research and review publications examining the common sources of errors in diagnosis with specific reference to emergency ultrasonography. The search design utilized different association of the following terms : (1) emergency ultrasonography, (2) error, (3) malpractice and (4) medical negligence. This review was restricted to human studies and to English-language literature. Four authors reviewed all the titles and subsequent the abstract of 171 articles that appeared appropriate. Other articles were recognized by reviewing the reference lists of significant papers. Finally, the full text of 48 selected articles was reviewed.
Several studies indicate that the etiology of error in emergency ultrasonography is multi-factorial. Common sources of error in emergency ultrasonography are: lack of attention to the clinical history and examination, lack of communication with the patient, lack of knowledge of the technical equipment, use of inappropriate probes, inadequate optimization of the images, failure of perception, lack of knowledge of the possible differential diagnoses, over-estimation of one's own skill, failure to suggest further ultrasound examinations or other imaging techniques.
To reduce errors in interpretation of ultrasonographic findings, the sonographer needs to be aware of the limitations of ultrasonography in the emergency setting, and the similarities in the appearances of various physiological and pathological processes. Adequate clinical informations are essential. Diagnostic errors should be considered not as signs of failure, but as learning opportunities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute diverticulitis (AD) results from inflammation of a colonic diverticulum. It is the most common cause of acute left lower-quadrant pain in adults and represents a common reason for acute hospitalization, as it affects over half of the population over 65 years with a prevalence that increases with age. Although 85% of colonic diverticulitis will recover with a nonoperative treatment, some patients may have complications such as abscesses, fistulas, obstruction, and /or perforation at presentation. For these reasons, different classifications were introduced through times to help clinicians to develop a correct diagnosis and guide the treatment and for the same reasons imaging is used in most cases both to realise a differential diagnosis and to guide the therapeutic management. US and CT are both usefull in diagnosis of diverticolitis, and their sensibility and specificity are similar. However CT scanning is essential for investigating complicated diverticular disease especially where there are diffuse signs and clinical suspicion of secondary peritonitis; instead in most uncomplicated cases the experienced sonographer may quickly confirm a diagnosis guided by the clinical signs. US is to be recommended in premenopausal women, and in young people to reduce dose exposure.